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George I Papakostas, Rebecca Z Nielsen, Marianne Dragheim, Brigitte Tonnoir
This study aimed to evaluate if efficacy and tolerability of switching to vortioxetine is independent of previous SSRI or SNRI treatment in patients who had been inadequately treated for their current major depressive episode. Patients from a double-blind, 12-week comparator study were randomized (1:1) to vortioxetine (10-20 mg/day) or agomelatine (25-50 mg/day). The pre-defined primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline to week 8 in MADRS total score analyzed by MMRM. An ANCOVA-LOCF was conducted as a sensitivity analysis...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Magdalena Kolasa, Joanna Solich, Agata Faron-Górecka, Dariusz Żurawek, Paulina Pabian, Sylwia Łukasiewicz, Maciej Kuśmider, Kinga Szafran-Pilch, Marta Szlachta, Marta Dziedzicka-Wasylewska
Recently, it has been shown that serotonin 5-HT1A receptor interacts with dopamine D2 receptor in vitro. However, the existence of 5-HT1A -D2 heteromers in native tissue remains unexplored. In the present study, we investigated 5-HT1A -D2 receptor heteromerization in mice treated acutely or chronically with paroxetine (10 mg/kg) or risperidone (0.05 mg/kg). Receptor heteromerization was visualized and quantified in the mouse brain by in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA). Additionally, we aimed to determine the cellular localization of 5-HT1A -D2 receptor heteromers in mouse adult primary neuronal cells by immunofluorescent staining with markers for astrocytes (GFAP) and neurons (NeuN and MAP2)...
March 12, 2018: Neuroscience
Lone Baandrup, Bjørn H Ebdrup, Jesper Ø Rasmussen, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud, Birte Y Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Prolonged treatment with benzodiazepines is common practice despite clinical recommendations of short-term use. Benzodiazepines are used by approximately 4% of the general population, with increased prevalence in psychiatric populations and the elderly. After long-term use it is often difficult to discontinue benzodiazepines due to psychological and physiological dependence. This review investigated if pharmacological interventions can facilitate benzodiazepine tapering. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological interventions to facilitate discontinuation of chronic benzodiazepine use...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Guilaine Jaria, Carla Patrícia Silva, João A B P Oliveira, Sérgio M Santos, María Victoria Gil, Marta Otero, Vânia Calisto, Valdemar I Esteves
The wide occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments urges the development of cost-effective solutions for their removal from water. In a circular economy context, primary paper mill sludge (PS) was used to produce activated carbon (AC) aiming the adsorptive removal of these contaminants. The use of low-cost precursors for the preparation of ACs capable of competing with commercial ACs continues to be a challenge. A full factorial design of four factors (pyrolysis temperature, residence time, precursor/activating agent ratio, and type of activating agent) at two levels was applied to the production of AC using PS as precursor...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Angela D'Ascola, Giuseppe Bruschetta, Gabriella Zanghì, Salvatore Campo, Pietro Medica, Stefania Campana, Guido Ferlazzo, Bernhard F Gibbs, Alida Maria Ferlazzo
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurohormone transported from plasma into platelets and leukocytes by a specific transporter (SERT). While it is known that the brain 5-HT system is modulated by physical exercise, the peripheral serotoninergic response to exercise is not yet fully elucidated. In particular, this study aimed to evaluate changes in plasma 5-HT levels and equine leukocyte SERT expression in response to treadmill exercise in untrained horses. Analyses were carried out pre- and post-treadmill exercise. 5-HT plasma levels were analysed by HPLC...
February 27, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Hrvoje Barić, Veljko Đorđević, Ivan Cerovečki, Vladimir Trkulja
INTRODUCTION: The objective was to evaluate efficacy/safety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) methods for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) based on randomized controlled trials in adults. METHODS: Data sources. Six electronic databases ("generalized anxiety (disorder)" and "randomized trial") and reference lists of identified publications were searched to March 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Eligibility: full-text publications (English, German language); CAM versus conventional treatment, placebo/sham or no treatment; GAD diagnosed according to standard criteria; and a validated scale for disease severity...
