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Peter P Fong, Taylor B S Bury, Elizabeth E Donovan, Olivia J Lambert, Julia R Palmucci, Stephnie K Adamczak
Exposure to human antidepressants has been shown to disrupt locomotion and other foot-mediated mechanisms in aquatic snails. We tested the effect of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)- and one selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)-type antidepressants on the righting response in the marine snail, Ilyanassa obsoleta. All four antidepressants (fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, venlafaxine) significantly increased righting time compared with controls with an exposure time as short as 1 h...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Stella Capriglione, Francesco Plotti, Roberto Montera, Daniela Luvero, Salvatore Lopez, Giuseppe Scaletta, Alessia Aloisi, Giovan Battista Serra, Roberto Angioli
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of paroxetine supplementation on hot flashes and sleep in gynecological cancer survivors. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, postmenopausal women with a prior history of stage 0-III gynecological cancer who had completed active cancer treatment (including hormonal therapy) were randomly assigned 1:1 to either 7.5mg oral paroxetine or placebo daily for 16weeks. Sleep and hot flashes were assessed at baseline, week 4 and week 16...
October 14, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Hans M Nordahl, Patrick A Vogel, Gunnar Morken, Tore C Stiles, Pål Sandvik, Adrian Wells
BACKGROUND: The most efficacious treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD) are the SSRIs and cognitive therapy (CT). Combined treatment is advocated for SAD but has not been evaluated in randomized trials using CT and SSRI. Our aim was to evaluate whether one treatment is more effective than the other and whether combined treatment is more effective than the single treatments. METHODS: A total of 102 patients were randomly assigned to paroxetine, CT, the combination of CT and paroxetine, or pill placebo...
October 15, 2016: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Robert M Nevels, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Bryman E Williams
Paroxetine, also known by the trade names Aropax, Paxil, Pexeva, Seroxat, Sereupin and Brisdelle, was first marketed in the U.S. in 1992. Effective for major depression and various anxiety disorders, it quickly gained a sizable share of the antidepressant prescription market. By the late 1990s, paroxetine frequently was being associated with serious drug interactions and medication side effects. Most significantly, in a major Canadian epidemiological study examining the relationship between antidepressants and diseases, paroxetine was associated with a 620 percent increase in the rate of breast cancer in women who had taken it over a four-year period...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Wayne A Ray, Cecilia P Chung, Katherine T Murray, Kathi Hall, C Michael Stein
OBJECTIVE: Studies demonstrating that higher doses of citalopram (> 40 mg) and escitalopram (> 20 mg) prolong the corrected QT interval prompted regulatory agency warnings, which are controversial, given the absence of confirmatory clinical outcome studies. We compared the risk of potential arrhythmia-related deaths for high doses of these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to that for equivalent doses of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. METHODS: The Tennessee Medicaid retrospective cohort study included 54,220 persons 30-74 years of age without cancer or other life-threatening illness who were prescribed high-dose SSRIs from 1998 through 2011...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Dong Ik Park, Carine Dournes, Inge Sillaber, Manfred Uhr, John M Asara, Nils C Gassen, Theo Rein, Marcus Ising, Christian Webhofer, Michaela D Filiou, Marianne B Müller, Christoph W Turck
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly used drugs for the treatment of psychiatric diseases including major depressive disorder (MDD). For unknown reasons a substantial number of patients do not show any improvement during or after SSRI treatment. We treated DBA/2J mice for 28 days with paroxetine and assessed their behavioral response with the forced swim test (FST). Paroxetine-treated long-time floating (PLF) and paroxetine-treated short-time floating (PSF) groups were stratified as proxies for drug non-responder and responder mice, respectively...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Heidi Collins Fantasia
It is estimated that up to 80% of women experience symptoms related to declining estrogen levels that occur with menopause. The most common bothersome symptoms reported by women during and after this transition are vasomotor symptoms, which can include hot flashes, flushing, night sweats, and sleep disturbances. These symptoms are the most common reason women seek care during menopause. Until recently, the mainstay of treatment and symptom relief has been estrogen supplementation. In 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved paroxetine, a low-dose selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, as the first nonhormonal treatment for moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms of menopause...
October 2016: Nursing for Women's Health
W Zheng, Y F Zhang, H Q Zhong, S M Mai, X H Yang, Y T Xiang
INTRODUCTION: In China, Wuling capsule, a traditional Chinese medicine consisting of Wuling mycelia of Xylaria nigripes (Kl.) Sacc (a rare type of fungus), is used to treat major depressive disorders. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of Wuling capsule alone with Wuling capsule-antidepressant combination in the treatment of major depressive disorders. METHODS: Two assessors independently selected studies, extracted data, and conducted quality assessment and data synthesis...
September 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
Shelly L Gray, Joseph T Hanlon
Use of medications with anticholinergic activity is widespread in older adults. Several studies have highlighted that anticholinergic use may be associated with an increased risk of dementia. The objective of this narrative review is to describe and evaluate studies of anticholinergic medication use and dementia and provide practical suggestions for avoiding use of these medications in older adults. A comprehensive review of the literature, citations from recent reviews and the author's personal files was conducted...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Xiuqing Tian, Qing Wang, Rui Guo, Lingling Xu, Qin M Chen, Yinglong Hou
BACKGROUND: Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor utilized in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Recent studies have identified paroxetine as a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) inhibitor capable of reversing cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in experimental models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We determine the clinical importance of paroxetine on cardiac functions in patients having AMI with depression (AMID) in comparison with fluoxetine, an unrelated selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that does not inhibit GRK2...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Macarius M Donneyong, Katsiaryna Bykov, Pauline Bosco-Levy, Yaa-Hui Dong, Raisa Levin, Joshua J Gagne
OBJECTIVE:  To compare differences in mortality between women concomitantly treated with tamoxifen and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) that are potent inhibitors of the cytochrome-P450 2D6 enzyme (CYP2D6) versus tamoxifen and other SSRIs. DESIGN:  Population based cohort study. SETTING:  Five US databases covering individuals enrolled in private and public health insurance programs from 1995 to 2013. PARTICIPANTS:  Two cohorts of women who started taking tamoxifen...
