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lifetime consumption

S Sookoian, D Flichman, G O Castaño, C J Pirola
BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological studies suggest that patients diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who drink light to moderate amounts of alcohol (up to ~30 g per day) have less severe histological lesions compared with nondrinkers. However, while the cross-sectional nature of current evidence precludes assessment of causality, cumulative lifetime-exposure of moderate alcohol consumption on histological outcomes has never been evaluated. AIM: To overcome these limitations, a Mendelian randomisation study was performed using a validated genetic variant (rs1229984 A;G) in the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B) gene as a proxy of long-term alcohol exposure...
October 24, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Sabine Peters, Jiska S Peper, Anna C K Van Duijvenvoorde, Barbara R Braams, Eveline A Crone
This study tested the relation between cortical-subcortical functional connectivity and alcohol consumption in adolescents using an accelerated longitudinal design, as well as normative developmental patterns for these measures. Participants between ages 8 and 27 completed resting-state neuroimaging scans at two time points separated by two years (N = 274 at T1, N = 231 at T2). In addition, participants between ages 12 and 27 reported on recent and lifetime alcohol use (N = 193 at T1, N = 244 at T2)...
October 23, 2016: Developmental Science
Sava Sakadžić, Mohammad A Yaseen, Rajeshwer Jaswal, Emmanuel Roussakis, Anders M Dale, Richard B Buxton, Sergei A Vinogradov, David A Boas, Anna Devor
The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]) is an essential parameter for evaluating brain function and pathophysiology. However, the currently available approaches for quantifying [Formula: see text] rely on complex multimodal imaging and mathematical modeling. Here, we introduce a method that allows estimation of [Formula: see text] based on a single measurement modality-two-photon imaging of the partial pressure of oxygen ([Formula: see text]) in cortical tissue. We employed two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) and the oxygen-sensitive nanoprobe PtP-C343 to map the tissue [Formula: see text] distribution around cortical penetrating arterioles...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
Rosemary Fama, Edith V Sullivan, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Natalie M Zahr
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning and episodic memory impairment occur in HIV infection (HIV) and chronic alcoholism (ALC). Comorbidity of these conditions (HIV + ALC) is prevalent and heightens risk of vulnerability to separate and compounded deficits. Age and disease-related variables can also serve as mediators of cognitive impairment and should be considered, given the extended longevity of HIV-infected individuals in this era of improved pharmacological therapy. METHODS: HIV, ALC, HIV + ALC, and normal controls (NC) were administered traditional and computerized tests of executive function and episodic memory...
October 19, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Dirk De Ridder, Sook Ling Leong, Patrick Manning, Sven Vanneste, Paul Glue
BACKGROUND: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a brain disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 2.3%, causing severe functional impairment as a result of anxiety and distress, persistent and repetitive, unwanted, intrusive thoughts (obsessions), and repetitive ritualized behavior (compulsions). Approximately 40-60% of patients with OCD fail to satisfactorily respond to standard treatments. Intractable OCD has been treated by anterior capsulotomy and cingulotomy, but more recently neurostimulation approaches have become more popular due to their reversibility...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Karl Erik Lund, Tord Finne Vedøy, Linda Bauld
AIMS: To examine how the relative size of six groups of male ever snus users (current and former users of snus who were current, former or never cigarette smokers) varied over time in Norway, and how these groups differ with regards to important measures of tobacco behaviour. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional nationally representative surveys of tobacco use. The association between survey year and the six categories of ever snus use was examined using cross tabulation and multinomial logistic regression...
