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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230387/a-computer-adaptive-testing-version-of-the-addiction-severity-index-multimedia-version-asi-mv-the-addiction-severity-cat
#1
Stephen F Butler, Ryan A Black, Stacey A McCaffrey, Jessica Ainscough, Ann M Doucette
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a computer adaptive testing (CAT) version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV), the Addiction Severity CAT. This goal was accomplished in 4 steps. First, new candidate items for Addiction Severity CAT domains were evaluated after brainstorming sessions with experts in substance abuse treatment. Next, this new item bank was psychometrically evaluated on a large nonclinical (n = 4,419) and substance abuse treatment (n = 845) sample. Based on these results, final items were selected and calibrated for the creation of the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms...
February 23, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228718/current-concepts-on-the-physiopathological-relevance-of-dopaminergic-receptors
#2
REVIEW
Ada Ledonne, Nicola B Mercuri
Dopamine (DA) is a key neurotransmitter modulating essential functions of the central nervous system (CNS), like voluntary movement, reward, several cognitive functions and goal-oriented behaviors. The factual relevance of DAergic transmission can be well appreciated by considering that its dysfunction is recognized as a core alteration in several devastating neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and associated movement disorders, as well as, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addiction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227131/sound-preference-test-in-animal-models-of-addicts-and-phobias
#3
Ryo Soga, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Ryohei Kanzaki, Hirokazu Takahashi, Ryo Soga, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Ryohei Kanzaki, Hirokazu Takahashi, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Ryohei Kanzaki, Ryo Soga, Hirokazu Takahashi
Biased or too strong preference for a particular object is often problematic, resulting in addiction and phobia. In animal models, alternative forced-choice tasks have been routinely used, but such preference test is far from daily situations that addicts or phobic are facing. In the present study, we developed a behavioral assay to evaluate the preference of sounds in rodents. In the assay, several sounds were presented according to the position of free-moving rats, and quantified the sound preference based on the behavior...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226334/prescription-opioid-abuse-in-chronic-pain-an-updated-review-of-opioid-abuse-predictors-and-strategies-to-curb-opioid-abuse-part-2
#4
Alan D Kaye, Mark R Jones, Adam M Kaye, Juan G Ripoll, Donald E Jones, Vincent Galan, Burton D Beakley, Frank Calixto, Jamie L Bolden, Richard D Urman, Laxmaiah Manchikanti
Chronic pain and prescription opioid abuse are extremely prevalent in the United States and worldwide. The consequences of opioid misuse can be life-threatening with significant morbidity and mortality, exacting a heavy toll on patients, physicians, and society. The risk for misuse of prescribed opioids is much higher in patients with chronic pain, especially those with concurrent substance use and /or mental health disorders. Several reasons can account for the occurrence of opioid abuse and misuse, including self-medication, use for reward, compulsive use related to addiction, and diversion for profit...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226333/prescription-opioid-abuse-in-chronic-pain-an-updated-review-of-opioid-abuse-predictors-and-strategies-to-curb-opioid-abuse-part-1
#5
Alan D Kaye, Mark R Jones, Adam M Kaye, Juan G Ripoll, Vincent Galan, Burton D Beakley, Frank Calixto, Jamie L Bolden, Richard D Urman, Laxmaiah Manchikanti
Chronic pain and prescription opioid abuse are extremely prevalent both in this country and worldwide. Consequences of opioid misuse can be life-threatening with significant morbidity and mortality, exacting a heavy toll on patients, physicians, and society. Individuals with chronic pain and co-occurring substance use disorders and/or mental health disorders, are at a higher risk for misuse of prescribed opioids. Opioid abuse and misuse occurs for a variety of reasons, including self-medication, use for reward, compulsive use because of addiction, and diversion for profit...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225877/synthetic-cannabinoids-in-the-kidneys
#6
Alper Alp, Hakan Akdam, Banu Yılmaz Avcıoğlu, Sibel Ersan
Acute kidney injury is an important cause of mortality and morbidity today and can occur due to several reasons. As time, geographic regions, and living conditions change, various etiological agents arise with nephrotoxic effects. Awareness of such nephrotoxic effects has been raised with the increasing frequency of addictive substance use, especially among young people in society.
January 1, 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224962/-gambling-in-elderly-patients
#7
Morgane Guillou Landreat, Jean-Yves Le Reste, Catherine Théréné-Mouden, Julie Caillon, Jennyfer Cholet, Marie Grall Bronnec
Behavioural addictions concern behaviour which generate pleasure (shopping, gambling, sex, etc.). Pathological gambling is the most common behavioural addiction in elderly people. It can be severely harmful causing psychological, financial and family problems and increasing the risk of suicide. Gambling addiction is underestimated in the elderly. Psychological, social and family support is important whatever the age, with treatment aiming to improve the person's quality of life, help them regain control of their gambling or stop altogether...