March 5, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Clinton G Lauritsen, Abigail L Chua, Stephanie J Nahas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Menopause is a life-changing event in numerous ways. Many women with migraine hold hope that the transition to the climacteric state will coincide with a cessation or improvement of migraine. This assumption is based mainly on common lay perceptions as well as assertions from many in the healthcare community. Unfortunately, evidence suggests this is far from the rule. Many women turn to a general practitioner or a headache specialist for prognosis and management. A natural instinct is to manipulate the offending agent, but in some cases, this approach backfires, or the concern for adverse events outweighs the desire for a therapeutic trial, and other strategies must be pursued...
March 6, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Nina M Molenaar, Astrid M Kamperman, Philip Boyce, Veerle Bergink
OBJECTIVE: Several countries have developed Clinical Practice Guidelines regarding treatment of perinatal depressive symptoms and perinatal use of antidepressant. We aimed to compare guidelines to guide clinicians in best clinical practice. METHODS: An extensive search in guideline databases, MEDLINE and PsycINFO was performed. When no guidelines were (publicly) available online, we contacted psychiatric-, obstetric-, perinatal- and mood disorder societies of all first world countries and the five largest second world countries...
March 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Chadi Y Saad, Joshua Fogel, Sofia Rubinstein
OBJECTIVES: Errors in drug dosing lead to poor patient outcomes and are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Because the majority of patients with CKD are being treated by physicians specializing in internal medicine, we studied the awareness and knowledge that internal medicine resident trainees (IMRTs) have regarding the correct dosage of commonly used analgesic and neuropsychotropic medications for patients with CKD. METHODS: We surveyed 353 IMRTs about their awareness of whether a medication needs dose adjustment in patients with CKD and knowledge for medication adjustment by level of glomerular filtration rate...
March 2018: Southern Medical Journal
Masayuki Uchida, Orie Kobayashi
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline have been thought to play important roles in the mechanism of hot flush. Then, to clarify the relation between serotonergic and adrenergic nervous systems on the mechanism of hot flush, the effect of paroxetine, 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) was evaluated on the yohimbine-induced hot flush increase of tail skin temperature in ovariectomized female rats. Yohimbine (adrenaline α2 antagonist) significantly increased the tail skin temperature in course of time. Clonidine (adrenaline α2 agonist) significantly attenuated this effect...
March 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Jian-Wei Chen, Shu-Qin Xie
Objective: Depressive and anxiety symptoms could affect the quality of life and prognostic outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, but only a few studies focus on the interventions to manage or prevent these symptoms in CKD patients. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the efficacy and acceptability of agomelatine versus paroxetine in treating depressive and anxiety symptoms in CKD patients. Methods: CKD stage 2-4 patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms were included...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Faruk Uguz, Elif Subasi, Fadime Dalboy, Mehmet Ak
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic treatment with antidepressants for the prevention of postpartum exacerbation in depressive or anxiety symptoms. The study included data on 33 patients who were followed from pregnancy to the postpartum period at the Department of Psychiatry of a university Hospital. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined by means of a structured clinical interview. The severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed by means of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), respectively...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Andrea Cipriani, Toshi A Furukawa, Georgia Salanti, Anna Chaimani, Lauren Z Atkinson, Yusuke Ogawa, Stefan Leucht, Henricus G Ruhe, Erick H Turner, Julian P T Higgins, Matthias Egger, Nozomi Takeshima, Yu Hayasaka, Hissei Imai, Kiyomi Shinohara, Aran Tajika, John P A Ioannidis, John R Geddes
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is one of the most common, burdensome, and costly psychiatric disorders worldwide in adults. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are available; however, because of inadequate resources, antidepressants are used more frequently than psychological interventions. Prescription of these agents should be informed by the best available evidence. Therefore, we aimed to update and expand our previous work to compare and rank antidepressants for the acute treatment of adults with unipolar major depressive disorder...
