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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725634/ip3-receptor-mediated-calcium-signaling-and-its-role-in-autophagy-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Elzbieta Kania, Gemma Roest, Tim Vervliet, Jan B Parys, Geert Bultynck
Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play a complex role in orchestrating diverse cellular processes, including cell death and survival. To trigger signaling cascades, intracellular Ca(2+) is shuffled between the cytoplasm and the major Ca(2+) stores, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the mitochondria, and the lysosomes. A key role in the control of Ca(2+) signals is attributed to the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs), the main Ca(2+)-release channels in the ER. IP3Rs can transfer Ca(2+) to the mitochondria, thereby not only stimulating core metabolic pathways but also increasing apoptosis sensitivity and inhibiting basal autophagy...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725286/responsibility-without-blame-for-addiction
#2
Hanna Pickard
Drug use and drug addiction are severely stigmatised around the world. Marc Lewis does not frame his learning model of addiction as a choice model out of concern that to do so further encourages stigma and blame. Yet the evidence in support of a choice model is increasingly strong as well as consonant with core elements of his learning model. I offer a responsibility without blame framework that derives from reflection on forms of clinical practice that support change and recovery in patients who cause harm to themselves and others...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725285/free-will-black-swans-and-addiction
#3
Ted Fenton, Reinout W Wiers
The current dominant perspective on addiction as a brain disease has been challenged recently by Marc Lewis, who argued that the brain-changes related to addiction are similar to everyday changes of the brain. From this alternative perspective, addictions are bad habits that can be broken, provided that people are motivated to change. In that case, autonomous choice or "free will" can overcome bad influences from genes and or environments and brain-changes related to addiction. Even though we concur with Lewis that there are issues with the brain disease perspective, we also argue that pointing to black swans can be important, that is: there can be severe cases where addiction indeed tips over into the category of brain disease, but obviously that does not prove that every case of addiction falls into the disease category, that all swans are black...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724403/the-association-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-internet-addiction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Bing-Qian Wang, Nan-Qi Yao, Xiang Zhou, Jian Liu, Zheng-Tao Lv
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Internet addiction (IA). METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in four online databases in total including CENTRAL, EMBASE, PubMed and PsychINFO. Observational studies (case-control, cross-sectional and cohort studies) measuring the correlation between IA and ADHD were screened for eligibility. Two independent reviewers screened each article according to the predetermined inclusion criteria...
July 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724279/alterations-in-striatal-circuits-underlying-addiction-like-behaviors
#5
REVIEW
Hyun Jin Kim, Joo Han Lee, Kyunghwa Yun, Joung-Hun Kim
Drug addiction is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by the compulsive pursuit of drugs of abuse despite potential adverse consequences. Although several decades of studies have revealed that psychostimulant use can result in extensive alterations of neural circuits and physiology, no effective therapeutic strategies or medicines for drug addiction currently exist. Changes in neuronal connectivity and regulation occurring after repeated drug exposure contribute to addiction-like behaviors in animal models...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724038/sexual-addiction-in-drug-addicts-the-impact-of-drug-of-choice-and-poly-addiction
#6
Nelson Antonio, Alessandra Diehl, Marcelo Niel, Sandra Pillon, Lilian Ratto, Maria Carolina Pinheiro, Dartiu Silveira, Thais Zelia Otani, Victor Otani, Quirino Cordeiro, Ricardo Ushida
Objective: To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. Method: All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST) score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723251/asi-profile-of-persons-who-re-enter-treatment-for-substance-use-disorders
#7
Hélène Simoneau, Serge Brochu
Despite a growing interest in persons with multiple treatment re-entries, few studies have defined their clinical profile. The aim of this study was to compare the severity profile of substance use disorder and related problems of persons who re-enter treatment to the profile of those who come in for treatment for the first time. A data bank containing 6,651 Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interviews from three rehabilitation centers was used for the analyses. All the ASI composite scores were significantly higher among persons who re-entered treatment than among those who came for the first time...
July 19, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721706/-eating-disorder-and-food-addiction-in-a-population-candidates-for-a-bariatric-surgery
#8
Leïla Boulanouar, Loïc Locatelli, Vania Meuli, Zoltan Pataky, Alain Golay
Non stabilized severe eating disorder is a contra-indication for bariatric surgery. Specific cares can stabilize this disorder, and therefore a surgery can be undertaken. In this respect, more and more attention is paid to the concept of food addiction even if its definition is still debated. Some authors, according to neurobiological data, consider food addiction as independent from eating disorder, but others see food addiction as a severe sub-type of eating disorder. To contribute to this debate, we performed a study in our department including 23 subjects candidates for a bariatric surgery and found a significant association between food addiction and eating disorder, independently of the body mass index...
