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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810812/are-perceptions-of-social-norms-regarding-peer-alcohol-and-other-drug-use-associated-with-personal-use-in-danish-adolescents
#1
Lotte Vallentin-Holbech, Birthe Marie Rasmussen, Christiane Stock
AIMS: This study aims to describe norm perceptions among Danish pupils aged 13-17 years related to the prevalence of personal lifetime use of alcohol and other drugs (AODs). Further we examined if norm perceptions were associated with personal lifetime AOD use. METHOD: The data were collected as baseline data in the trial The GOOD Life. A total of 2601 pupils from 42 public schools in the Region of Southern Denmark completed an online questionnaire measuring personal lifetime AOD use and personal approval of use...
August 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810238/long-term-weight-maintenance-strategies-are-experienced-as-a-burden-by-persons-who-have-lost-weight-compared-to-persons-with-a-lifetime-normal-stable-weight
#2
Maaike Kruseman, Noémi Schmutz, Isabelle Carrard
OBJECTIVE: To assess dietary intake, eating patterns, physical activity and eating behaviors, and to explore strategies and perceptions of the experience of weight maintenance in weight loss maintainers (weight loss maintenance (WLM) ≥ 10% weight loss maintained for ≥1 year) and in matched controls with a lifetime stable normal weight. METHODS: Volunteers (32) were recruited by a snowball procedure in this cross-sectional, mixed-methods study. Diet, physical activity, and eating behaviors were assessed with validated questionnaires...
August 16, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808115/human-papillomavirus-in-oropharyngeal-cancer-in-canada-analysis-of-5-comprehensive-cancer-centres-using-multiple-imputation
#3
Steven Habbous, Karen P Chu, Harold Lau, Melissa Schorr, Mathieos Belayneh, Michael N Ha, Scott Murray, Brian O'Sullivan, Shao Hui Huang, Stephanie Snow, Matthew Parliament, Desiree Hao, Winson Y Cheung, Wei Xu, Geoffrey Liu
BACKGROUND: The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer has risen over the past 2 decades. This rise has been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV), but information on temporal trends in incidence of HPV-associated cancers across Canada is limited. METHODS: We collected social, clinical and demographic characteristics and p16 protein status (p16-positive or p16-negative, using this immunohistochemistry variable as a surrogate marker of HPV status) for 3643 patients with oropharyngeal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 at comprehensive cancer centres in British Columbia (6 centres), Edmonton, Calgary, Toronto and Halifax...
August 14, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805924/measures-of-lamb-production-efficiency-in-a-temperate-grass-based-system-differing-in-ewe-prolificacy-potential-and-stocking-rate
#4
E Earle, T M Boland, N McHugh, P Creighton
The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of ewe prolificacy potential (PP; predicted number of lambs born ewe yr), as dictated by sire breed type, and stocking rate (SR; ewes ha) on ewe production efficiency (kg lamb live weight weaned:kg ewe live weight mated), lamb growth, lamb carcass output, and dry matter (DM; kg) and energy (UFL; unit of energy kg DM) consumption (in the form of both grazed and conserved herbage, concentrate supplementation, and total) in a temperate grass-based lamb production system...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802169/human-health-risk-assessment-on-the-consumption-of-fruits-and-vegetables-containing-residual-pesticides-a-cancer-and-non-cancer-risk-benefit-perspective
#5
Mathieu Valcke, Marie-Hélène Bourgault, Louis Rochette, Louise Normandin, Onil Samuel, Denis Belleville, Carole Blanchet, Denise Phaneuf
Pesticide residues in food is a public health concern. This study aimed to evaluate health risk and benefit associated with chronic consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) containing residual pesticides in the province of Quebec, Canada. Based on a representative sample of Quebecers (n=4727, aged 1-79) enrolled in the Canadian nutrition survey, population's mean chronic dietary exposure through consumption of F&V was evaluated for 169 different pesticide active ingredients (PAI), including 135 for which toxicological reference values (TRV) were available in the literature...
August 9, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800121/an-energy-efficient-mobile-sink-based-unequal-clustering-mechanism-for-wsns
#6
Niayesh Gharaei, Kamalrulnizam Abu Bakar, Siti Zaiton Mohd Hashim, Ali Hosseingholi Pourasl, Mohammad Siraj, Tasneem Darwish
Network lifetime and energy efficiency are crucial performance metrics used to evaluate wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Decreasing and balancing the energy consumption of nodes can be employed to increase network lifetime. In cluster-based WSNs, one objective of applying clustering is to decrease the energy consumption of the network. In fact, the clustering technique will be considered effective if the energy consumed by sensor nodes decreases after applying clustering, however, this aim will not be achieved if the cluster size is not properly chosen...
