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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912893/-perioperative-therapies-in-surgical-non-n2%C3%A2-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Anne-Marie Ruppert, Armelle Lavolé, Jalal Assouad, Jacques Cadranel, Marie Wislez
Platinum-based perioperative chemotherapy is actually the standard of care in stage II-IIIa non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A benefit may also be seen in stage IB NSCLC with tumors of more than 4cm of diameter. Perioperative chemotherapy improves 5-year survival of 4 to 15%. This benefit is mainly proved by postoperative chemotherapy trials. Nevertheless, preoperative chemotherapy has advantages: a better tolerance, an estimation of tumor chemosensibility, without an increased postoperative morbimortality...
November 29, 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910884/the-hha-tomb-toxin-antitoxin-system-shows-conditional-toxicity-and-promotes-persister-cell-formation-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-like-death-in-s-typhimurium
#2
Sangeeta Jaiswal, Prajita Paul, Chandrashekhar Padhi, Shilpa Ray, Daniel Ryan, Shantoshini Dash, Mrutyunjay Suar
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are two component "addictive" genetic elements found on either plasmid or bacterial chromosome, sometimes on both. TA systems perform a wide range of functions like biofilm formation, persistence, programmed cell death, phage abortive infection etc. Salmonella has been reported to contain several such TA systems. However, the hemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) and its adjacent uncharacterized hypothetical protein TomB (previously known as YbaJ), have not been listed as a TA module in Salmonella...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909591/mobbing-exposure-of-anaesthesiology-residents-in-turkey
#3
Gülnihal Aykut, Esra Mercanoğlu Efe, Selcan Bayraktar, Sinem Şentürk, İrem Başeğmez, Özlem Özkumit, Elmas Kabak, Belgin Yavaşçaoğlu, Hülya Bilgin
OBJECTIVE: In recent years, psychological problems that are caused by working conditions, like burn out syndrome, are more commonly observed. In our study, we aimed to evaluate mobbing exposure, factors causing mobbing and precautions for mobbing in residency students who are educated in anaesthesiology and reanimation clinics in Turkey. METHODS: After obtaining consent from the ethics committee, we sent our questionnaires to the secretariats of the departments by postal mail...
August 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907848/fatal-and-non-fatal-overdose-after-narcology-hospital-discharge-among-russians-living-with-hiv-aids-who-inject-drugs
#4
Alexander Y Walley, Debbie M Cheng, Emily K Quinn, Elena Blokhina, Natalia Gnatienko, Christine E Chaisson, Evgeny Krupitsky, Philip O Coffin, Jeffrey H Samet
OBJECTIVES: Among Russians living with HIV/AIDS who inject drugs, we examined the incidence of fatal and non-fatal overdoses following discharge from a narcology hospital and the associations with more advanced HIV infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of data collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months from HIV-infected patients with a history of injection drug use who were not treated with anti-retroviral therapy. Participants were recruited between 2012-2014 from a narcology (addiction) hospital in St...
November 28, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907134/reward-contingencies-improve-goal-directed-behavior-by-enhancing-posterior-brain-attentional-regions-and-increasing-corticostriatal-connectivity-in-cocaine-addicts
#5
Patricia Rosell-Negre, Juan-Carlos Bustamante, Paola Fuentes-Claramonte, Víctor Costumero, Juan-José Llopis-Llacer, Alfonso Barrós-Loscertales
The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user's loss of control over his/her drug intake...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907082/gender-differences-in-compulsive-buying-disorder-assessment-of-demographic-and-psychiatric-co-morbidities
#6
Cristiana Nicoli de Mattos, Hyoun S Kim, Marinalva G Requião, Renata F Marasaldi, Tatiana Z Filomensky, David C Hodgins, Hermano Tavares
Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903793/the-serotonin-5-ht2c-receptor-and-the-non-addictive-nature-of-classic-hallucinogens
#7
REVIEW
Clinton E Canal, Kevin S Murnane
Classic hallucinogens share pharmacology as serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptor agonists. Unique among most other Schedule 1 drugs, they are generally non-addictive and can be effective tools in the treatment of addiction. Mechanisms underlying these attributes are largely unknown. However, many preclinical studies show that 5-HT2C agonists counteract the addictive effects of drugs from several classes, suggesting this pharmacological property of classic hallucinogens may be significant. Drawing from a comprehensive analysis of preclinical behavior, neuroanatomy, and neurochemistry studies, this review builds rationale for this hypothesis, and also proposes a testable, neurobiological framework...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894158/craving-behavioral-intervention-for-internet-gaming-disorder-remediation-of-functional-connectivity-of-the-ventral-striatum
#8
Jin-Tao Zhang, Shan-Shan Ma, Chiang-Shan R Li, Lu Liu, Cui-Cui Xia, Jing Lan, Ling-Jiao Wang, Ben Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, Xiao-Yi Fang
Psychobehavioral intervention is an effective treatment of Internet addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, the neural mechanisms underlying its efficacy remain unclear. Cortical-ventral striatum (VS) circuitry is a common target of psychobehavioral interventions in drug addiction, and cortical-VS dysfunction has been reported in IGD; hence, the primary aim of the study was to investigate how the VS circuitry responds to psychobehavioral interventions in IGD. In a cross-sectional study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity of the VS in 74 IGD subjects (IGDs) and 41 healthy controls (HCs)...