March 22, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720860/altered-hippocampal-volume-and-functional-connectivity-in-males-with-internet-gaming-disorder-comparing-to-those-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
Eun Jin Yoon, Jung-Seok Choi, Heejung Kim, Bo Kyung Sohn, Hee Yeon Jung, Jun-Young Lee, Dai-Jin Kim, Sun-Won Park, Yu Kyeong Kim
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and shares clinical, neuropsychological, and personality characteristics with alcohol use disorder (AUD), but IGD dose not entail brain exposure to toxic agents, which renders it different from AUD. To achieve a clear understanding of the neurobiological features of IGD, we aimed to identify morphological and functional changes in IGD and compare them with those in AUD. Individuals with IGD showed larger volume in the hippocampus/amygdala and precuneus than healthy controls (HCs)...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720620/in-this-issue-opiates-tobacco-social-determinants-of-health-social-accountability-for-non-profit-hospitals-more-on-pcmh-and-clinical-topics
#10
EDITORIAL
Marjorie A Bowman, Anne Victoria Neale, Dean A Seehusen
This issue contains several articles about the factors contributing to the complex and deadly interplay between social determinants of health, pain, mental illness, and addictive substances such as opioids and tobacco. One article clearly is a call to action: more than half of opioid prescriptions in the United States are given to patients with mental health problems. Two articles report work on the next steps for social determinants of health in health care settings. Social accountability based on community health needs assessments required of community hospitals should lead to the creation of more family medicine residency positions...
July 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720013/the-5-ht1b-serotonin-receptor-regulates-methylphenidate-induced-gene-expression-in-the-striatum-differential-effects-on-immediate-early-genes
#11
David Alter, Joel A Beverley, Ronak Patel, Carlos A Bolaños-Guzmán, Heinz Steiner
Drug combinations that include a psychostimulant such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor such as fluoxetine are indicated in several medical conditions. Co-exposure to these drugs also occurs with "cognitive enhancer" use by individuals treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Methylphenidate, a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, by itself produces some addiction-related gene regulation in the striatum. We have demonstrated that co-administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors potentiates these methylphenidate-induced molecular effects, thus producing a more "cocaine-like" profile...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719830/relationship-between-psychological-inflexibility-and-experiential-avoidance-and-internet-addiction-mediating-effects-of-mental-health-problems
#12
Wei-Po Chou, Kun-Hua Lee, Chih-Hung Ko, Tai-Ling Liu, Ray C Hsiao, Hsiu-Fen Lin, Cheng-Fang Yen
Internet addiction became a major mental health problem in college student. Our objective was to examine the relationship between psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance (PIEA) and Internet addiction (IA) and the mediating effects of mental health problem indicators. 500 college students (238 men and 262 women) participated in this study. The level of PIEA was examined using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II. The severity of IA was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. The levels of depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility were evaluated using the Symptom Checklist-90 item-Revised Scale...
