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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330803/western-blot-analysis-of-c-elegans-proteins
#1
Dae-Eun Jeong, Yujin Lee, Seung-Jae V Lee
C. elegans has been widely used as a model organism for basic biological research and is particularly amenable for molecular genetic studies using a broad repertoire of techniques. Biochemical approaches, including Western blot analysis, have emerged as a powerful tool in C. elegans biology for understanding molecular mechanisms that link genotypes to phenotypes. Here, we provide a protocol for Western blot analysis using protein extracts obtained from C. elegans samples.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325093/a-comprehensive-caenorhabditis-elegans-n-glycan-shotgun-array
#2
Ewa Jankowska, Lisa M Parsons, Xuezheng Song, Dave F Smith, Richard D Cummings, John F Cipollo
Here we present a Caenorhabditis elegans N-glycan shotgun array. This nematode serves as a model organism for many areas of biology including but not limited to tissue development, host-pathogen interactions, innate immunity, and genetics. C. elegans N-glycans contain structural motifs that are also found in other nematodes as well as trematodes and lepidopteran species. Glycan binding toxins that interact with C. elegans glycoconjugates also do so with some agriculturally relevant species, such as Haemonchus contortus, Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichoplusia ni...
January 9, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324872/lin-4-and-the-nrde-pathway-are-required-to-activate-a-transgenic-lin-4-reporter-but-not-the-endogenous-lin-4-locus-in-c-elegans
#3
Alan L Jiao, Daniel J Foster, Julia Dixon, Frank J Slack
As the founding member of the microRNA (miRNA) gene family, insights into lin-4 regulation and function have laid a conceptual foundation for countless miRNA-related studies that followed. We previously showed that a transcriptional lin-4 reporter in C. elegans was positively regulated by a lin-4-complementary element (LCE), and by lin-4 itself. In this study, we sought to (1) identify additional factors required for lin-4 reporter expression, and (2) validate the endogenous relevance of a potential positive autoregulatory mechanism of lin-4 expression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321629/chiloscyphenol-a-derived-from-chinese-liverworts-exerts-fungicidal-action-by-eliciting-both-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-plasma-membrane-destruction
#4
Sha Zheng, Wenqiang Chang, Ming Zhang, Hongzhuo Shi, Hongxiang Lou
This study aimed to characterize the antifungal effects of chiloscyphenol A (CA), a natural small molecule isolated from Chinese liverworts, and investigate its mode of action. CA was effective against five tested Candida species with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8-32 μg/ml and exhibited fungicidal activity against Candida albicans in both the planktonic state and mature biofilms. The in vivo study using Caenorhabditis elegans showed that CA prolonged the survival of C. albicans infected worms...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319298/differential-response-to-ca2-from-vertebrate-and-invertebrate-calumenin-is-governed-by-a-single-amino-acid-residue
#5
Sasirekha Narayanasamy, Gopala Krishna Aradhyam
Calumenin (Calu) is a well-conserved multi EF-hand containing Ca2+-binding protein. In this work, we focused our attention on the alterations that calumenin has undergone during evolution. We demonstrate that vertebrate calumenin is significantly different from its invertebrate homologs with respect to its response to Ca2+-binding. Human calumenin (HsCalu1) is intrinsically unstructured in the Ca2+ free form and responds to Ca2+ with a dramatic gain in structure. Calumenin from C. elegans (CeCalu) is structured even in the apo form, with no conformational change on binding Ca2+...
January 10, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314553/identification-of-mir-305-a-microrna-that-promotes-aging-and-its-target-mrnas-in-drosophila
#6
Makiko Ueda, Tetsuya Sato, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Yoshihiro H Inoue
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of important biological processes. Here, we describe a novel Drosophila miRNAs involved in aging. We selected eight Drosophila miRNAs, displaying high homology with seed sequences of aging-related miRNAs characterized in other species, and investigated whether the over-expression of these miRNAs affected aging in Drosophila adult flies. The lifespan of adults over-expressing miR-305, a miRNA showing high homology with miR-239 in C. elegans, was significantly shorter...
January 5, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313542/a-programmable-platform-for-sub-second-multichemical-dynamic-stimulation-and-neuronal-functional-imaging-in-c-elegans
#7
T Rouse, G Aubry, Y Cho, M Zimmer, H Lu
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a prominent model organism in neuroscience, as its small stereotyped nervous system offers unique advantages for studying neuronal circuits at the cellular level. Characterizing temporal dynamics of neuronal circuits is essential to fully understand neuronal processing. Characterization of the temporal dynamics of chemosensory circuits requires a precise and fast method to deliver multiple stimuli and monitor the animal's neuronal activity. Microfluidic platforms have been developed that offer an improved control of chemical delivery compared to manual methods...
