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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324807/parenting-self-efficacy-and-empowerment-among-expectant-mothers-with-substance-use-disorders
#1
Debra H Zand, Jessica L Chou, Kathy J Pierce, Lara B Pennington, Rosalie R Dickens, Jerri Michael, Donna McNamara, Taryn White
OBJECTIVE: to describe parenting self-efficacy and family empowerment among expectant mothers with substance use disorders. DESIGN: the study employed a quantitative cross-sectional design. PARTICIPANTS: participants were 71 pregnant women with substance use disorders entering a gender-specific, substance use disorder, residential treatment facility. MEASUREMENTS: measurement tools included: the demographic data form, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, the Addiction Severity Index, and the Family Empowerment Scale...
March 7, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323538/relationships-between-a-dissociative-subtype-of-ptsd-and-clinical-characteristics-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorders
#2
Michaela Mergler, Martin Driessen, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke, Dirk Wedekind, Christel Lüdecke, Martin Ohlmeier, Claudia Chodzinski, Sybille Teunißen, Steffen Weirich, Detlef Schläfke, Walter Renner, Ingo Schäfer, Gertrud Koesters, Christian Dette, Olaf Reis, Elisabeth H Sylvester, Martin Hoppe, Markus Stuppe, Thomas Broese, Udo Schneider, Christina Pletke
The increasing support for a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD-D) has led to its inclusion in DSM-5. We examined relationships between PTSD-D and relevant variables in patients with substance use disorders (SUD). The sample comprised N = 459 patients with SUD. The International Diagnostic Checklist and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale were used to diagnose PTSD. In addition, participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The course of SUD was assessed by means of the European Addiction Severity Index...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323526/addiction-to-snake-venom
#3
Saibal Das, Preeti Barnwal, Tanay Maiti, Anand Ramasamy, Somnath Mondal, Dinesh Babu
The nature of addiction depends on various factors. The tendency to have already used several addictive substances and to seek high sensation experiences as a result of specific personality traits may lead to extreme and peculiar forms of addictions. Even belonging to specific social and cultural background may lead to such forms of addiction such as intentional snake bite and willful envenomation. In this article, we have discussed the peculiarities and practical insight of such addiction to snake venom. The possible molecular mechanism behind such venom-mediated reinforcement has also been highlighted...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319052/a-tail-of-opioid-receptor-variants
#4
Stephanie Puig, Howard B Gutstein
Opioids are the gold-standard treatment for severe pain. However, potentially life-threatening side effects decrease the safety and effectiveness of these compounds. The addiction liability of these drugs has led to the current epidemic of opioid abuse in the US. Extensive research efforts have focused on trying to dissociate the analgesic properties of opioids from their undesirable side effects. Splice variants of the mu opioid receptor (MOR), which mediates opioid actions, have unique pharmacological properties and anatomic distributions that make them attractive candidates for therapeutic pain relief...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317506/theory-of-mind-impairments-in-women-with-cocaine-addiction
#5
Breno Sanvicente-Vieira, Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon, Rhiannon Corcoran, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the Theory of Mind performance of female cocaine-dependent users (CDUs) and possible associations between theory of mind performance and features of cocaine use. METHOD: Sixty women controlled for age, education, individual income, and IQ participated in this study: 30 in the CDU group and 30 in the healthy control group. Participants were assessed for theory of mind with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), a test of understanding of first-order and second-order false beliefs, and the Hinting task...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314070/long-lasting-effects-of-chronic-heavy-cannabis-abuse
#6
Joannis N Nestoros, Elena Vakonaki, Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Athanasios Alegakis, Markos D Skondras, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of short-term memory impairment and schizophrenia-like symptoms in heavy and systematic cannabis users and the association between the severity of abuse and the longevity of its persistent symptoms after refraining from such use. METHODS: A complete psychiatric examination and a psychometric evaluation were performed in 48 solely cannabis users. Additionally, head hair samples were analyzed and the detected cannabinoids levels were correlated with the psychometric findings...
March 17, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306543/peripheral-levels-of-bdnf-and-opiate-use-disorder-literature-review-and-update
#7
Raul Felipe Palma-Álvarez, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Kristopher Amaro-Hosey, Laia Rodriguez-Cintas, Lara Grau-López, Margarida Corominas-Roso, Cristina Sánchez-Mora, Carlos Roncero
Several neurobiological factors are related to opiate-use disorder (OUD), and among them, neurotrophins have a relevant role. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a central neurotrophin involved in many neuronal processes, and it has been related to several psychiatric diseases and addictive disorders. BDNF can be measured in plasma and serum; its levels may reflect BDNF concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS) and, indirectly, CNS processes. Hence, peripheral BDNF could be a biomarker in clinical practice...