July 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715440/transcriptional-profiling-of-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens-after-modest-or-high-alcohol-exposure
#13
Julia Morud, Arghavan Ashouri, Erik Larsson, Mia Ericson, Bo Söderpalm
Alcohol use disorder is a chronic relapsing brain disorder and a global health issue. Prolonged high alcohol consumption increases the risk for dependence development, a complex state that includes progressive alterations in brain function. The molecular mechanisms behind these changes remain to be fully disclosed, but several genes show altered expression in various regions of the rat brain even after modest alcohol exposure. The present study utilizes whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate expression changes in the brain nucleus accumbens (NAc), an area of particular interest in addictive disorders, of alcohol consuming rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714806/loss-of-control-over-the-ethanol-consumption-differential-transcriptional-regulation-in-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Carolina de Paiva Lima, Daniel Almeida da Silva E Silva, Samara Damasceno, Andrea Frozino Ribeiro, Cristiane S Rocha, Alexandre H Berenguer de Matos, Diego Correia, Roseli Boerngen-Lacerda, Ana Lúcia Brunialti Godard
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex multifactorial disease with heritability of ∼50% and corresponds to the state in which the body triggers a reinforcement or reward compulsive behavior due to ethanol consumption, even when faced with negative consequences. Although several studies have shown the impact of high ethanol intake on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) gene expression, few have addressed the relationship between the patterns of gene expression underlying the compulsive behaviour associated with relapsing...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710498/gene-network-dysregulation-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-neurons-of-humans-with-cocaine-use-disorder
#15
Efrain A Ribeiro, Joseph R Scarpa, Susanna P Garamszegi, Andrew Kasarskis, Deborah C Mash, Eric J Nestler
Metabolic and functional alterations of neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) are thought to contribute to impulsivity, which is a hallmark of addictive behaviors that underlie compulsive drug seeking and taking in humans. To determine if there is a transcriptional signature in dlPFC neurons of humans with cocaine use disorder, we performed total RNA-sequencing on neuronal nuclei isolated from post-mortem dlPFC of cocaine addicts and healthy controls. Our results point toward a transcriptional mechanism whereby cocaine alters specific gene networks in dlPFC neurons...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709784/individual-decision-making-in-the-causal-pathway-to-addiction-contributions-and-limitations-of-rodent-models
#16
REVIEW
Serge H Ahmed
The causal pathway from vulnerability to drug use and addiction involves a complex interaction between genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. An individual can intervene on this causal pathway by two major types of individual decision. There is the inaugural, momentous decision to use a drug for the first time. This decision is influenced by both prior knowledge on the drug and its expected effects, and also by prior self-knowledge on one's own vulnerability. After an individual has used a drug for the first time, there is the decision to repeat drug use...
July 12, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708124/considerations-and-future-research-directions-for-e-cigarette-warnings-findings-from-expert-interviews
#17
Olivia A Wackowski, David Hammond, Richard J O'Connor, Andrew A Strasser, Cristine D Delnevo
Tobacco warning labels are important sources of risk information but research historically has been cigarette-centric. This qualitative study aimed to inform future direction and research on warnings for e-cigarettes. Between June and August 2016, we conducted interviews with 10 researchers with expertise in tobacco warning label research. Interviewees were registrants of a 2016 National Cancer Institute grantee meeting on tobacco warnings. Several participants agreed that the Food and Drug Administration's new nicotine addiction warning for e-cigarettes could be informative but that it might not resonate with young people...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707583/cannabis-an-overview-of-its-adverse-acute-and-chronic-effects-and-their-implications
#18
Talitha C Ford, Amie C Hayley, Luke A Downey, Andrew C Parrott
In many communities, cannabis is perceived as a low-risk drug, leading to political lobbying to decriminalise its use. However, acute and chronic cannabis use has been shown to be harmful to several aspects of psychological and physical health, such as mood states, psychiatric outcomes, neurocognition, driving and general health. Furthermore, cannabis is highly addictive, and the adverse effects of withdrawal can lead to regular use. These in turn have adverse implications for public safety and health expenditure...
July 12, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704167/-i-feel-like-i-ve-hit-the-bottom-and-have-no-idea-what-to-do-supportive-social-networking-on-reddit-for-individuals-with-a-desire-to-quit-cannabis-use
#19
Shaina J Sowles, Melissa J Krauss, Lewam Gebremedhn, Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg
BACKGROUND: Online communities can provide social support to those in need and can foster personal empowerment for individuals experiencing distress. This study examines the content of a Reddit community dedicated to the support of people trying to quit using cannabis, in order to develop an understanding of the type of social networking occurring on this subreddit (e.g. community). METHODS: A total of 100 Reddit posts and their replies (i.e. comments) were collected from the subreddit on June 12, 2015...
July 13, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698187/the-stoichiometry-%C3%AE-4-3-%C3%AE-2-2-of-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-predominates-in-the-rat-motor-cortex
#20
Kristen E DeDominicis, Niaz Sahibzada, Thao T Olson, Yingxian Xiao, Barry B Wolfe, Kenneth J Kellar, Robert P Yasuda
The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is important in normal CNS physiology and in mediating several of the pharmacological effects of nicotine on cognition, attention, and affective states. It is also the likely receptor that mediates nicotine addiction. This receptor assembles in two distinct stoichiometries: (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2 that are referred to as high (HS) and low (LS) sensitivity nAChRs, respectively, based on a difference in the potency of acetylcholine to activate them. The physiological and pharmacological differences between these two receptor subtypes have been described in heterologous expression systems...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
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