November 28, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893213/reliability-and-validity-of-data-obtained-from-alcohol-cannabis-and-gambling-populations-on-amazon-s-mechanical-turk
#9
Hyoun S Kim, David C Hodgins
Researchers recently have begun using Mechanical Turk (MTurk), an online crowdsourcing platform, to recruit addiction populations. However, whether the data obtained from substance users and gamblers on MTurk are reliable and valid is unknown. Herein, we assessed the internal and retest reliability of and concurrent and convergent validity of data obtained from addiction populations on MTurk. Current drinkers (N = 208), cannabis users (N = 200), and gamblers (N = 200) residing in the United States completed measures of alcohol, cannabis, and gambling severity, psychological constructs (e...
November 28, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891077/presynaptic-g-protein-coupled-receptors-gatekeepers-of-addiction
#10
REVIEW
Kari A Johnson, David M Lovinger
Drug abuse and addiction cause widespread social and public health problems, and the neurobiology underlying drug actions and drug use and abuse is an area of intensive research. Drugs of abuse alter synaptic transmission, and these actions contribute to acute intoxication as well as the chronic effects of abused substances. Transmission at most mammalian synapses involves neurotransmitter activation of two receptor subtypes, ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast synaptic responses and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have slower neuromodulatory actions...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890469/methamphetamine-addiction-vulnerability-the-glutamate-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#11
Karen K Szumlinski, Kevin D Lominac, Rianne R Campbell, Matan Cohen, Elissa K Fultz, Chelsea N Brown, Bailey W Miller, Sema G Quadir, Douglas Martin, Andrew B Thompson, Georg von Jonquieres, Matthias Klugmann, Tamara J Phillips, Tod E Kippin
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence and severity of methamphetamine (MA) abuse demands greater neurobiological understanding of its etiology. METHODS: We conducted immunoblotting and in vivo microdialysis procedures in MA high/low drinking mice, as well as in isogenic C57BL/6J mice that varied in their MA preference/taking, to examine the glutamate underpinnings of MA abuse vulnerability. Neuropharmacological and Homer2 knockdown approaches were also used in C57BL/6J mice to confirm the role for nucleus accumbens (NAC) glutamate/Homer2 expression in MA preference/aversion...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890441/the-ability-for-cocaine-and-cocaine-associated-cues-to-compete-for-attention
#12
Kyle K Pitchers, Taylor R Wood, Cari J Skrzynski, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
In humans, reward cues, including drug cues in addicts, are especially effective in biasing attention towards them, so much so they can disrupt ongoing task performance. It is not known, however, whether this happens in rats. To address this question, we developed a behavioral paradigm to assess the capacity of an auditory drug (cocaine) cue to evoke cocaine-seeking behavior, thus distracting thirsty rats from performing a well-learned sustained attention task (SAT) to obtain a water reward. First, it was determined that an auditory cocaine cue (tone-CS) reinstated drug-seeking equally in sign-trackers (STs) and goal-trackers (GTs), which otherwise vary in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to a localizable drug cue...
November 24, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890104/an-autopsy-case-of-spontaneous-esophageal-perforation-boerhaave-syndrome
#13
Kaori Kimura-Kataoka, Junko Fujihara, Satsuki Kurata, Yoshikazu Takinami, Ken Inoue, Toshihiro Yasuda, Haruo Takeshita
A 45-year-old male, an alcohol addict with asthma, was found dead in his home, after several days of continued drinking. A forensic autopsy was performed 3days after the discovery of his death in order to specify the cause of death. A longitudinal perforation penetrating all layers of the esophagus measuring 1.8cm was present on the left wall approximately 2.0cm from the gastroesophageal junction. There were 1900mL of greenish to brownish turbid liquid in the left pleural cavity and 150mL of greenish viscous liquid in the stomach...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882210/factors-affecting-hookah-smoking-trend-in-the-society-a-review-article
#14
REVIEW
Victoria Momenabadi, Mohammad Hossein Kaveh PhD, Seyed Yaser Hashemi, Vahid Reza Borhaninejad
BACKGROUND: An increase in hookah smoking is considered to be a serious health problem in societies withdifferent cigarette smoking patterns. Thus, determinants of increase in this behavior are needed to beidentified. This study aimed to review the articles related to the causes of hookah smoking in the society. METHODS: This study reviewed the scientific references of authentic databases and journals, including Web ofScience, PubMed, Iranian Databases, Elsevier, Embase, Scopus, MEDLINE, CINAHL, CDC, and WorldHealth Organization (WHO)...