January 9, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313356/sub-cellular-nanorheology-reveals-lysosomal-viscosity-as-a-reporter-for-lysosomal-storage-diseases
#8
John Devany, Kasturi Chakraborty, Yamuna Krishnan
We describe a new method to measure viscosity within sub-cellular organelles of a living cell using nanorheology. We demonstrate proof of concept by measuring viscosity in lysosomes in multiple cell types and disease models. The lysosome is an organelle, which is responsible for the breakdown of complex biomolecules. When different lysosomal proteins are defective, they are unable to breakdown specific biological substrates, that get stored within the lysosome, causing about 70 fatal diseases called lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs)...
January 9, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302199/cell-to-cell-transmission-of-polyglutamine-aggregates-in-c-elegans
#9
Dong-Kyu Kim, Kyu-Won Cho, Woo Jung Ahn, Dayana Perez-Acuña, Hyunsu Jeong, He-Jin Lee, Seung-Jae Lee
Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and cognitive dysfunction caused by expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat in exon 1 of huntingtin (HTT). In patients, the number of glutamine residues in polyQ tracts are over 35, and it is correlated with age of onset, severity, and disease progression. Expansion of polyQ increases the propensity for HTT protein aggregation, process known to be implicated in neurodegeneration. These pathological aggregates can be transmitted from neuron to another neuron, and this process may explain the pathological spreading of polyQ aggregates...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301976/a-caenorhabditis-elegans-zinc-finger-transcription-factor-ztf-6-required-for-the-specification-of-a-dopamine-neuron-producing-lineage
#10
Maria Doitsidou, Gregory Minevich, Jason R Kroll, Gwen Soete, Sriharsh Gowtham, Hendrik C Korswagen, Jeroen Sebastiaan van Zon, Oliver Hobert
Invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems generate different types of dopaminergic neurons in distinct parts of the brain. We have taken a genetic approach to understand how the four functionally related, but lineally unrelated, classes of dopaminergic neurons of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, located in distinct parts of its nervous system, are specified. We have identified several genes involved in the generation of a specific dopaminergic neuron type that is generated from the so-called postdeirid lineage, called PDE...
January 4, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301949/new-role-for-an-old-protein-an-educational-primer-for-use-with-the-identification-of-a-novel-mutant-allele-of-topoisomerase-ii-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-reveals-a-unique-role-in-chromosome-segregation-during-spermatogenesis
#11
Ruby Boateng, Anna K Allen
Modern experimental techniques, such as whole-genome sequencing and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 endogenous genome editing, are enabling researchers to identify and further characterize the roles of proteins that were previously thought of as well defined. In the December 2016 issue of GENETICS, an article by Jaramillo-Lambert et al. identified a new role for the enzyme topoisomerase II in Caenorhabditis elegans male meiosis. This Primer article is designed to provide essential background information on C...
January 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301909/an-expanded-role-for-the-rfx-transcription-factor-daf-19-with-dual-functions-in-ciliated-and-non-ciliated-neurons
#12
Elizabeth A De Stasio, Katherine P Mueller, Rosemary J Bauer, Alexander J Hurlburt, Sophie A Bice, Sophie L Scholtz, Prasad Phirke, Debora Sugiaman-Trapman, Loraina A Stinson, Haili B Olson, Savannah L Vogel, Zabdiel Ek-Vazquez, Yagmur Esemen, Jessica Korzynski, Kelsey Wolfe, Bonnie N Arbuckle, He Zhang, Gaelen Lombard-Knapp, Brian P Piasecki, Peter Swoboda
Regulatory Factor X transcription factors (RFX TFs) are best known for activating genes required for ciliogenesis in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In humans, eight RFX TFs have a variety of tissue-specific functions, while in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the sole RFX gene, daf-19, encodes a set of nested isoforms. Null alleles of daf-19 confer pleiotropic effects including altered development with a dauer constitutive phenotype, complete absence of cilia and ciliary proteins, and defects in synaptic protein maintenance...
January 3, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301098/an-antimicrobial-peptide-and-its-neuronal-receptor-regulate-dendrite-degeneration-in-aging-and-infection
#13
Lezi E, Ting Zhou, Sehwon Koh, Marian Chuang, Ruchira Sharma, Nathalie Pujol, Andrew D Chisholm, Cagla Eroglu, Hiroaki Matsunami, Dong Yan
Infections have been identified as possible risk factors for aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, but it remains unclear whether infection-related immune molecules have a causative role in neurodegeneration during aging. Here, we reveal an unexpected role of an epidermally expressed antimicrobial peptide, NLP-29 (neuropeptide-like protein 29), in triggering aging-associated dendrite degeneration in C. elegans. The age-dependent increase of nlp-29 expression is regulated by the epidermal tir-1/SARM-pmk-1/p38 MAPK innate immunity pathway...