October 14, 2016: Addiction
Keeve E Nachman, David C Love, Patrick A Baron, Anne E Nigra, Manuela Murko, Georg Raber, Kevin A Francesconi, Ana Navas-Acien
BACKGROUND: Use of nitarsone, an arsenic-based poultry drug, may result in dietary exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) and other arsenic species. Nitarsone was withdrawn from the US market in 2015, but use in other countries may continue. OBJECTIVES: Characterize the impact of nitarsone use on arsenic species in turkey meat and arsenic exposures among turkey consumers, and estimate cancer risk increases from consuming turkey treated with nitarsone prior to its 2015 US withdrawal...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Kai Liu, Shan Wu, Bo Huang, Feng Liu, Zhen Xu
In wireless sensor networks, in order to satisfy the requirement of long working time of energy-limited nodes, we need to design an energy-efficient and lifetime-extended medium access control (MAC) protocol. In this paper, a node cooperation mechanism that one or multiple nodes with higher channel gain and sufficient residual energy help a sender relay its data packets to its recipient is employed to achieve this objective. We first propose a transmission power optimization algorithm to prolong network lifetime by optimizing the transmission powers of the sender and its cooperative nodes to maximize their minimum residual energy after their data packet transmissions...
October 1, 2016: Sensors
Varun K Kasaraneni, Vinka Oyanedel-Craver
Exposure to high concentrations of carcinogenic pollutants in soils and sediments can result in increased health risks. Determining the levels and sources of contamination in developing communities is important for helping to reduce pollution and mitigate the risk of exposure. In the Mayan community of San Mateo Ixtatán, Guatemala, 24 samples of topsoil from urban, peri-urban, and agricultural sites and six samples of river sediment were collected and analyzed for 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Jinsong Gui, Kai Zhou, Naixue Xiong
Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) can improve wireless network performance. Sensors are usually single-antenna devices due to the high hardware complexity and cost, so several sensors are used to form virtual MIMO array, which is a desirable approach to efficiently take advantage of MIMO gains. Also, in large Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), clustering can improve the network scalability, which is an effective topology control approach. The existing virtual MIMO-based clustering schemes do not either fully explore the benefits of MIMO or adaptively determine the clustering ranges...
2016: Sensors
Cristiana Catena, GianLuca Colussi, Nicolas D Verheyen, Marileda Novello, Valentina Fagotto, Giorgio Soardo, Leonardo A Sechi
Ethanol consumption is associated with left ventricular dysfunction in heavy ethanol drinkers. The effect of moderate ethanol intake on left ventricular function in hypertension, however, is unknown. We investigated the relationship between ethanol consumption and cardiac changes in nonalcoholic hypertensive patients. In 335 patients with primary hypertension, we assessed daily ethanol consumption by questionnaires that combined evaluation of recent and lifetime ethanol exposure and examined cardiac structure and function by echocardiography...
November 2016: Hypertension
Claire Demoury, Pierre Karakiewicz, Marie-Elise Parent
BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake may increase the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Many previous studies harbored important methodological limitations. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of PCa comprising 1933 cases and 1994 controls in Montreal, Canada. Lifetime alcohol consumption was elicited, by type of beverage, during in-person interviews. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) assessed the association between alcohol intake and PCa risk, adjusting for potential confounders and considering the subjects' PCa screening history...
September 21, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Corinde E Wiers, Thomas E Gladwin, Vera U Ludwig, Sonja Gröpper, Heiner Stuke, Christiane K Gawron, Reinout W Wiers, Henrik Walter, Felix Bermpohl
AIMS: There is accumulating evidence that automatic processes play a large role in alcohol dependence, which may be related to alcohol craving and consumption. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cognitive biases in alcohol-dependent patients, and how these measures relate to drinking behavior. METHODS: Thirty alcohol-dependent patients and 15 healthy controls (matched for age, intelligence and education; all male) completed three cognitive bias tasks: the Implicit Association Test (IAT: alcohol-approach association), Approach Avoidance Task (AAT: alcohol approach bias) and Dot Probe Task (DPT: alcohol attentional bias)...
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Hannes Hagström, Patrik Nasr, Mattias Ekstedt, Stergios Kechagias, Kristina Önnerhag, Emma Nilsson, Fredrik Rorsman, Reza Sheikhi, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Rolf Hultcrantz, Per Stål
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with a lower risk of disease severity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is unclear if this reflects current or lifetime drinking, or can be attributed to confounders such as diet and exercise. We evaluated the impact of lifetime alcohol consumption on fibrosis severity in NAFLD. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 120 subjects with biopsy-proven NAFLD and through detailed questionnaires examined lifetime alcohol consumption, diet and physical activity...
