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Beta cells AND hyperplasia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693240/comparative-study-of-%C3%AE-catenin-and-cd44-immunoexpression-in-oral-lichen-planus-and-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Massoumeh Zargaran, Fahimeh Baghaei, Abbas Moghimbeigi
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of adhesion molecules is believed to play an early and important role in developing cancer. Accordingly, this study aims to compare beta-catenin (β-catenin) and CD44 expression in oral lichen planus (OLP) as a condition with malignant potential and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: β-Catenin and CD44 expression were evaluated in 15 patients with epithelial hyperplasia (group A), 20 OLP (group B), and 20 OSCC (group C) by immunohistochemistry...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683234/possible-association-of-oestrogen-and-cryba4-with-masticatory-muscle-tendon-aponeurosis-hyperplasia
#2
Naoki Hayashi, Tsuyoshi Sato, Shoichiro Kokabu, Michihiko Usui, Megumi Yumoto, Eiji Ikami, Yasushi Sakamoto, Akira Nifuji, Tadayoshi Hayata, Masaki Noda, Tetsuya Yoda
OBJECTIVE: Masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia, which is associated with limited mouth opening, progresses very slowly from adolescence. The prevalence rates of this disease are higher among women than among men, suggesting oestrogen involvement. Since parafunctional habits are frequently observed, mechanical stress is likely involved in the pathogenesis and advancement of this disease. To elucidate the pathological condition, we examined the effect of oestrogen on tenocyte function and the relationship between mechanical stress and crystallin beta A4 (Cryba4), using murine TT-D6 tenocytes...
April 23, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681182/fetal-pancreatic-langerhans-islets-size-in-pregnancies-with-metabolic-disorders
#3
Laura Avagliano, Margaret Mascherpa, Valentina Massa, Patrizia Doi, Gaetano P Bulfamante
Metabolic disorders are a pandemic and increasing health problem. Women of childbearing age may also be affected, thus an abnormal metabolism may interfere with pregnancy short and long term outcomes, harming both mother and child. In the context of an abnormal maternal and intrauterine metabolic milieu the development of fetal organs, including pancreas, may be affected. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of pregnancy metabolic disorders on the morphology of pancreatic Langerhans islets in human late-third trimester stillborn fetuses...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680290/estrogen-receptor-beta-signaling-inhibits-pdgf-induced-human-airway-smooth-muscle-proliferation
#4
Nilesh Sudhakar Ambhore, Rathnavali Katragadda, Rama Satyanarayana Raju Kalidhindi, Michael A Thompson, Christina M Pabelick, Y S Prakash, Sathish Venkatachalem
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell hyperplasia driven by persistent inflammation is a hallmark feature of remodeling in asthma. Sex steroid signaling in the lungs is of considerable interest, given epidemiological data showing more asthma in pre-menopausal women and aging men. Our previous studies demonstrated that estrogen receptor (ER) expression increases in asthmatic human ASM; however, very limited data are available regarding differential roles of ERα vs. ERβ isoforms in human ASM cell proliferation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of selective ERα and ERβ modulators on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated ASM proliferation and the mechanisms involved...