January 2017: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224686/addiction-research-and-theory-a-commentary-on-the-surgeon-general-s-report-on-alcohol-drugs-and-health
#8
Aldo Badiani, Kent C Berridge, Markus Heilig, David J Nutt, Terry E Robinson
The Office of the Surgeon General recently produced its first Report on the consequences of alcohol and drug abuse on health, making several very laudable policy recommendations. The Report also emphasizes the importance of adequate funding for biomedical research, which is good news for both researchers and patients. However, the Report is marred by a biased viewpoint on the psychology and neurobiology of drug addiction. We highlight here four controversial issues that were depicted as facts in the Report, thereby potentially misleading non-expert readers about the current state-of-the-art understanding of the psychology and neurobiology of drug addiction...
February 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223925/effects-of-intermittent-alcohol-exposure-on-emotion-and-cognition-a-potential-role-for-the-endogenous-cannabinoid-system-and-neuroinflammation
#9
Laura Sanchez-Marin, Francisco J Pavon, Juan Decara, Juan Suarez, Ana Gavito, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Antonia Serrano
Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of adolescent alcohol use that can lead to binge drinking episodes. Alcohol use is known to modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in neuronal communication, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and behavior. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to 4-week intermittent alcohol intoxication (3 g/kg injections for 4 days/week) or saline (N = 12 per group). After alcohol deprivation, adult rats were assessed for emotionality and cognition and the gene expression of the ECS and other factors related to behavior and neuroinflammation was examined in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222927/coping-with-the-enduring-unpredictability-of-opioid-addiction-an-investigation-of-a-novel-family-focused-peer-support-organization
#10
John F Kelly, Nilo Fallah-Sohy, Julie Cristello, Brandon Bergman
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose deaths have become a major public health crisis. While efforts have focused mostly on helping opioid-addicted individuals directly, family members suffer also from the grave and enduring unpredictability associated with opioid addiction and often play a vital role in helping addicted loved ones access care. Little is known, however, about resources to help affected family members. Here we describe results from the first quantitative and qualitative investigation of a free and growing support organization for family members of addicted individuals ("Learn to Cope" [LTC]; www...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220342/icons-for-health-effects-of-cigarette-smoke-a-test-of-semiotic-type
#11
Allison J Lazard, Annie Schmidt, Huyen Vu, M Justin Byron, Ellen Peters, Marcella H Boynton, Noel T Brewer
We sought to identify icons to effectively communicate health harms of chemicals in cigarette smoke. Participants were a convenience sample of 701 U.S. adults. A within-subjects online experiment explored the effects of icon semiotic type: symbolic (arbitrary, most abstract), indexical, and iconic (representative, most concrete). Outcomes were perceived representation, affect toward smoking, elaboration, perceived severity, and perceived effectiveness. For not-easy-to-visualize harms of cancer and addiction, symbolic icons received the highest ratings (all p < ...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213891/opioids-and-the-immune-system-friend-or-foe
#12
REVIEW
Lisanne Mirja Plein, Heike L Rittner
Systemically administered opioids are among the most powerful analgesics for treating severe pain. Several negative side-effects (respiratory depression, addiction, nausea, confusion) and the risk of opioid-induced hyperalgesia accompany opioid administration. One other side effect is the potential of opioids to suppress the immune response and thereby to increase the vulnerability for infections. Several studies have investigated the link between opioids and immunosuppression in vitro, in vivo as well as in patients with divergent results: Exogenous opioids such as morphine and fentanyl can impair macrophage and natural killer cell as well as T cell function and weaken the gut barrier in vitro and in animal studies...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213340/demographic-and-indication-specific-characteristics-have-limited-association-with-social-network-engagement-evidence-from-24-954-members-of-four-health-care-support-groups
#13
Trevor van Mierlo, Xinlong Li, Douglas Hyatt, Andrew T Ching
BACKGROUND: Digital health social networks (DHSNs) are widespread, and the consensus is that they contribute to wellness by offering social support and knowledge sharing. The success of a DHSN is based on the number of participants and their consistent creation of externalities through the generation of new content. To promote network growth, it would be helpful to identify characteristics of superusers or actors who create value by generating positive network externalities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of developing predictive models that identify potential superusers in real time...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213330/drug-discovery-strategies-in-the-field-of-tumor-energy-metabolism-limitations-by-metabolic-flexibility-and-metabolic-resistance-to-chemotherapy
#14
REVIEW
N D Amoedo, E Obre, R Rossignol
The search for new drugs capable of blocking the metabolic vulnerabilities of human tumors has now entered the clinical evaluation stage, but several projects already failed in phase I or phase II. In particular, very promising in vitro studies could not be translated in vivo at preclinical stage and beyond. This was the case for most glycolysis inhibitors that demonstrated systemic toxicity. A more recent example is the inhibition of glutamine catabolism in lung adenocarcinoma that failed in vivo despite a strong addiction of several cancer cell lines to glutamine in vitro...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212507/higher-severity-of-cocaine-addiction-is-associated-with-tactile-and-somatic-hallucinations
#15
C Roncero, L Grau-López, R F Palma-Álvarez, L Rodriguez-Cintas, E Ros-Cucurull, A Esojo, C Daigre
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the features of cocaine-dependent patients who have had cocaine-induced tactile/somatic hallucinations (CITSH), and to analyze the association with addiction-related variables and psychiatric comorbidity, comparing patients with CITSH, patients with cocaine psychotic symptoms (CIP) and no CITSH, and patients without any psychotic symptom. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 767 cocaine-dependent patients in an outpatient treatment center for addictions...