February 20, 2018: Lancet
Abbas Yousefpour, Hamid Modarress, Fatemeh Goharpey, Sepideh Amjad-Iranagh
The interactions of the drugs amlodipine and paroxetine, which are prescribed respectively for treatment of hypertension and depression, with the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome CYP2B4 as the drug target, have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Poly ethylene glycol was used to control the drugs' interactions with each other and with the target CYP2B4. Thirteen simulation systems were carefully designed, and the results obtained from MD simulations indicated that amlodipine in the PEGylated form prescribed with paroxetine in the nonPEGylated form promotes higher cytochrome stability and causes fewer fluctuations as the drugs approach the target CYP2B4 and interact with it...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Hyungkun Yoon, Dong Jae Oh, Ho-Suk Suh, Kyoung-Uk Lee, Se-Won Lim, Jun-Yeob Lee, Jong-Chul Yang, Jae-Hon Lee, Juwon Ha, Bun-Hee Lee, Seung-Gul Kang, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Jihyun Moon, Seung-Min Bae, Youngdo Kwon, Hyun-Chung Kim, Kang Seob Oh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to provide clinical consensus and evidence regarding initial treatment strategies for the pharmacological treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in Korea. METHODS: We prepared a questionnaire to derive a consensus from clinicians regarding their preference for the pharmacological treatment of SAD in Korea. Data regarding medication regimens and psychotropic drugs used during initial treatment, the doses used, and the pharmacological treatment duration were obtained...
February 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
M T Yakubu, A R Atoyebi
The effects of aqueous extract of Brysocarpus coccineus roots (AEBCR) were studied on sexual behaviour and testicular function of paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction (SD) in male rats. Ninety, sexually matured male rats (150.88 ± 5.53 g) were assigned into two groups: A and B. Fifteen SD animals from group B were each allotted to B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5 and received distilled water (DW), Powmax M (7.14 mg/kg body weight, b.w.) 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg b.w of AEBCR, respectively, for 7 days while the non-SD animals (group A) received DW...
February 22, 2018: Andrologia
Randeep Kaur, V R Sinha
Pruritus is a concomitant symptom of various underlying disorders viz. dermatological, systemic and psychiatric disorders that provoke the person to scratch the skin. Many natural as well as, antipruritic therapies are usually practiced in the treatment of pruritus including general preventive measures, topical therapies such as cooling agents, antihistamines, anesthetics, capsaicin, corticosteroids, immunomodulators and; systemic therapies including administration of antihistamines, opioid antagonists/agonists, antiepileptic drugs/neuroleptics (e...
February 15, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Hidefumi Yoshinaga, Tomoaki Nishida, Izumi Sasaki, Taro Kato, Hitomi Oki, Kazuki Yabuuchi, Tomohiro Toyoda
We have previously shown that SMP-304, a serotonin uptake inhibitor with weak 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, may act under high serotonin levels as a 5-HT1A antagonist that improves the onset of paroxetine in the rat swimming test. However, SMP-304 is mostly metabolized by CYP2D6, indicating limited efficacy among individuals and increased side effects. To reduce CYP2D6 metabolic contribution and enhance SERT/5-HT1A binding affinity, we carried out a series of substitutions at the bromine atom in the left part of the benzene ring of SMP-304 and replaced the right part of SMP-304 with a chroman-4-one...
February 8, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Jakob Näslund, Fredrik Hieronymus, Alexander Lisinski, Staffan Nilsson, Elias Eriksson
BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been claimed to elicit or aggravate suicidal ideation. Aims To explore the effect of SSRIs on the suicidality item of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). METHOD: We undertook a patient-level mega-analysis of adults with depression participating in industry-sponsored studies of sertraline, paroxetine or citalopram, comparing patients on an SSRI (n = 5681) with those on placebo (n = 2581) with respect to HRSD-rated suicidality...
March 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Dong-Yao Wang, Joel Kosowan, James Samsom, Laura Leung, Kai-Lai Zhang, Ying-Xiang Li, Yan Xiong, Jian Jin, Arturas Petronis, Gabriel Oh, Albert H C Wong
Epigenetic gene-regulation abnormalities have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and depression, as well as in the regulation of mood and anxiety. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the actions of psychiatric drugs. Current anxiolytic drugs have significant shortcomings, and development of new medications is warranted. Two proteins, G9a (also known as EHMT2 or KMT1C) and GLP (G9a-like protein, also known as EHMT1 or KMT1D), which methylate lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9), could be promising anxiolytic targets...
February 8, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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