April 19, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554659/clinical-significance-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-beta-promoter-methylation-in-prostate-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#5
MengMeng Dou, XueLiang Zhou, ZhiRui Fan, XianFei Ding, LiFeng Li, ShuLing Wang, Wenhua Xue, Hui Wang, Zhenhe Suo, XiaoMing Deng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta) is a retinoic acid receptor gene that has been shown to play key roles during multiple cancer processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Numerous studies have found that methylation of the RAR beta promoter contributed to the occurrence and development of malignant tumors. However, the connection between RAR beta promoter methylation and prostate cancer (PCa) remains unknown. This meta-analysis evaluated the clinical significance of RAR beta promoter methylation in PCa...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483769/asthma-and-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-inhibition-a-new-therapeutic-approach
#6
REVIEW
Raffaela Zaffini, Giovanni Gotte, Marta Menegazzi
Asthma is a chronic lung disease affecting people of all ages worldwide, and it frequently begins in childhood. Because of its chronic nature, it is characterized by pathological manifestations, including airway inflammation, remodeling, and goblet cell hyperplasia. Current therapies for asthma, including corticosteroids and beta-2 adrenergic agonists, are directed toward relieving the symptoms of the asthmatic response, with poor effectiveness against the underlying causes of the disease. Asthma initiation and progression depends on the T helper (Th) 2 type immune response carried out by a complex interplay of cytokines, such as interleukin (IL) 4, IL5, and IL13, and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459852/%C3%AE-hpv-infection-correlates-with-early-stages-of-carcinogenesis-in-skin-tumors-and-patient-derived-xenografts-from-a-kidney-transplant-recipient-cohort
#7
Cinzia Borgogna, Carlotta Olivero, Simone Lanfredini, Federica Calati, Marco De Andrea, Elisa Zavattaro, Paola Savoia, Elena Trisolini, Renzo Boldorini, Girish K Patel, Marisa Gariglio
Many malignancies that occur in high excess in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are due to viruses that thrive in the setting of immunosuppression. Keratinocyte carcinoma (KC), the most frequently occurring cancer type in KTR, has been associated with skin infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) from the beta genus. In this report, we extend our previous investigation aimed at identifying the presence of active β-HPV infection in skin tumors from KTRs through detection of viral protein expression. Using a combination of antibodies raised against the E4 and L1 proteins of the β-genotypes, we were able to visualize infection in five tumors [one keratoacanthoma (KA), three actinic keratoses (AKs), and one seborrheic keratoses (SKs)] that were all removed from two patients who had been both transplanted twice, had developed multiple KCs, and presented with a long history of immunosuppression (>30 years)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390191/inducible-knockdown-of-endothelial-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-promotes-neointima-formation-in-obese-mice-by-enhancing-endothelial-senescence
#8
Marianne Jäger, Astrid Hubert, Rajinikanth Gogiraju, Magdalena L Bochenek, Thomas Münzel, Katrin Schäfer
AIMS: Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. In this study, we determined the importance of PTP1B expressed in endothelial cells for the vascular response to arterial injury in obesity. RESULTS: Morphometric analysis of vascular lesions generated by 10% ferric chloride (FeCl3 ) revealed that tamoxifen-inducible endothelial PTP1B deletion (Tie2.ERT2 -Cre × PTP1Bfl/fl ; End.PTP1B knockout, KO) significantly increased neointima formation, and reduced numbers of (endothelial lectin-positive) luminal cells in End...
February 1, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168546/glucocorticoids-and-beta-cell-function
#9
REVIEW
Marta Fichna, Piotr Fichna
Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a pivotal role in carbohydrate metabolism. They counteract insulin by decreasing peripheral glucose uptake and stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis, although they are best known for inducing insulin resistance (IR). Moreover, GCs may attenuate the incretin effect. Nevertheless, their direct impact on beta cells is not fully defined. This review aims to present the current understanding of this subject. Humans exposed to GC excess display IR, impaired glucose tolerance, and eventually develop diabetes...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065434/unanswered-questions-in-the-genetic-basis-of-primary-aldosteronism
#10
Ute I Scholl
Over the past six years, the genetic basis of a significant fraction of primary aldosteronism (PA) cases has been solved. Breakthrough discoveries include the role of somatic variants in the KCNJ5 , CACNA1D , ATP1A1 , and ATP2B3 genes as causes of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs), and the recognition of three novel hyperaldosteronism syndromes with germline variants in the KCNJ5 , CACNA1D , and CACNA1H genes. The description of somatic variants in CACNA1D and ATP1A1 in aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) suggests that these clusters are precursors of some aldosterone-producing adenomas...