March 17, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303109/the-effect-of-abuse-history-on-adolescent-patients-with-feeding-and-eating-disorders-treated-through-psychodynamic-therapy-comorbidities-and-outcome
#8
Annamaria M Strangio, Lucio Rinaldi, Gianluigi Monniello, Leuconoe Grazia Sisti, Chiara de Waure, Luigi Janiri
OBJECTIVES: The first aim of our study was to compare the characteristics and comorbidities of patients with eating disorders between those who suffered from a childhood abuse and those who did not. Our second aim was to analyze the differences in the outcome of the psychodynamic therapy between abused and not abused patients. METHODS: Twenty-six adolescent patients with eating disorders were assessed. Adolescent were evaluated by a single expert psychiatrist by checklists and questionnaires: EDI 3, SCL 90, BIS11, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, SCID II, and CTQ-Self control (SF)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302862/arresting-the-development-of-addiction-the-role-of-%C3%AE-arrestin2-in-drug-abuse
#9
Kirsten A Porter-Stransky, David Weinshenker
The protein β-arrestin2 (βarr2) directly interacts with receptors and signaling pathways that mediate the behavioral effects of drugs of abuse, making it a prime candidate for therapeutic interventions. βarr2 drives desensitization and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors, including dopamine, opioid, and cannabinoid receptors, and can also trigger G protein-independent intracellular signaling. βarr2 mediates several drug-induced behaviors, but the relationship is complex and dependent on the type of behavior (e...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302084/effectiveness-of-emdr-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorder-and-comorbid-ptsd-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Ingo Schäfer, Laycen Chuey-Ferrer, Arne Hofmann, Peter Lieberman, Günter Mainusch, Annett Lotzin
BACKGROUND: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is an evidence-based treatment for PTSD. However, it is unclear whether EMDR shows the same effectiveness in patients with substance use disorders (SUD) and comorbid PTSD. In this trial, we examine the effectiveness of EMDR in reducing PTSD symptoms in patients with SUD and PTSD. METHODS/DESIGN: We conduct a single-blinded RCT among 158 patients with SUD and comorbid PTSD admitted to a German addiction rehabilitation center specialized for the treatment of patients with SUD and comorbid PTSD...
March 16, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301969/the-internet-s-effect-on-personality-traits-an-important-casualty-of-the-internet-addiction-paradigm
#11
Elias Aboujaoude
Background and aims The "Internet addiction" paradigm has been criticized for several shortcomings, including inattention to specific online behaviors, not distinguishing the Internet from other media, insufficient focus on comorbidities, and definitions that do not take into account the constant access now possible. The paradigm's biggest casualty, however, may be that it has diverted attention away from subtle personality changes that seem to occur online, including in users who cannot be considered "addicted" under any definition...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297025/association-of-stimulant-use-with-dopaminergic-alterations-in-users-of-cocaine-amphetamine-or-methamphetamine-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Abhishekh H Ashok, Yuya Mizuno, Nora D Volkow, Oliver D Howes
Importance: Stimulant use disorder is common, affecting between 0.3% and 1.1% of the population, and costs more than $85 billion per year globally. There are no licensed treatments to date. Several lines of evidence implicate the dopamine system in the pathogenesis of substance use disorder. Therefore, understanding the nature of dopamine dysfunction seen in stimulant users has the potential to aid the development of new therapeutics. Objective: To comprehensively review the in vivo imaging evidence for dopaminergic alterations in stimulant (cocaine, amphetamine, or methamphetamine) abuse or dependence...
