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Beta cells AND hyperplasia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280900/paracrine-gaba-and-insulin-regulate-pancreatic-alpha-cell-proliferation-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#1
Allen L Feng, Yun-Yan Xiang, Le Gui, Gesthika Kaltsidis, Qingping Feng, Wei-Yang Lu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of increased proliferation of alpha cells in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. Pancreatic beta cells express GAD and produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which inhibits alpha cell secretion of glucagon. We explored the roles of GABA in alpha cell proliferation in conditions corresponding to type 1 diabetes in a mouse model and in vitro. METHODS: Type 1 diabetes was induced by injecting the mice with streptozotocin (STZ)...
March 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196319/common-skin-conditions-in-children-congenital-melanocytic-nevi-and-infantile-hemangiomas
#2
Brian Z Rayala, Dean S Morrell
Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are hamartomas present at birth that are composed of nevomelanocytes and thought to originate from faulty migration of precursor melanocytes in the neural crest. Classification is based on projected adult size of the lesion. CMN size correlates positively with risk of melanoma and neurocutaneous melanocytosis. Management requires a patient-centered approach that weighs the risks and benefits of and alternatives to complete removal. All children with large and giant CMN, regardless of surgical status, should be monitored closely and undergo periodic skin examination...
February 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144955/hypothyroidism-in-utero-stimulates-pancreatic-beta-cell-proliferation-and-hyperinsulinaemia-in-the-ovine-fetus-during-late-gestation
#3
Shelley E Harris, Miles J De Blasio, Melissa A Davis, Amy C Kelly, Hailey M Davenport, F B Peter Wooding, Dominique Blache, David Meredith, Miranda Anderson, Abigail L Fowden, Sean W Limesand, Alison J Forhead
Development of pancreatic beta cell mass before birth is essential for normal growth of the fetus and for long-term control of carbohydrate metabolism in postnatal life. Thyroid hormones are also important regulators of fetal growth, and the present study tested the hypotheses that thyroid hormones promote beta cell proliferation in the fetal ovine pancreatic islets, and that growth retardation in hypothyroid fetal sheep is associated with reductions in pancreatic beta cell mass and circulating insulin concentration in utero...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008668/immunoglobulin-heavy-and-light-chains-and-t-cell-receptor-beta-and-gamma-chains-pcr-assessment-on-cytological-samples-a-study-comparing-fta-cards-and-cryopreserved-lymph-node-fine-needle-cytology
#4
A L Peluso, I Cozzolino, A Bottiglieri, L Lucchese, R M Di Crescenzo, M Langella, C Selleri, P Zeppa
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the DNA yield and quality extracted from lymph node fine needle cytology (FNC) samples stored on FTA cards to those cryopreserved, and to assess the immunoglobulin heavy and light chains (IGHK) and T-Cell receptor beta and gamma chains (TCRBG) PCR tests. METHODS: DNA extractions were performed on FNC of 80 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), four myelomas and 56 benign reactive hyperplasias (BRH) cryopreserved and stored on FTA cards...
December 22, 2016: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989094/histopathological-and-immunohistochemical-evaluation-of-pannus-tissue-in-patients-with-prosthetic-valve-dysfunction
#5
Süleyman Karakoyun, Mustafa Ozan Gürsoy, Mahmut Yesin, Macit Kalçık, Mehmet Ali Astarcıoğlu, Sabahattin Gündüz, Ali Emrah Oğuz, Şermin Çoban Kökten, Ayşe Nimet Karadayı, Altuğ Tuncer, Cengiz Köksal, Tayyar Gökdeniz, Mehmet Özkan
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic valve dysfunction due to pannus formation is a rare but serious complication. Currently, limited data are available concerning the pathogenesis and immunohistochemical properties of pannus. The study aim was to investigate the morphological, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of pannus formation in patients with prosthetic valve dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 35 patients (10 males, 25 females; mean age 44 ± 16 years) who had undergone re-do valve surgery due to prosthetic valve obstruction was enrolled in the study...