August 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777684/concussion-history-hazardous-drinking-and-brac-levels-among-a-sample-of-bar-patrons-2015
#7
Ryan J Martin, Beth H Chaney, Joseph G L Lee
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and experiencing a concussion are positively correlated. Concussion history has not been examined previously in any alcohol field study (i.e., conducted in a natural setting). OBJECTIVE: To better understand the relationship between concussion history and alcohol consumption. METHODS: We conducted two anonymous field studies among a 2015 sample of bar patrons (N = 544; 62.5% males) in a college town to assess concussion history and two alcohol consumption measures: (1) breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels and (2) hazardous drinking scores (based on the AUDIT-C)...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755560/implicit-and-explicit-drinking-identity-predict-latent-classes-that-differ-on-the-basis-of-college-students-drinking-behaviors
#8
Jason J Ramirez, Anne M Fairlie, Cecilia C Olin, Kristen P Lindgren
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify distinct classes of college students on the basis of recent and past drinking behaviors and evaluate how implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity predict membership in these classes. METHODS: US undergraduate students (N=456) completed online implicit (Implicit Association Test) and explicit (self-report) measures of drinking identity and assessments of drinking behaviors, including past month drinking, at-risk drinking in the past year, and lifetime history of intoxication...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753990/lifetime-maximization-via-hole-alleviation-in-iot-enabling-heterogeneous-wireless-sensor-networks
#9
Zahid Wadud, Nadeem Javaid, Muhammad Awais Khan, Nabil Alrajeh, Mohamad Souheil Alabed, Nadra Guizani
In Internet of Things (IoT) enabled Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), there are two major factors which degrade the performance of the network. One is the void hole which occurs in a particular region due to unavailability of forwarder nodes. The other is the presence of energy hole which occurs due to imbalanced data traffic load on intermediate nodes. Therefore, an optimum transmission strategy is required to maximize the network lifespan via hole alleviation. In this regard, we propose a heterogeneous network solution that is capable to balance energy dissipation among network nodes...
July 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752748/trends-in-lifetime-cannabis-use-among-czech-school-aged-children-from-2002-to-2014
#10
Ladislav Kážmér, Ladislav Csémy, Ingrid Ružbarská, Jan Pavelka, Zdeněk Hamřík, Michal Kalman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine trends in the prevalence of lifetime cannabis use among the Czech 15-year old students. METHODS: Data from the nationally representative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey, conducted in the Czech Republic in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014, were used. Trends in cannabis use among both boys and girls were modelled through binary logistic regression with period as a predictor of the lifetime cannabis use. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime cannabis use has significantly decreased among young Czechs, particularly among boys...
July 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752650/adolescent-alcohol-and-cannabis-use-in-iceland-1995-2015
#11
Arsaell Arnarsson, Gisli Kort Kristofersson, Thoroddur Bjarnason
INTRODUCTION: Over the past two decades, alcohol consumption of Icelandic adolescents has decreased dramatically. The aim of this study was to quantify the extent of this reduction and compare it with the trend in cannabis use over a 20 year period and to identify possible explanations. METHODS: We used data from the Icelandic participants to the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs study (collected via paper-and-pencil questionnaires in classrooms)...
July 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751259/investigation-into-the-risk-of-ultra-low-tar-cigarettes-and-lung-cancer
#12
Peter N Lee, John S Fry, Janette S Hamling
We present analyses relating cigarette type to lung cancer based on a case-control study in five European countries. The analyses involved 3561 cases and 2301 controls with diseases not associated with smoking. Subjects completed a detailed questionnaire, including a lifetime smoking history. Analyses included never smokers, and those who smoked for at least 80% of the "critical period" from 2 to 20 years before diagnosis, ignoring those who ever smoked pipes or cigars, or chewed tobacco. The main analysis compares risk in those who, in the critical period, smoked ultra-low tar (ULT) cigarettes (machine yield ≤3 mg tar/cigarette) for 8 + years, with those who only smoked full flavour (FF) cigarettes (≥10 mg tar/cigarette)...
July 25, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748930/neuromorphic-computing-with-nanoscale-spintronic-oscillators
#13
Jacob Torrejon, Mathieu Riou, Flavio Abreu Araujo, Sumito Tsunegi, Guru Khalsa, Damien Querlioz, Paolo Bortolotti, Vincent Cros, Kay Yakushiji, Akio Fukushima, Hitoshi Kubota, Shinji Yuasa, Mark D Stiles, Julie Grollier
Neurons in the brain behave as nonlinear oscillators, which develop rhythmic activity and interact to process information. Taking inspiration from this behaviour to realize high-density, low-power neuromorphic computing will require very large numbers of nanoscale nonlinear oscillators. A simple estimation indicates that to fit 10(8) oscillators organized in a two-dimensional array inside a chip the size of a thumb, the lateral dimension of each oscillator must be smaller than one micrometre. However, nanoscale devices tend to be noisy and to lack the stability that is required to process data in a reliable way...
