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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933310/socialization-alleviates-burden-of-oxidative-stress-in-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-in-morphine-addiction-period-in-male-rats
#1
Hamidreza Famitafreshi, Morteza Karimian
INTRODUCTION: Addiction is a compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. Reduction of high-risk behaviors can reduce the burden of addiction in society and can improve the overall prognosis of drug addiction. The aim of this study is to show that reduction of oxidative stress with socialization will reduce occurrence of high-risk behavior during addiction period. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: socialized, isolated, addicted socialized and addicted isolated...
September 19, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931068/erk1-2-signalling-protects-against-apoptosis-following-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-but-cannot-provide-long-term-protection-against-bax-bak-independent-cell-death
#2
Nicola J Darling, Kathryn Balmanno, Simon J Cook
Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress. Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) acts to restore protein homeostasis or, if ER stress is severe or persistent, drive apoptosis, which is thought to proceed through the cell intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway. Indeed, cells that lack the key executioner proteins BAX and BAK are protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here we show that chronic ER stress causes the progressive inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signalling pathway...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930051/addiction-and-the-role-of-circadian-genes
#3
Laura A Forde, Gursharan Kalsi
OBJECTIVE: In mammals, intimate interactions exist between the circadian system and other molecular systems, and mounting evidence is suggesting that these relationships may affect substance use disorders. Research in preclinical models supports the role of circadian genes as risk factors for addiction. Here, we explore the evidence and review human genetic studies testing the association between specific circadian genes and substance use disorders. METHOD: A literature search was conducted in PubMed for studies testing variants in eight circadian genes known to be central to the functioning of the master clock in the brain...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927388/the-suppressive-role-of-mir-542-5p-in-nsclc-the-evidence-from-clinical-data-and-in-vivo-validation-using-a-chick-chorioallantoic-membrane-model
#4
Rong-Quan He, Xiao-Jiao Li, Lu Liang, You Xie, Dian-Zhong Luo, Jie Ma, Zhi-Gang Peng, Xiao-Hua Hu, Gang Chen
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has led to the highest cancer-related mortality for decades. To enhance the efficiency of early diagnosis and therapy, more efforts are urgently needed to reveal the origins of NSCLC. In this study, we explored the effect of miR-542-5p in NSCLC with clinical samples and in vivo models and further explored the prospective function of miR-542-5p though bioinformatics methods. METHODS: A total of 125 NSCLC tissue samples were collected, and the expression of miR-542-5p was detected by qRT-PCR...
September 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921996/treatments-for-internet-gaming-disorder-and-internet-addiction-a-systematic-review
#5
Kristyn Zajac, Meredith K Ginley, Rocio Chang, Nancy M Petry
Problems related to excessive use of the Internet and video games have recently captured the interests of both researchers and clinicians. The goals of this review are to summarize the literature on treatment effectiveness for these problems and to determine whether any treatments meet the minimum requirement of an evidence-based treatment as defined by Chambless et al. (1998). Studies of treatments for Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and Internet addiction were examined separately, as past studies have linked IGD to more severe outcomes...
September 18, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921780/factors-associated-with-attrition-in-substance-using-patients-enrolled-in-an-intensive-outpatient-program
#6
James Mckowen, Nicholas Carrellas, Courtney Zulauf, Emin Nalan Ward, Ronna Fried, Timothy Wilens
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data suggest individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) have high rates of attrition from treatment and exhibit impairments on measures of executive functioning (EF). The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate if EF is associated with attrition from a 1 month intensive outpatient program (IOP) for SUD, and examine the feasibility of implementing the project. METHODS: Baseline neurocognitive functioning was assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the self-reported Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF-A) questionnaire...
September 18, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921760/genome-wide-association-study-of-a-nicotine-metabolism-biomarker-in-african-american-smokers-impact-of-chromosome-19-genetic-influences
#7
Meghan J Chenoweth, Jennifer J Ware, Andy Z X Zhu, Christopher B Cole, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Nikki Nollen, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, Neal L Benowitz, Robert A Schnoll, Larry W Hawk, Paul M Cinciripini, Tony P George, Caryn Lerman, Joanne Knight, Rachel F Tyndale
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The activity of CYP2A6, the major nicotine-inactivating enzyme, is measurable in smokers using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR; 3'hydroxycotinine/cotinine). Due to its role in nicotine clearance, the NMR is associated with smoking behaviours and response to pharmacotherapies. The NMR is highly heritable (~80%), and on average lower in African Americans (AA) versus Whites. We previously identified several reduce and loss-of-function CYP2A6 variants common in individuals of African descent...