2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871172/lin-23-an-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-component-is-required-for-the-repression-of-cdc-25-2-activity-during-intestinal-development-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Miseol Son, Ichiro Kawasaki, Bong-Kyeong Oh, Yhong-Hee Shim
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) utilizes two different cell-cycle modes, binucleations during the L1 larval stage and endoreduplications at four larval moltings, for its postembryonic intestinal development. Previous genetic studies indicated that CDC-25.2 is specifically required for binucleations at the L1 larval stage and is repressed before endoreduplications. Furthermore, LIN-23, the C. elegans β-TrCP ortholog, appears to function as a repressor of CDC-25.2 to prevent excess intestinal divisions. We previously reported that intestinal hyperplasia in lin-23(e1883) mutants was effectively suppressed by the RNAi depletion of cdc-25...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832373/human-polyomavirus-and-human-papillomavirus-prevalence-and-viral-load-in-non-malignant-tonsillar-tissue-and-tonsillar-carcinoma
#7
Stephan Herberhold, Martin Hellmich, Marcus Panning, Eva Bartok, Steffi Silling, Baki Akgül, Ulrike Wieland
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are an acknowledged cause of a subset of oropharyngeal cancers, especially of tonsillar cancer. Similar to HPV, some human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), such as Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), have an oncogenic potential. Recently, several novel HPyVs have been discovered. The aim of our study was to determine viral DNA prevalence and viral DNA load of 13 different HPyVs in benign and malignant tonsillar tissue and to compare the data with those found for HPV. A total of 78 biopsies of palatine tonsils with a histologic diagnosis of non-malignant disease (chronic tonsillitis, tonsillar hyperplasia, n = 40) or tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (n = 38) were included in the study...
November 10, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813705/increased-proliferation-of-the-pancreatic-duct-gland-compartment-in-type-1-diabetes
#8
Abu Saleh Md Moin, Peter C Butler, Alexandra E Butler
CONTEXT: Pancreatic duct glands (PDGs) have been proposed as a source of regeneration in response to exocrine pancreas injury, and thus may serve as an organ stem cell niche. There is evidence to suggest ongoing beta-cell formation in longstanding type 1 diabetes (T1D), but the source is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pancreatic duct gland (PDG) compartment of the pancreas in humans with T1D for evidence of an active regenerative signature (presence of progenitor cells and increased proliferation) and, in particular, as a potential source of beta-cells...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711105/adenomatous-hyperplasia-of-the-rete-testis-a-rare-intrascrotal-lesion-managed-with-limited-testicular-excision
#9
Francesco Catanzariti, Lucilla Servi, Andrea Fabiani, Alessandra Filosa, Gabriele Mammana
INTRODUCTION: Testicular cancer is one of the most frequent in young men and its incidence is increasing in recent years because of incidental finding during routine ultrasound exams. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is one of the benign and rare pathological types incidentally detected and very few cases are described in the literature. CASE REPORT: A 40 years old man come to our attention for a balanoposthitis without testicular pain. During andrological examination we performed palpation of the testes and we noticed a palpable nodule of hard consistency in the left testicle...
October 5, 2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698175/canine-mammary-minute-oncocytomas-with-neuroendocrine-differentiation-associated-with-multifocal-acinar-cell-oncocytic-metaplasia
#10
Rei Nagahara, Masayuki Kimura, Megu Itahashi, Go Sugahara, Masashi Kawashima, Hirotada Murayama, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
Two solitary and minute tumors of 1 and 1.5 mm diameter were identified by microscopy in the left fourth mammary gland of a 13-year-old female Labrador Retriever dog, in addition to multiple mammary gland tumors. The former tumors were well circumscribed and were composed of small-to-large polyhedral neoplastic oncocytes with finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and were arranged in solid nests separated by fine fibrovascular septa. Scattered lumina of variable sizes containing eosinophilic secretory material were evident...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576200/activation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-pancreatic-beta-cells-during-the-compensatory-islet-hyperplasia-in-prediabetic-mice
#11
D A Maschio, R B Oliveira, M R Santos, C P F Carvalho, H C L Barbosa-Sampaio, C B Collares-Buzato
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, also known as the canonical Wnt pathway, plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation in several tissues/organs. It has been recently described in humans a relationship between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and mutation in the gene encoding the transcription factor TCF7L2 associated to the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In the present study, we demonstrated that hyperplastic pancreatic islets from prediabetic mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 60 d displayed nuclear translocation of active β-catenin associated with significant increases in protein content and gene expression of β-catenin as well as of cyclins D1, D2 and c-Myc (target genes of the Wnt pathway) but not of Tcf7l2 (the transcription factor)...
