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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811180/development-of-an-opioid-self-administration-assay-to-study-drug-seeking-in-zebrafish
#1
Gabriel D Bossé, Randall T Peterson
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become an excellent tool to study mental health disorders, due to its physiological and genetic similarity to humans, ease of genetic manipulation, and feasibility of small molecule screening. Zebrafish have been shown to exhibit characteristics of addiction to drugs of abuse in non-contingent assays, including conditioned place preference, but contingent assays have been limited to a single assay for alcohol consumption. Using inexpensive electronic, mechanical, and optical components, we developed an automated opioid self-administration assay for zebrafish, enabling us to measure drug seeking and gain insight into the underlying biological pathways...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810899/chronic-pain-and-opioid-misuse-a-review-of-reviews
#2
REVIEW
Pauline Voon, Mohammad Karamouzian, Thomas Kerr
OBJECTIVE: The crisis of prescription opioid (PO) related harms has focused attention toward identifying and treating high-risk populations. This review aims to synthesize systematic reviews on the epidemiology and clinical management of comorbid chronic pain and PO or other substance misuse. METHODS: A systematic database search was conducted to identify systematic reviews published between 2000 and 2016. Eligible studies were systematic reviews related to chronic non-cancer pain and PO or other substance misuse...
August 15, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810357/a-graduated-food-addiction-classification-approach-significantly-differentiates-obesity-among-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#3
Karren-Lee Raymond, Lee Kannis-Dymand, Geoff P Lovell
This study examined a graduated severity level approach to food addiction classification against associations with World Health Organization obesity classifications (body mass index, kg/m(2)) among 408 people with type 2 diabetes. A survey including the Yale Food Addiction Scale and several demographic questions demonstrated four distinct Yale Food Addiction Scale symptom severity groups (in line with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) severity indicators): non-food addiction, mild food addiction, moderate food addiction and severe food addiction...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807162/chinese-herbal-medicine-for-the-treatment-of-drug-addiction
#4
Weili Zhu, Yinan Zhang, Yingjie Huang, Lin Lu
This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent relapse to chronic drug dependence...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806640/the-importance-of-nutrition-in-aiding-recovery-from-substance-use-disorders-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Kendall D Jeynes, E Leigh Gibson
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is a prerequisite for health; yet, there is no special nutritional assessment or guidance for drug and alcohol dependent individuals, despite the fact that their food consumption is often very limited, risking malnutrition. Further, the premise is examined that malnutrition may promote drug seeking and impede recovery from substance use disorders (SUD). METHOD: A narrative review addressed the relationship between substance use disorders and nutrition, including evidence for malnutrition, as well as their impact on metabolism and appetite regulation...
August 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805749/food-addiction-binge-eating-disorder-and-obesity-is-there-a-relationship
#6
Tracy Burrows, Janelle Skinner, Rebecca McKenna, Megan Rollo
Existing research suggests that there is an overlap between binge eating disorder (BED) and the construct of 'food addiction' (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the overlapping features of BED and FA through a comparison of the individual scales of commonly used tools including the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) in a sample of Australian adults. Adults (>18 years of age) were invited to complete an anonymous online survey on FA. Binge eating was assessed through the BES and addictive eating behaviours were assessed through the YFAS (n = 1344)...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805240/the-role-of-social-familial-and-individual-level-factors-on-multiple-alcohol-use-outcomes-during-the-first-year-of-university
#7
Megan E Cooke, Zoe E Neale, Peter B Barr, John Myers, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Alexis C Edwards
BACKGROUND: The first year of university attendance represents a critical time frame for the development of alcohol use and misuse given changes in autonomy and increased access to alcohol. Prior studies have demonstrated that the establishment of drinking patterns during this period is impacted by an array of demographic, environmental, and familial factors. It is critical to consider such factors jointly, and to understand potentially differential effects on stages of alcohol use/misuse, in order to identify robust predictors that may be targeted in prevention and intervention programming...
August 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792271/is-tfiih-the-new-achilles-heel-of-cancer-cells
#8
Pietro Berico, Frédéric Coin
TFIIH is a ten-subunit complex involved in transcription and DNA repair. It contains several enzymatic activities including a ATP-dependent DNA translocase in XPB and a cyclin-dependent kinase in CDK7. Recently the discovery of several XPB and CDK7 inhibitors with specific impact on the transcriptional addiction of many tumors pinpointed these activities as potential target in cancer chemotherapy. Unexpectedly a basal transcription factor involved in global mRNA expression now emerges a one of the most clinically promising Achilles heels of cancerous cells...