September 16, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910215/substance-misuse-is-associated-with-increased-psychiatric-severity-among-treatment-seeking-individuals-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#8
Laura M Heath, Lise Laporte, Joel Paris, Kevin Hamdullahpur, Kathryn J Gill
Despite high prevalence rates of concurrent borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders (SUDs), little is known about the impact of substance misuse on the presentation of BPD. Sixty-five individuals with BPD were assessed at intake and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Assessment included validated instruments such as the Addiction Severity Index and the Revised Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). Over half (58.5%) of individuals entering treatment were currently misusing substances. Substance misuse was associated with more legal and employment problems, greater mood disturbance, impulsivity, and psychiatric severity, including almost all SCL-90-R subscales...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905734/swift-and-certain-proportionate-and-consistent-key-values-of-urine-drug-test-consequences-for-probationers
#9
Amy B Cadwallader
Traditionally, urine drug testing (UDT) in the correctional population (both prison and community corrections) has been infrequent, is scheduled, and has a high possibility of delayed results. Of practical relevance is that scheduled testing is ineffective for identifying drug misuse. Of ethical relevance is that consequences of positive scheduled tests can be unpredictable-in the form of overly severe punishment or a lack of treatment options-and that the scheduled testing paradigm is a poor way to change behaviors...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903322/evaluation-of-a-community-based-integrated-heroin-addiction-treatment-model-in-chinese-patients
#10
Hong-He Zhang, Lin-Xiang Tan, Wei Hao, Qi-Jian Deng
In this study, we analyzed the efficacy and feasibility of a community-based integrated heroin addiction treatment model in Chinese patients. The 210 heroin addicts belonging to six Chinese communities received an integrated biopsychosocial intervention that included pharmacological treatment, counseling and social assistance. High proportions of study participants were retained at the 12-month (91.9%; 193/210) and 24-month (88.1%; 185/210) follow-up visits. The number of morphine-positive subjects declined from 61...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899646/early-life-adversity-potentiates-expression-of-addiction-related-traits
#11
Tristan J Hynes, Catherine S Thomas, Alicia S Zumbusch, Anna Samson, Ioana Petriman, Una Mrdja, Angelique Orr, Emilie Cutts, Bruce G Ruzindana, Alimohamed Hazari, Margaret Zjadewicz, Vedran Lovic
Many individuals sporadically and circumstantially sample addictive drugs, yet few become addicted. The individual vulnerabilities underlying the development of addiction are not well understood. Correlational findings show that early life adversity is associated with a greater propensity to develop drug addiction. However, the mechanisms by which early life adversity increases addiction vulnerability are unknown. Separate lines of research have found that several traits are associated with addiction. Here, we examined the effects of early life adversity on addiction-related traits in adulthood...
September 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898485/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-dorsal-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-inhibits-medial-orbitofrontal-activity-in-smokers
#12
Xingbao Li, Gregory L Sahlem, Bashar W Badran, Lisa M McTeague, Colleen A Hanlon, Karen J Hartwell, Scott Henderson, Mark S George
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), can reduce cue-elicited craving in smokers. Currently, the mechanism of this effect is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the effect of a single treatment of rTMS on cortical and sub-cortical neural activity in non-treatment seeking nicotine-dependent participants. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover trial in which participants attended two experimental visits separated by at least 1 week...
September 12, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892721/glial-and-neuroinflammatory-targets-for-treating-substance-use-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Ryan K Bachtell, Jermaine D Jones, Keith G Heinzerling, Patrick M Beardsley, Sandra D Comer
BACKGROUND: The plenary session at the 2016 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry: Translational Research in Addiction Conference focused on glia as potential players in the development, persistence and treatment of substance use disorders. Glia partake in various functions that are important for healthy brain activity. Drugs of abuse alter glial cell activity producing several perturbations in brain function that are thought to contribute to behavioral changes associated with substance use disorders...
August 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889212/cocaine-like-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-norepinephrine-preferring-monoamine-releasers-time-course-and-interaction-studies-in-rhesus-monkeys
#14
Stephen J Kohut, David S Jacobs, Richard B Rothman, John S Partilla, Jack Bergman, Bruce E Blough
RATIONALE: The therapeutic potential of monoamine releasers with prominent dopaminergic effects is hindered by their high abuse liability. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the effects of several novel "norepinephrine (NE)-preferring" monoamine releasers relative to non-selective monoamine releasers, d-amphetamine and d-methamphetamine, in rhesus monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine. NE-preferring releasers were approximately 13-fold more potent for NE compared to dopamine release and ranged in potency for serotonin release (PAL-329 < l-methamphetamine < PAL-169)...