January 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299835/a-caenorhabditis-elegans-mass-spectrometric-resource-for-neuropeptidomics
#14
Sven Van Bael, Sven Zels, Kurt Boonen, Isabel Beets, Liliane Schoofs, Liesbet Temmerman
Neuropeptides are important signaling molecules used by nervous systems to mediate and fine-tune neuronal communication. They can function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in neural circuits, or they can be released as neurohormones to target distant cells and tissues. Neuropeptides are typically cleaved from larger precursor proteins by the action of proteases and can be the subject of post-translational modifications. The short, mature neuropeptide sequences often entail the only evolutionarily reasonably conserved regions in these precursor proteins...
January 3, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298683/global-accumulation-of-circrnas-during-aging-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Mariela Cortés-López, Matthew R Gruner, Daphne A Cooper, Hannah N Gruner, Alexandru-Ioan Voda, Alexander M van der Linden, Pedro Miura
BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (CircRNAs) are a newly appreciated class of RNAs that lack free 5' and 3' ends, are expressed by the thousands in diverse forms of life, and are mostly of enigmatic function. Ostensibly due to their resistance to exonucleases, circRNAs are known to be exceptionally stable. Previous work in Drosophila and mice have shown that circRNAs increase during aging in neural tissues. RESULTS: Here, we examined the global profile of circRNAs in C...
January 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298424/an-aneuploidy-free-and-structurally-defined-balancer-chromosome-toolkit-for-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Katsufumi Dejima, Sayaka Hori, Satoru Iwata, Yuji Suehiro, Sawako Yoshina, Tomoko Motohashi, Shohei Mitani
Balancer chromosomes are critical tools for genetic research. In C. elegans, reciprocal translocations that lead to aneuploidy have been widely used to maintain lethal and sterile mutations in stable stocks. Here, we generated a set of aneuploidy-free and structurally defined crossover suppressors that contain two overlapping inversions using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The toolkit includes 13 crossover suppressors and covers approximately 63% of all C. elegans coding genes. Together with the classical intrachromosomal crossover suppressors, the system now covers 89% of the coding genes...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295479/age-dependence-and-aging-dependence-neuronal-loss-and-lifespan-in-a-c-elegans-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Javier Apfeld, Walter Fontana
It is often assumed, but not established, that the major neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, are not just age-dependent (their incidence changes with time) but actually aging-dependent (their incidence is coupled to the process that determines lifespan). To determine a dependence on the aging process requires the joint probability distribution of disease onset and lifespan. For human Parkinson's disease, such a joint distribution is not available, because the disease cuts lifespan short...
December 23, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290549/cholinergic-sensorimotor-integration-regulates-olfactory-steering
#18
He Liu, Wenxing Yang, Taihong Wu, Fengyun Duan, Edward Soucy, Xin Jin, Yun Zhang
Sensorimotor integration regulates goal-directed movements. We study the signaling mechanisms underlying sensorimotor integration in C. elegans during olfactory steering, when the sinusoidal movements of the worm generate an in-phase oscillation in the concentration of the sampled odorant. We show that cholinergic neurotransmission encodes the oscillatory sensory response and the motor state of head undulations by acting through an acetylcholine-gated channel and a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, respectively...
December 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286457/methods-to-study-changes-in-inherent-protein-aggregation-with-age-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Nicole Groh, Ivan Gallotta, Marie C Lechler, Chaolie Huang, Raimund Jung, Della C David
In the last decades, the prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), has grown. These age-associated disorders are characterized by the appearance of protein aggregates with fibrillary structure in the brains of these patients. Exactly why normally soluble proteins undergo an aggregation process remains poorly understood. The discovery that protein aggregation is not limited to disease processes and instead part of the normal aging process enables the study of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate protein aggregation, without using ectopically expressed human disease-associated proteins...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286376/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-detection-of-mitophagy-in-human-cells-c-elegans-and-mice
#20
Evandro F Fang, Konstantinos Palikaras, Nuo Sun, Elayne M Fivenson, Ryan D Spangler, Jesse S Kerr, Stephanie A Cordonnier, Yujun Hou, Eszter Dombi, Henok Kassahun, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Joanna Poulton, Hilde Nilsen, Vilhelm A Bohr
Mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells and produce cellular energy in the form of ATP. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to biological aging and a wide variety of disorders including metabolic diseases, premature aging syndromes, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Maintenance of mitochondrial health depends on mitochondrial biogenesis and the efficient clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy. Experimental methods to accurately detect autophagy/mitophagy, especially in animal models, have been challenging to develop...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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