October 6, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Yang Yang, Michael R Hoffmann
Efficient, inexpensive, and stable electrode materials are key components of commercially viable electrochemical wastewater treatment system. In this study, blue-black TiO2 nanotube array (BNTA) electrodes are prepared by electrochemical self-doping. The 1-D structure, donor state density, and Fermi energy level position are critical for maintaining the semimetallic functionality of the BNTA. The structural strength of the BNTA is enhanced by surface crack minimization, reinforcement of the BNTA-Ti metal interface, and stabilized by a protective overcoating with nanoparticulate TiO2 (Ti/EBNTA)...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Lucia Maria Lotrean, Edna Arillo Santillan, James Thrasher, Valeria Laza
AIM: The present study investigates the evolution of illicit drug use among Romanian university students from 1999 to 2011. METHODS: The study was performed in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in three phases: in 1999 (T1), in 2003 (T2) and in 2011 (T3). The study was carried out by means of anonymous questionnaires among university students aged 19-24. RESULTS: The results show that among girls the lifetime illicit drugs use increased statistically significantly from 2...
March 2016: Zdravstveno Varstvo
Prabakaran Saravanan, Roman Selyanchyn, Hiroyoshi Tanaka, Durgesh Darekar, Aleksandar Staykov, Shigenori Fujikawa, Stephen Matthew Lyth, Joichi Sugimura
Friction and wear decrease the efficiency and lifetimes of mechanical devices. Solving this problem will potentially lead to a significant reduction in global energy consumption. We show that multilayer polyethylenimine/graphene oxide thin films, prepared via a highly scalable layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique, can be used as solid lubricants. The tribological properties are investigated in air, under vacuum, in hydrogen, and in nitrogen gas environments. In all cases the coefficient of friction (COF) significantly decreased after application of the coating, and the wear life was enhanced by increasing the film thickness...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ronit Avitsur
Stress during pregnancy is associated with lifetime negative consequences for the offspring. The present study examined the effects of prenatal stress on symptoms of illness following an immune challenge in mice. Additionally, this study examined whether pretreatment with fluoxetine (FLX) could prevent the effects of maternal stress on illness symptoms. Mice prenatally exposed to stress, with or without FLX were administered with saline or endotoxin. In males, prenatal stress significantly augmented endotoxin-induced body-weight loss and reduced food consumption; prenatal FLX did not prevent these responses, and, in many cases, augmented them...
September 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Erin C Berenz, Roxann Roberson-Nay, Shawn J Latendresse, Briana Mezuk, Charles O Gardner, Ananda B Amstadter, Timothy P York
Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) frequently co-occur; however, epidemiologic studies of temporal associations between PTSD and AD are limited. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the bidirectional associations between PTSD and AD and (b) to examine demographic and clinical correlates of order-of-onset among individuals with PTSD and AD. Method: Participants were 11,103 adults (60.6% women; Mage = 48.7 years, SD = 15.9) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions who endorsed lifetime alcohol consumption and DSM-IV PTSD Criterion A trauma exposure (American Psychiatric Association, 2000)...
September 12, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
T Baška, A Madarasová-Gecková, M Bašková, A Krajčovič
OBJECTIVES: To analyze selected indicators of alcohol use (lifetime use, initiation of drinking at ≤13 years of age, weekly use, beverage preferences, initiation of drunkenness at ≤13 years of age and lifetime drunkenness) in adolescents in Slovakia from 2006 to 2014. STUDY DESIGN: The Health Behaviour in School Aged Children (HBSC) study is a cross-sectional questionnaire study. METHODS: A standardized uniform questionnaire was used in representative samples of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old adolescents...
October 2016: Public Health
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