July 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742413/association-of-current-and-lifetime-dsm-iv-drug-use-disorder-diagnoses-to-6-month-changes-in-smoking-behavior-in-risky-drinking-smokers-a-pilot-study
#14
Amy Cohn, Sarah Ehlke
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and other drug use disorders co-occur with cigarette smoking and negatively impact cessation outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the differential effects of current and lifetime DSM-IV drug diagnoses on the 6-month smoking outcomes of 84 untreated heavy drinking smokers who were motivated to quit smoking in the next 6-months. METHODS: Generalized estimating equations (GEE) assessed changes in nicotine dependence, readiness to quit smoking, and prevalence of heavy smoking from baseline to 6-months as a function of time, baseline drinking severity, and drug diagnosis...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738807/sexual-violence-against-female-university-students-in-ethiopia
#15
Yohannes Mehretie Adinew, Mihiret Abreham Hagos
BACKGROUND: Though many women are suffering the consequences of sexual violence, only few victims speak out as it is sensitive and prone to stigma. This lack of data made it difficult to get full picture of the problem and design proper interventions. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with sexual violence among female students of Wolaita Sodo University, south Ethiopia. METHODS: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 462 regular female Wolaita Sodo University students on April 7/2015...
July 24, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719591/non-equilibrium-dissipative-supramolecular-materials-with-a-tunable-lifetime
#16
Marta Tena-Solsona, Benedikt Rieß, Raphael K Grötsch, Franziska C Löhrer, Caren Wanzke, Benjamin Käsdorf, Andreas R Bausch, Peter Müller-Buschbaum, Oliver Lieleg, Job Boekhoven
Many biological materials exist in non-equilibrium states driven by the irreversible consumption of high-energy molecules like ATP or GTP. These energy-dissipating structures are governed by kinetics and are thus endowed with unique properties including spatiotemporal control over their presence. Here we show man-made equivalents of materials driven by the consumption of high-energy molecules and explore their unique properties. A chemical reaction network converts dicarboxylates into metastable anhydrides driven by the irreversible consumption of carbodiimide fuels...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700012/amphetamine-type-stimulant-use-and-conditional-paths-of-consumption-data-from-the-second-brazilian-national-alcohol-and-drugs-survey
#17
Luciana T S Massaro, Renata R Abdalla, Ronaldo Laranjeira, Raul Caetano, Ilana Pinsky, Clarice S Madruga
Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate nationally representative prevalence rates of amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use and to identify consumption-associated factors, proposing a conditional model of direct and indirect consumption paths. Method: Using data from the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey, this cross-sectional study analyzed a subsample of 3,828 participants between 15 and 64 years old, gathering information on the use of psychoactive substances in a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian household population...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678164/a-smart-and-balanced-energy-efficient-multihop-clustering-algorithm-smart-beem-for-mimo-iot-systems-in-future-networks
#18
Lina Xu, Gregory M P O'Hare, Rem Collier
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are typically composed of thousands of sensors powered by limited energy resources. Clustering techniques were introduced to prolong network longevity offering the promise of green computing. However, most existing work fails to consider the network coverage when evaluating the lifetime of a network. We believe that balancing the energy consumption in per unit area rather than on each single sensor can provide better-balanced power usage throughout the network. Our former work-Balanced Energy-Efficiency (BEE) and its Multihop version BEEM can not only extend the network longevity, but also maintain the network coverage...
July 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677831/maternal-alcohol-consumption-and-altered-mirnas-in-the-developing-fetus-context-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Chanchal Mandal, Debasish Halder, Kyoung Hwa Jung, Young Gyu Chai
Alcohol is a teratogenic agent that can cause a wide range of developmental disorders, and sometimes, the effects persist throughout an individual's lifetime. Researchers have shown the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in alcohol-mediated disorders. Non-coding RNAs are one of the major sources of epigenetic modifications, especially microRNAs. The association of microRNAs with alcohol consumption leads to a new focus on finding the molecular mechanisms of alcohol toxicity. It has been suggested that alcohol alters the relative expression of microRNAs and regulates target mRNA expression in both in vitro and in vivo models...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671641/fuzzy-logic-based-distributed-energy-efficient-clustering-algorithm-for-wireless-sensor-networks
#20
Ying Zhang, Jun Wang, Dezhi Han, Huafeng Wu, Rundong Zhou
Due to the high-energy efficiency and scalability, the clustering routing algorithm has been widely used in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In order to gather information more efficiently, each sensor node transmits data to its Cluster Head (CH) to which it belongs, by multi-hop communication. However, the multi-hop communication in the cluster brings the problem of excessive energy consumption of the relay nodes which are closer to the CH. These nodes' energy will be consumed more quickly than the farther nodes, which brings the negative influence on load balance for the whole networks...
July 3, 2017: Sensors
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