August 9, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791198/psychopathological-symptoms-defense-mechanisms-and-time-perspectives-among-subjects-with-alcohol-dependence-ad-presenting-different-patterns-of-coping-with-stress
#9
Katarzyna Iwanicka, Aneta Gerhant, Marcin Olajossy
BACKGROUND: The problem of coping with stress is an important one in the context of development and persistence of alcohol dependence. In the literature to date very little attention has been paid to coping patterns construed as a configuration of specific coping styles, particularly as regards the functioning of addicted individuals. The aim of the study was to verify whether individuals with alcohol dependence characterized by different coping patterns differ with respect to the severity of psychopathological symptoms, defense mechanisms and time perspectives...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789653/occupational-status-as-a-determinant-of-mental-health-inequities-in-french-young-people-is-fairness-needed-results-of-a-cross-sectional-multicentre-observational-survey
#10
Marie Blanquet, Emilie Labbe-Lobertreau, Catherine Sass, Dominique Berger, Laurent Gerbaud
BACKGROUND: Employment conditions are associated with health inequities. In 2013, French young people had the highest unemployment rate and among those who worked as salaried workers most of them had temporary job. The purpose of the study was to assess mental health state of French young people through the prism of their occupational status and to measure whether occupational status is a determinant of health inequities. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicentre observational survey was performed in June and July 2010 in 115 French Local Social Centres and 74 Health Examination Centres, who were available to participate...
August 8, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780748/validation-of-the-italian-version-of-the-yale-food-addiction-scale-2-0-i-yfas-2-0-in-a-sample-of-undergraduate-students
#11
Matteo Aloi, Marianna Rania, Rita Cristina Rodríguez Muñoz, Susana Jiménez Murcia, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Pasquale De Fazio, Cristina Segura-Garcia
PURPOSE: Food addiction (FA) refers to a condition characterized by addiction in relation to some high-fat and high-sugar carbohydrate that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress on several areas of functioning. The Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (YFAS 2.0) has been recently updated to measure FA according to the DSM-5 criteria for substance-related and addictive disorders. This study aimed at validating the Italian version of YFAS 2.0. METHODS: A sample of 574 Italian university students was involved in this research...
August 5, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780356/then-and-now-consumption-and-dependence-in-e-cigarette-users-who-formerly-smoked-cigarettes
#12
Matthew Browne, Daniel G Todd
Electronic cigarette use, or vaping, continues to be a focus for regulators and policy makers in public health, particularly since it can compete with or be a substitute for smoking. This study investigated characteristics of nicotine dependence and consumption in a sample of vapers who formerly smoked cigarettes. We recruited 436 (80% male) vapers from several internet discussion forums; 95% of whom previously smoked, but ceased after commencing vaping. These participants completed a retrospective version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-R), as well as a version modified to suit current vaping (FTND-V), along with measures of consumption...
July 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777828/depression-anxiety-and-smartphone-addiction-in-university-students-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Jocelyne Matar Boumosleh, Doris Jaalouk
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to assess prevalence of smartphone addiction symptoms, and to ascertain whether depression or anxiety, independently, contributes to smartphone addiction level among a sample of Lebanese university students, while adjusting simultaneously for important sociodemographic, academic, lifestyle, personality trait, and smartphone-related variables. METHODS: A random sample of 688 undergraduate university students (mean age = 20.64 ±1.88 years; 53% men) completed a survey composed of a) questions about socio-demographics, academics, lifestyle behaviors, personality type, and smartphone use-related variables; b) 26-item Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) Scale; and c) brief screeners of depression and anxiety (PHQ-2 and GAD-2), which constitute the two core DSM-IV items for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771524/the-effect-of-brief-case-management-on-emergency-department-use-of-frequent-users-in-mental-health-findings-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Vicky Stergiopoulos, Agnes Gozdzik, Ashley Cohen, Tim Guimond, Stephen W Hwang, Paul Kurdyak, Molyn Leszcz, Donald Wasylenki
Frequent users of hospital emergency departments (EDs) are a medically and socially vulnerable population. The Coordinated Access to Care from Hospital EDs (CATCH-ED) study examined the effectiveness of a brief case management intervention in reducing ED use and improving health outcomes among frequent ED users with mental health or addiction challenges in a large urban centre. Adults (≥18 years of age) who had five or more ED visits in the past 12-months, with at least one visit for mental health or addictions problems were randomized to either brief case management (N = 83) or usual care (N = 83) and followed for 12 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768409/opiates-and-plasticity-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#15
Ludovic D Langlois, Fereshteh S Nugent
Opioids are among the most effective pain relievers, however their abuse has been on the rise worldwide evident from an alarming increase in accidental opioid overdoses. This demands for an urgent increase in scientific endeavors for better understanding of main cellular mechanisms and circuits involved in opiate addiction. Preclinical studies strongly suggest that memories associated with positive and negative opioid experiences are critical in promoting compulsive opiate-seeking and opiate-taking behaviors, and relapse...