September 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562401/impact-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-treatment-on-pancreatic-beta-cell-area-and-beta-cell-proliferation-in-humans
#12
Thomas G K Breuer, Laura Borker, Daniel R Quast, Andrea Tannapfel, Wolfgang E Schmidt, Waldemar Uhl, Juris J Meier
INTRODUCTION: Gastrin has been shown to promote beta-cell proliferation in rodents, but its effects in adult humans are largely unclear. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) lead to endogenous hypergastrinaemia, and improved glucose control during PPI therapy has been reported in patients with diabetes. Therefore, we addressed whether PPI treatment is associated with improved glucose homoeostasis, islet cell hyperplasia or increased new beta-cell formation in humans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pancreatic tissue specimens from 60 patients with and 33 patients without previous PPI therapy were examined...
November 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562101/insulin-receptor-isoform-a-ameliorates-long-term-glucose-intolerance-in-diabetic-mice
#13
Sabela Diaz-Castroverde, Almudena Gómez-Hernández, Silvia Fernández, Gema García-Gómez, Marianna Di Scala, Gloria González-Aseguinolaza, Elisa Fernández-Millán, Águeda González-Rodríguez, María García-Bravo, Pierre Chambon, Carmen Álvarez, Liliana Perdomo, Nuria Beneit, Oscar Escribano, Manuel Benito
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease and its pathogenesis involves abnormalities in both peripheral insulin action and insulin secretion. Previous in vitro data showed that insulin receptor isoform A, but not B, favours basal glucose uptake through its specific association with endogenous GLUT1/2 in murine hepatocytes and beta cells. With this background, we hypothesized that hepatic expression of insulin receptor isoform A in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes could potentially increase the glucose uptake of these cells, decreasing the hyperglycaemia and therefore ameliorating the diabetic phenotype...
November 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497395/association-of-microrna-146-with-middle-ear-hyperplasia-in-pediatric-otitis-media
#14
Tina L Samuels, Justin Yan, Pawjai Khampang, Alexander MacKinnon, Wenzhou Hong, Nikki Johnston, Joseph E Kerschner
OBJECTIVE: Toll-like receptor signaling activated by bacterial otitis media pathogens in the middle ear has been shown to play a key role in OM susceptibility, pathogenesis and recovery. Recent studies implicate microRNA 146 (miR-146) in regulation of inflammation via negative feedback of toll-like receptor signaling (TLR) in a wide variety of tissues, however its involvement in otitis media is unknown. METHODS: Human middle ear epithelial cells were stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1 beta or tumor necrosis factor alpha, for two to twenty-four hours...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450020/effect-of-tranilast-in-comparison-with-beclomethasone-in-chronic-murine-model-of-asthma
#15
Manar A Nader, Nariman Gameil, Rania R Abdelaziz, Khaled R Zalata, Amal Osman, Mohamed M Zedan, Nermin Abo-Elkheir, Abeer Abdalla Elsiddig, Magdy Zedan
AIM OF THE STUDY: The current investigation was taken to scrutinize the action of tranilast on the airway remodeling in chronic asthma in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin was applied to mice for sensitization and subsequent inhalation of 1% ovalbumin three times week for 10 weeks for challenge. Beclomethasone or tranilast were given daily for the 10 week challenge period. At the end of the study, lung weight index, total collagen content, bronchoalveolar lavage level of total and differential cell counts, interleukin-13, in addition to lung tissue nitrate/nitrite and transforming growth beta-1 were measured...