December 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031615/the-leukotriene-receptor-antagonist-pranlukast-attenuates-airway-remodeling-by-suppressing-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#11
Jung Hur, Ji Young Kang, Chin Kook Rhee, Young Kyoon Kim, Sook Young Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling, which are associated with a loss in lung function. Although both contribute significantly to asthma pathogenesis, mechanistic studies and drug discovery have focused on inflammatory targets. In this study, we investigated the effect of the leukotriene receptor antagonist pranlukast on allergic airway inflammation and remodeling in vivo and in vitro. METHOD: Four groups of female BALB/c mice (control; ovalbumin [OVA]-sensitized and -challenged; dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]-treated OVA; and pranlukast-treated OVA) were examined...
February 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016683/the-epigenetic-factor-pcaf-regulates-vascular-inflammation-and-is-essential-for-intimal-hyperplasia-development
#12
Rob C M de Jong, Mark M Ewing, Margreet R de Vries, Jacco C Karper, Antonius J N M Bastiaansen, Hendrika A B Peters, Fabiana Baghana, Peter J van den Elsen, Céline Gongora, J Wouter Jukema, Paul H A Quax
OBJECTIVE: Genetic P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) variation affects restenosis-risk in patients. PCAF has lysine acetyltransferase activity and promotes nuclear factor kappa-beta (NFκB)-mediated inflammation, which drives post-interventional intimal hyperplasia development. We studied the contributing role of PCAF in post-interventional intimal hyperplasia. METHODS AND RESULTS: PCAF contribution to inflammation and intimal hyperplasia was assessed in leukocytes, macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) in vitro and in a mouse model for intimal hyperplasia, in which a cuff is placed around the femoral artery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941035/role-of-oestrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-in-bladder-tissue-of-patients-with-a-clinical-diagnosis-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#13
Rohit Bhattar, Sher Singh Yadav, Vinay Tomar, Alka Mittal, Goto Gangkak, Jayanti Mehta
OBJECTIVES: To study the differential expression of oestrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in human urinary bladder tissue using immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods and to explore their correlation with various measures of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). METHODS: In this prospective case-control study, the case group comprised 34 patients with bothersome LUTS who underwent transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), while the control group comprised 19 age-matched, otherwise healthy patients who underwent cystoscopy to investigate microscopic haematuria...
January 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790184/adiponectin-protects-against-development-of-metabolic-disturbances-in-a-pcos-mouse-model
#14
Anna Benrick, Belén Chanclón, Peter Micallef, Yanling Wu, Laila Hadi, John M Shelton, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Ingrid Wernstedt Asterholm
Adiponectin, together with adipocyte size, is the strongest factor associated with insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigates the causal relationship between adiponectin levels and metabolic and reproductive functions in PCOS. Prepubertal mice overexpressing adiponectin from adipose tissue (APNtg), adiponectin knockouts (APNko), and their wild-type (WT) littermate mice were continuously exposed to placebo or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to induce PCOS-like traits...
August 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676456/palmitoylethanolamide-and-polydatin-combination-reduces-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-vascular-injury
#15
Enrico Gugliandolo, Roberta Fusco, Flavia Biundo, Ramona D'Amico, Filippo Benedetto, Rosanna Di Paola, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Acute and chronic inflammation responses are important risk factors for vascular remodeling processes such as in atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis and restenosis. Inflammation and oxidative stress in the intimal region after vascular damage are a key event in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. In this study, we used this model of vascular damage, which involves the complete ligature of the left carotid artery for 14days, to observe the role of N-palmitoylethanolamine in combination with Polydatin at the dose of 30mg/kg, on regulation of inflammatory process, and oxidative stress...