September 30, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
A M Salem, I I Kamel, L A Rashed, S F GamalEl Din
Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common ejaculatory complaint. The estimated rates among Turkish men reached 20%, although the severest type of PE (lifelong PE) usually does not exceed 2.3%. This could be seen in line with two survey studies involving five nations. They revealed that 2.5% of men had an intravaginal ejaculation latency time of <1 min and 6% of <2 min. Rapid ejaculation may be treated pharmacologically with a variety of different medications that act either centrally or locally to delay ejaculation and subsequent orgasm...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Impotence Research
Y H Kim, J W Bae, C H Jeong, K S Chun, I S Kim, C G Jang, S Y Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Joanna Le Noury, John M Nardo, David Healy, Jon Jureidini, Melissa Raven, Catalin Tufanaru, Elia Abi-Jaoude
OBJECTIVE: This is an analysis of the unpublished continuation phase of Study 329, the primary objective of which was to compare the efficacy and safety of paroxetine and imipramine with placebo in the treatment of adolescents with unipolar major depression. The objectives of the continuation phase were to assess safety and relapse rates in the longer term. The objective of this publication, under the Restoring Invisible and Abandoned Trials (RIAT) initiative, was to see whether access to and analysis of the previously unpublished dataset from the continuation phase of this randomized controlled trial would have clinically relevant implications for evidence-based medicine...
September 17, 2016: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
C-S Wu, S-C Liao, Y-T Tsai, S-S Chang, H-J Tsai
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the comparative risk of self-harm associated with the use of different antidepressants. METHOD: A cohort study was conducted using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2001 to 2012. A total of 751 606 new antidepressant users with depressive disorders were included. The study outcome was hospitalization due to self-harm (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes: E950-E958 and E980-E988)...
September 23, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Shin-Ichi Hisasue
The management recommendation for both acquired premature ejaculation (APE) and lifelong PE (LPE) are similar, such as a behavioral/psychotherapy, a pharmacotherapy and a combination of these treatments. For the drug treatment for PE, gold standard is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including dapoxetine or paroxetine. The drug treatment for PE is still developing and some new promising therapeutic options have been proposed. Topical anesthetics, tramadol, and alpha-1 blockers will be the next strategies of the drug treatment for PE in the future...
August 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
Anita H Clayton, Suresh Durgam, Dayong Li, Changzheng Chen, Laishun Chen, Maju Mathews, Carl P Gommoll, Armin Szegedi
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of vilazodone on sexual functioning in healthy, sexually active adults and assess the impact of medication nonadherence in this type of trial. Participants were randomized to vilazodone (20 or 40 mg/day), paroxetine (20 mg/day), or placebo for 5 weeks of double-blind treatment. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to day 35 in Change in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ) total score in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Post-hoc analyses were carried out in modified intent-to-treat (mITT) populations that excluded participants in the active-treatment groups with undetectable plasma drug concentrations at all visits (mITT-I) or at least one visit (mITT-II)...
September 16, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Ryohei Igata, Hikaru Hori, Kiyokazu Atake, Asuka Katsuki, Jun Nakamura
A 54-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with major depressive disorder and prescribed paroxetine 20 mg/day. In around May 2013, the patient experienced gastric discomfort, so metoclopramide was prescribed. Beginning on June 4, 2013, the patient was given metoclopramide, 10 mg intravenously, twice per week. On the seventh day after beginning metoclopramide, facial hot flushes, increased sweating, muscle rigidity, and galactorrhea were noted. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) rapidly subsided in response to an intramuscular injection of biperiden...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Luc R A Rougée, Michael A Mohutsky, David W Bedwell, Kenneth J Ruterbories, Stephen D Hall
The proton gradient from the intracellular space to plasma creates an unbound drug gradient for weak acids and bases that could modulate apparent drug clearance and drug-drug interactions. Cytochrome P450 intrinsic clearance and inhibitor potency are routinely determined in vitro at the plasma pH of 7.4 rather than the intrahepatocyte pH of 7.0. We determined the impact of pH on in vitro enzyme kinetic parameters and inhibition potency for substrates (bufuralol, dextromethorphan), reversible inhibitors (quinidine, amiodarone, desethylamiodarone, clozapine), and mechanism-based inhibitors (paroxetine, desethylamiodarone) of the major drug metabolizing-enzyme CYP2D6...
November 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Jacek C Szepietowski, Radomir Reszke
Pruritus is a bothersome and prevalent symptom reported by patients suffering from both cutaneous and extracutaneous diseases. Psychogenic pruritus, also referred to as functional itch disorder, is a distinct clinical entity. According to the definition proposed by the French Psychodermatology Group (FPDG) in 2007, the disorder is characterized by pruritus which is the chief complaint and psychologic factors that contribute to eliciting, worsening, and sustaining the symptoms. Specific diagnostic criteria were proposed, including 3 compulsory and 7 optional, of which 3 have to be met in order to establish the diagnosis...
2016: Current Problems in Dermatology
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