March 15, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296627/predictors-of-early-relapse-among-adolescent-crack-users
#13
Ronaldo Lopes-Rosa, Félix P Kessler, Thiago G Pianca, Luciano Guimarães, Pedro Ferronato, Esequiel Pagnussat, Helena Moura, Flavio Pechansky, Lisia von Diemen
Relapse is associated with a poor prognosis among drug users. Crack cocaine users are more prone to severe dependence because of the intensity of use. Additionally, initiating drug use during adolescence worsens users' prognosis due to the increased rates of impulsivity and other risk behaviors. This study aimed to identify the predictors of early relapse among adolescent crack users discharged from inpatient treatment. A cohort study was conducted with 89 psychiatric inpatients aged 12-17 years from two different hospitals in southern Brazil who met the criteria for crack abuse or dependence...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294965/differences-in-dietary-preferences-personality-and-mental-health-in-australian-adults-with-and-without-food-addiction
#14
Tracy Burrows, Leanne Hides, Robyn Brown, Christopher V Dayas, Frances Kay-Lambkin
Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS) 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including: demographics, dietary intake, depression, anxiety, stress and personality dimensions including impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity...
March 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289016/gambling-problems-among-patients-in-primary-care-a-cross-sectional-study-of-general-practices
#15
Sean Cowlishaw, Lone Gale, Alison Gregory, Jim McCambridge, David Kessler
BACKGROUND: Primary care is an important context for addressing health-related behaviours, and may provide a setting for identification of gambling problems. AIM: To indicate the extent of gambling problems among patients attending general practices, and explore settings or patient groups that experience heightened vulnerability. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study of patients attending 11 general practices in Bristol, South West England...
March 13, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285326/endogenous-opioid-system-a-promising-target-for-future-smoking-cessation-medications
#16
REVIEW
Haval Norman, Manoranjan S D'Souza
BACKGROUND: Nicotine addiction continues to be a health challenge across the world. Despite several approved medications, smokers continue to relapse. Several human and animal studies have evaluated the role of the endogenous opioid system as a potential target for smoking cessation medications. METHODS: In this review, studies that have elucidated the role of the mu (MORs), delta (DORs), and kappa (KORs) opioid receptors in nicotine reward, nicotine withdrawal, and reinstatement of nicotine seeking will be discussed...
March 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284355/tlr4-gene-polymorphism-associated-with-lifetime-cigarette-smoking-in-bipolar-disorder
#17
El-Hadi Zerdazi, José Oliveira, Florence Vorspan, Meriem Bennabi, Stéphane Jamain, Bruno Etain, Marion Leboyer, Ryad Tamouza, Frank Bellivier
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with an increased risk of tobacco dependence, the leading addictive substance worldwide. Toll-like receptor 4, a sensor of pathogens and of products of cellular stress and damage, is a major innate immune molecule and logical candidate gene for tobacco dependence in BD because (i) the involvement of TLR4 molecules in several substance use disorders has been suggested, (ii) and the association between the TLR4 gene and BD. We analysed herein the potential association between six TLR4 polymorphisms and lifetime tobacco smoking in 514 BD patients...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281909/positive-association-of-personal-distress-with-testosterone-in-opiate-addicted-patients
#18
Katrin Stange, Mathias Krüger, Eva Janke, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Stefan Bleich, Thomas Hillemacher, Annemarie Heberlein
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies report that substance addictions are associated with sociocognitive impairments. Regarding opiate addicted patients, the few existing studies point to deficits regarding empathic abilities. Previous research suggests that testosterone might be a relevant biomarker of these impairments. AIMS: We aimed to investigate whether opiate addicted patients show specific impairments in emotional (empathic concern, personal distress) and cognitive empathy compared to healthy controls...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281329/addiction-an-underestimated-problem-in-psoriasis-healthcare
#19
A Zink, M Herrmann, T Fischer, F Lauffer, N Garzorz-Stark, A Böhner, C D Spinner, T Biedermann, K Eyerich
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a disease of enormous socio-economic impact. Despite approval of numerous highly efficient and costly therapies, a minor proportion of severely affected patients actually receives sufficient treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether addictions are associated with psoriasis and to develop evidence-based recommendations for dermatologists in their daily clinical practice in order to improve medical assessment of psoriasis and patients' quality of life...
March 9, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275367/ppar-%C3%AE-agonists-as-antineoplastic-agents-in-cancers-with-dysregulated-igf-axis
#20
REVIEW
Veronica Vella, Maria Luisa Nicolosi, Stefania Giuliano, Maria Bellomo, Antonino Belfiore, Roberta Malaguarnera
It is now widely accepted that insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are associated to increased cancer incidence and mortality. Moreover, cancer development and progression as well as cancer resistance to traditional anticancer therapies are often linked to a deregulation/overactivation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, which involves the autocrine/paracrine production of IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) and overexpression of their cognate receptors [IGF-I receptor, IGF-insulin receptor (IR), and IR]...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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