December 1, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211964/relationship-between-pathological-gambling-alexithymia-and-gambling-type
#16
Céline Bonnaire, Servane Barrault, Ania Aïte, Mathieu Cassotti, Sylvain Moutier, Isabelle Varescon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to see if: (i) alexithymia is associated with PG and with the severity of gambling behavior; (ii) alexithymia is associated with strategic and non-strategic gambling. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-six gamblers were recruited in different gambling locations. First, pathological gamblers (PGs) (n = 106) were compared to non-pathological gamblers (NPGs) (n = 120). Second, strategic gamblers (n = 92) were compared to non-strategic gamblers (n = 96)...
February 17, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210835/a-10-year-review-of-cannabis-exposure-in-children-under-3-years-of-age-do-we-need-a-more-global-approach
#17
Isabelle Claudet, Mathilde Le Breton, Camille Bréhin, Nicolas Franchitto
: Pediatricians working in an emergency environment are confronted with children admitted to emergency departments for intoxication on a daily basis. We carried out a retrospective cohort study of children admitted to a pediatric emergency department due to unintentional cannabis exposure over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. Twenty-nine children under the age of 3 were admitted with a positive cannabis urine test. Eighty-seven percent of intoxications occurred at the family home. Resin was the main form of ingested cannabis (69%)...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209683/evaluation-of-6-remote-first-nations-community-based-buprenorphine-programs-in-northwestern-ontario-retrospective-study
#18
Solomon Mamakwa, Meldon Kahan, Dinah Kanate, Mike Kirlew, David Folk, Sharon Cirone, Sara Rea, Pierre Parsons, Craig Edwards, Janet Gordon, Fiona Main, Len Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate established opioid addiction treatment programs that use traditional healing in combination with buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance treatment in 6 First Nations communities in the Sioux Lookout region of northwestern Ontario. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Six First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 526 First Nations participants in opioid-dependence treatment programs...
February 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199917/desomorphine-krokodil-an-overview-of-its-chemistry-pharmacology-metabolism-toxicology-and-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Diego Hernando Ângulo Florez, Ana Maria Dos Santos Moreira, Pedro Rafael da Silva, Ricardo Brandão, Marcella Matos Cordeiro Borges, Fernando José Malagueño de Santana, Keyller Bastos Borges
BACKGROUND: "Krokodil" or "Crocodile" is an illegal homemade desomorphine drug obtained from chemical reactions of commercial codeine drugs with several other powerful and highly toxic chemical agents increasing its addiction and hallucinogenic effects when compared with other morphine analogues. METHODS: This paper summarizes a complete review about an old drug called desomorphine (Krokodil), presenting its chemistry, pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology and analysis...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198637/video-gaming-and-gaming-addiction-in-transgender-people-an-exploratory-study
#20
Jon Arcelus, Walter Pierre Bouman, Bethany Alice Jones, Christina Richards, Susana Jimenez-Murcia, Mark D Griffiths
Background There is anecdotal clinical evidence that transgender people use the online world - such as forums and online video gaming - for the purpose of experiencing their gender identity in a safe, non-threatening, non-alienating, non-stigmatizing, and non-critical environment. Aims To describe gaming behavior, degree of problematic gaming behavior and associated factors with problematic gaming in a comparatively large group of transgender people accessing transgender health services. Methods Every individual referred to a national transgender health service in the United Kingdom during a 12-month period was invited to complete a series of questionnaires to measure gaming behavior, interpersonal functioning, severity of autistic features, and anxiety and depressive symptoms...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
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