August 3, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758944/interactions-between-the-kynurenine-and-the-endocannabinoid-system-with-special-emphasis-on-migraine
#16
REVIEW
Gábor Nagy-Grócz, Ferenc Zádor, Szabolcs Dvorácskó, Zsuzsanna Bohár, Sándor Benyhe, Csaba Tömböly, Árpád Párdutz, László Vécsei
Both the kynurenine and the endocannabinoid systems are involved in several neurological disorders, such as migraine and there are increasing number of reports demonstrating that there are interactions of two systems. Although their cooperation has not yet been implicated in migraine, there are reports suggesting this possibility. Additionally, the individual role of the endocannabinoid and kynurenine system in migraine is reviewed here first, focusing on endocannabinoids, kynurenine metabolites, in particular kynurenic acid...
July 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756030/intensive-referral-to-mutual-help-groups-a-field-trial-of-adaptations-for-rural-veterans
#17
Kathleen M Grant, Lance Brendan Young, Kimberly A Tyler, Jamie L Simpson, R Dario Pulido, Christine Timko
OBJECTIVE: A multisite field trial testing whether improved outcomes associated with intensive referral to mutual help groups (MHGs) could be maintained after the intervention was adapted for the circumstances and needs of rural veterans in treatment for substance use disorder (SUD). METHODS: In three Veterans Affairs treatment programs in the Midwest, patients (N=195) received standard referral (SR) or rural-adapted intensive referral (RAIR) and were measured at baseline and 6-month follow-up...
July 14, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754407/punishment-of-alcohol-reinforced-responding-in-alcohol-preferring-p-rats-reveals-a-bimodal-population-implications-for-models-of-compulsive-drug-seeking
#18
Nathan J Marchant, Erin J Campbell, Konstantin Kaganovsky
Individual variations in animal behaviour can be used to describe relationships between different constructs, as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms responsible for such variation. In humans, variation in the expression of certain traits contributes to the onset of psychopathologies, such as drug addiction. Addiction is characterised by persistent drug use despite negative consequences, but it occurs in only a sub-population of drug users. Compulsive drug use is modelled in laboratory animals by punishing a drug-reinforced operant response...
July 25, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753041/students-perceptions-of-trigger-warnings-in-medical-education
#19
Elizabeth A Beverly, Sebastián Díaz, Anna M Kerr, Jane T Balbo, Kayla E Prokopakis, Todd R Fredricks
Phenomenon: Trigger warnings are verbal statements or written warnings that alert students in advance to potentially distressing material. Medical education includes numerous subjects frequently identified as triggers, such as abuse, rape, self-injurious behaviors, eating disorders, drug and alcohol addiction, and suicide. Thus, exploring medical students' perceptions of trigger warnings may provide a valuable perspective on the use of these warnings in higher education. APPROACH: As part of a larger descriptive, cross-sectional survey study on medical education, we assessed 1st- and 2nd-year medical students' perceptions of trigger warnings in the preclinical curriculum...
July 28, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749641/factors-affecting-mental-patients%C3%A2-behaviors-and-attitudes-regarding-smoking
#20
Michael Kourakos, Maria Saridi, Theodora Kafkia, Maria Rekleiti, Kyriakos Souliotis, Hero Brokalaki, Evmorfia Koukia
Background: Patients with mental health problems are in high risk to develop addiction, since smoking incidence is three times higher than that of the general population. The aim of the study was to investigate the factors affecting mental health patients’ smoking habits. Methods: The sample of study were 356 patients out of 403 initially approached, with 142 hospitalized in hospital facilities and 214 in community settings. The «Smoking in psychiatric hospitals” and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) questionnaires were used...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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