July 1, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648404/osthole-inhibits-intimal-hyperplasia-by-regulating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad2-signalling-pathways-in-the-rat-carotid-artery-after-balloon-injury
#16
Yi-Qi Li, Jun-Yi Wang, Zhi-Qiang Qian, Ye-Li Li, Wen-Na Li, Yang Gao, Dan-Li Yang
Osthole (7-methoxy-8-isopentenoxy-coumarin), a compound extracted from Cnidiummonnieri (L.) Cusson seeds, has been found to exhibit potent therapeutic effects in cancer due to its ability to inhibit inflammation and cell proliferation. However, its effects on arterial wall hypertrophy-related diseases remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Osthole on intimal hyperplasia in a rat model of carotid artery balloon injury. We established the balloon-induced carotid artery injury rat model in male Sprague-Dawley rats, after which we administered Osthole (20mg/kg/day or 40mg/kg/day) or volume-matched normal saline orally by gavage for 14 consecutive days...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646742/image-analysis-for-tsh-mrna-in-situ-hybridization-in-pituitary-glands-from-rats-with-thyroid-follicular-cell-hypertrophy-after-treatment-with-three-different-test-compounds
#17
Juergen Funk, Martin Ebeling, Thomas Singer, Christian Landes
The goal of this in situ hybridization and image analysis technique is to study the effects of new pharmacological/chemical entities on the thyroid and pituitary gland in rats, reveal the pathogenesis of thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and to retrospectively exclude the risk of thyroid tumor development in humans. In the present study, we describe the increase of thyroid-stimulating hormone- (TSH-) beta subunit mRNA in the pars distalis of the pituitary gland and the quantitative measurement of TSH mRNA positive cells from rats of three 4-week toxicity studies treated with three different test compounds inducing thyroid follicular cell and hepatocellular hypertrophy in rats...
June 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504618/butyrate-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-alterations-hepatic-steatosis-and-pancreatic-beta-cell-and-intestinal-barrier-dysfunctions-in-prediabetic-mice
#18
V A Matheus, Lcs Monteiro, R B Oliveira, D A Maschio, C B Collares-Buzato
In this study, we investigated the effect of diet supplementation with sodium butyrate (5% w/w), a short-chain fatty acid produced by the intestinal microbiota, on metabolic parameters, body adiposity, hepatic and pancreatic lipid accumulation, beta cell function/mass as well as on the structure and function of the tight junction-mediated intestinal epithelial barrier in both normal and obese/prediabetic C57 mice fed a regular (control) or high-fat diet for 60 days, respectively. Butyrate treatment significantly inhibited all the high-fat-induced metabolic dysfunctions evaluated, i...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441064/bacillus-calmette-guerin-alleviates-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-by-preventing-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#19
Xinrui Tian, Xinli Tian, Rujie Huo, Qin Chang, Guoping Zheng, Yan Du, Yan Chen, Bo Niu
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is a potent agent for the prevention of tuberculosis. Current studies have regarded BCG as an immunomodulator. However, there is little information on whether it can be used to inhibit airway inflammation and airway remodeling caused by asthma. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in airway inflammation and airway remodeling as well as the possible therapeutic mechanism of BCG for the treatment of asthma. Wistar rats were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin for 2 weeks or 8 weeks...
August 3, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401852/t-helper-type-1-t-helper-type-2-shift-and-nasal-remodeling-after-fine-particulate-matter-exposure-in-a-rat-model-of-allergic-rhinitis
#20
Zhi-Qiang Guo, Wei-Yang Dong, Jian Xu, Zhi-Cong Hong, Ren-Wu Zhao, Cong-Rui Deng, Guo-Shun Zhuang, Ru-Xin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Exposure to fine particulate matter (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5]) increases the risk of allergic rhinitis (AR), but the underlying mechanisms remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the roles of T-helper (Th)1-Th2 cytokines and nasal remodeling after ambient PM2.5 exposure in a rat model of AR. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into six groups: a negative control group, a group of healthy rats exposed to 3000 μg/m3 PM2.5, an ovalbumin (OVA) induced AR model, and three PM2...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
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