August 2016: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445978/intracellular-molecular-differences-in-aldosterone-compared-to-cortisol-secreting-adrenal-cortical-adenomas
#16
REVIEW
Eric Seidel, Ute I Scholl
The adrenal cortex is a major site of steroid hormone production. Two hormones are of particular importance: aldosterone, which is produced in the zona glomerulosa in response to volume depletion and hyperkalemia, and cortisol, which is produced in the zona fasciculata in response to stress. In both cases, acute stimulation leads to increased hormone production, and chronic stimulation causes hyperplasia of the respective zone. Aldosterone- and cortisol-producing adenomas (APAs and CPAs) are benign tumors of the adrenal cortex that cause excess hormone production, leading to primary aldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166257/minimal-contribution-of-erk1-2-mapk-signalling-towards-the-maintenance-of-oncogenic-gnaqq209p-driven-uveal-melanomas-in-zebrafish
#17
Mai Abdel Mouti, Christopher Dee, Sarah E Coupland, Adam F L Hurlstone
Mutations affecting Gαq proteins are pervasive in uveal melanoma (UM), suggesting they 'drive' UM pathogenesis. The ERK1/2-MAPK pathway is critical for cutaneous melanoma development and consequently an important therapeutic target. Defining the contribution of ERK1/2-MAPK signalling to UM development has been hampered by the lack of an informative animal model that spontaneously develops UM. Towards this end, we engineered transgenic zebrafish to express oncogenic GNAQQ209P in the melanocyte lineage. This resulted in hyperplasia of uveal melanocytes, but with no evidence of malignant progression, nor perturbation of skin melanocytes...
June 28, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069480/vascular-remodelling-and-mesenchymal-transition-in-systemic-sclerosis
#18
REVIEW
Pier Andrea Nicolosi, Enrico Tombetti, Norma Maugeri, Patrizia Rovere-Querini, Silvia Brunelli, Angelo A Manfredi
Fibrosis of the skin and of internal organs, autoimmunity, and vascular inflammation are hallmarks of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). The injury and activation of endothelial cells, with hyperplasia of the intima and eventual obliteration of the vascular lumen, are early features of SSc. Reduced capillary blood flow coupled with deficient angiogenesis leads to chronic hypoxia and tissue ischemia, enforcing a positive feed-forward loop sustaining vascular remodelling, further exacerbated by extracellular matrix accumulation due to fibrosis...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057885/successful-medical-treatment-of-adult-nesidioblastosis-with-pasireotide-over-3-years-a-case-report
#19
Verena Schwetz, Karl Horvath, Patrizia Kump, Carolin Lackner, Aurel Perren, Flavio Forrer, Thomas R Pieber, Gerlies Treiber, Harald Sourij, Julia K Mader
Nesidioblastosis is a rare cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults. Diagnosis is often challenging and therapeutic options are scarce.In 2009, a 46-year-old female patient presented with recurrent severe hypoglycemia and immediate recovery after glucose ingestion. Although 72-h-fasting test was positive, various imaging technologies (sonography, computed tomography, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, dopamine receptor positron emission tomography [DOPA-PET]) were negative. Endoscopic ultrasound revealed a lesion in the pancreatic corpus, whereas selective arterial calcium stimulation test, portal venous sampling and GLP-1-receptor scintigraphy were indicative of a lesion in the pancreatic tail, which was surgically removed...
April 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045812/proteomic-profiling-of-radiation-induced-skin%C3%A2-fibrosis-in-rats-targeting-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system
#20
Wenjie Wang, Judong Luo, Wenjiong Sheng, Jiao Xue, Ming Li, Jiang Ji, Pengfei Liu, Xueguang Zhang, Jianping Cao, Shuyu Zhang
PURPOSE: To investigate the molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of radiation-induced skin fibrosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Rat skin was irradiated to 30 or 45 Gy with an electron beam. Protein expression in fibrotic rat skin and adjacent normal tissues was quantified by label-free protein quantitation. Human skin cells HaCaT and WS-1 were treated by x-ray irradiation, and the proteasome activity was determined with a fluorescent probe. The effect of proteasome inhibitors on Transforming growth factor Beta (TGF-B) signaling was measured by Western blot and immunofluorescence...
June 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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