April 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881247/pain-management-in-ckd-a-guide-for-nephrology-providers
#15
Holly M Koncicki, Mark Unruh, Jane O Schell
Although pain is one of the most commonly experienced symptoms by patients with chronic kidney disease, it is under-recognized, the severity is underestimated, and the treatment is inadequate. Pain management is one of the general primary palliative care competencies for medical providers. This review provides nephrology providers with basic skills for pain management. These skills include recognition of types of pain (nociceptive and neuropathic) syndromes and appropriate history-taking skills. Through this history, providers can identify clinical circumstances in which specialist referral is beneficial, including those who are at high risk for addiction, at risk for adverse effects to medications, and those with complicated care needs such as patients with a limited prognosis...
November 20, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872099/conflicting-signals-for-cancer-treatment
#16
Pierre Sujobert, Alain Trautmann
Next-generation sequencing technologies have provided us with a precise description of the mutational burden of cancers, making it possible to identify targetable oncogene addictions. However, the emergence of resistant clones is an inevitable limitation of therapies targeting these addictions. Alternative approaches to cancer treatment are therefore required. We propose here a novel approach, based on the notion of conflicting signals and on a phenotypic description of cancer cells. "Phenotype" is an inherently complex notion that we describe in the conceptual framework of the epigenetic landscape, with a view to bridging the gap between theory and practice at the patient's bedside...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865452/cyp2a6-genetic-variation-alters-striatal-cingulate-circuits-network-hubs-and-executive-processing-in-smokers
#17
Sufang Li, Yihong Yang, Ewa Hoffmann, Rachel F Tyndale, Elliot A Stein
BACKGROUND: Variation in the CYP2A6 gene alters the rate of nicotine metabolic inactivation and is associated with smoking behaviors and cessation success rates. The underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this genetic influence are unknown. METHODS: Intrinsic functional connectivity strength, a whole-brain, data-driven, graph theory-based method, was applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 66 smokers and 92 nonsmokers. A subset of subjects (n = 23/20; smokers/nonsmokers) performed the monetary incentive delay task, probing reward anticipation, and a go/no-go task, probing response inhibition, on two occasions, in the presence and absence of a nicotine patch...
September 28, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861784/focus-on-cannabinoids-and-synthetic-cannabinoids
#18
R Le Boisselier, J Alexandre, V Lelong-Boulouard, D Debruyne
The recent emergence of a multitude of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) has generated a wealth of new information, suggesting the usefulness of state-of-the-art on lato sensu cannabinoids. By modulating a plurality of neurotransmission pathways, the endocannabinoid system is involved in many physiological processes increasingly explored. SCs desired and adverse effects are considered to be more intense than those observed with cannabis smoking, which is partly explained by the full agonist activity and higher affinity for cannabinoid receptors...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859666/effectiveness-of-atomoxetine-and-methylphenidate-for-problematic-online-gaming-in-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Jeong Ha Park, Young Sik Lee, Ji Hyun Sohn, Doug Hyun Han
OBJECTIVE: There is a high prevalence of problematic online gaming in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the current study, we compared the effectiveness of atomoxetine (ATM) and methylphenidate (MPH) on problematic online gaming in adolescents with ADHD. METHODS: We recruited 86 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD together with Internet gaming disorder. These participants were divided into two treatment groups: 44 participants were treated with MPH for 12 weeks, and 42 participants were treated with ATM for 12 weeks...
November 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855325/-not-human-dead-already-perceptions-and-experiences-of-drug-related-stigma-among-opioid-using-young-adults-from-the-former-soviet-union-living-in-the-u-s
#20
Alana Gunn, Honoria Guarino
BACKGROUND: Young people from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the U.S. are engaging in opioid and injection drug use (IDU) in substantial numbers, paralleling nationwide trends. Yet opioid-using FSU immigrants face distinctive acculturation challenges, including perceived stigmatisation as drug users within their immigrant communities, which may exacerbate the negative health and psychosocial consequences of such use. METHODS: This qualitative study draws on semi-structured interviews with 26 FSU immigrant young adults (ages 18-29) living in New York City who reported opioid use in the past month and/or were currently in treatment for opioid use disorder...
November 14, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
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