September 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886671/canadian-schizophrenia-guidelines-schizophrenia-and-other-psychotic-disorders-with-coexisting-substance-use-disorders
#15
David Crockford, Donald Addington
OBJECTIVE: Persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders frequently have coexisting substance use disorders that require modifications to treatment approaches for best outcomes. The objectives of this review were to identify evidence-based practices best practices that improve outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia and substance used disorders. METHOD: We reviewed guidelines that were published in the last 5 years and that included systematic reviews or meta-analyses...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885301/perceptions-of-neighborhood-mediate-the-relationship-between-ptsd-symptoms-and-coping-in-a-neighborhood-matched-substance-using-sample
#16
Sara K Hertzel, Jennifer Schroeder, Landhing M Moran, Anika A Alvanzo, William J Kowalczyk, David H Epstein, Kenzie L Preston, Karran A Phillips
OBJECTIVES: People with substance use problems living in neighborhoods with high levels of disorder are disproportionately likely to experience trauma and develop PTSD symptoms. We sought to evaluate the relationships between objective neighborhood disorder, perceptions of neighborhood, and the use of maladaptive coping behaviors among both non-substance-using and substance-using participants with and without PTSD symptoms. METHODS: Participants (255 non-drug users [NDUs], 168 marijuana and/or alcohol users [MAUs], and 273 opioid and/or stimulant users) completed the Addiction Severity Index, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, The COPE Inventory, and the Perceived Neighborhood Scale...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882695/effects-of-an-acute-therapeutic-or-rewarding-dose-of-amphetamine-on-acquisition-of-pavlovian-autoshaping-and-ventral-striatal-dopamine-signaling
#17
D R Schuweiler, J M Athens, J M Thompson, S T Vazhayil, P A Garris
Rewarding doses of amphetamine increase the amplitude, duration, and frequency of dopamine transients in the ventral striatum. Debate continues at the behavioral level about which component of reward, learning or incentive salience, is signaled by these dopamine transients and thus altered in addiction. The learning hypothesis proposes that rewarding drugs result in pathological overlearning of drug-predictive cues, while the incentive sensitization hypothesis suggests that rewarding drugs result in sensitized attribution of incentive salience to drug-predictive cues...
September 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881065/the-intergenerational-transmission-of-at-risk-problem-gambling-the-moderating-role-of-parenting-practices
#18
Nicki A Dowling, Kerrie A Shandley, Erin Oldenhof, Julia M Affleck, George J Youssef, Erica Frydenberg, Shane A Thomas, Alun C Jackson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although parenting practices are articulated as underlying mechanisms or protective factors in several theoretical models, their role in the intergenerational transmission of gambling problems has received limited research attention. This study therefore examined the degree to which parenting practices (positive parenting, parental involvement, and inconsistent discipline) moderated the intergenerational transmission of paternal and maternal problem gambling...
September 7, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880351/-refeeding-syndrome-during-alcohol-detoxification
#19
J J S Rutten, H Post, G H de Weert-van Oene, V J A Buwalda
Refeeding syndrome (RS) can occur when malnourished patients are reintroduced to carbohydrates. The symptoms are caused by a combination of electrolyte shifts and fluid retention. Symptoms are wide-ranging; some patients may suffer from harmless muscle cramps, others from more severe neurological and cardiological symptoms that can even lead to death. Although alcohol dependence is a risk factor for the development of RS, little attention is being given to this problem in addiction treatment. In this article we report a case of RS that occurred during alcohol detoxification...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877410/neural-correlates-of-tobacco-cue-reactivity-predict-duration-to-lapse-and-continuous-abstinence-in-smoking-cessation-treatment
#20
Max M Owens, James MacKillop, Joshua C Gray, Steven R H Beach, Michael D Stein, Raymond S Niaura, Lawrence H Sweet
It has been hypothesized that neural reactivity to drug cues in certain limbic/paralimbic regions of the brain is an indicator of addiction severity and a marker for likelihood of success in treatment. To address this question, in the current study, 32 participants (44 percent female) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging cigarette cue exposure paradigm 2 hours after smoking, and then enrolled in a 9-week smoking cessation treatment program. Neural activation to smoking cues was measured in five a priori defined limbic/paralimbic regions previously implicated with cue reactivity across substances...
September 6, 2017: Addiction Biology
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