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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906063/characterization-of-a-multiprotein-complex-involved-in-excitation-transcription-coupling-of-skeletal-muscle
#1
Manuel Arias-Calderón, Gonzalo Almarza, Alexis Díaz-Vegas, Ariel Contreras-Ferrat, Denisse Valladares, Mariana Casas, Héctor Toledo, Enrique Jaimovich, Sonja Buvinic
BACKGROUND: Electrical activity regulates the expression of skeletal muscle genes by a process known as "excitation-transcription" (E-T) coupling. We have demonstrated that release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) during depolarization activates membrane P2X/P2Y receptors, being the fundamental mediators between electrical stimulation, slow intracellular calcium transients, and gene expression. We propose that this signaling pathway would require the proper coordination between the voltage sensor (dihydropyridine receptor, DHPR), pannexin 1 channels (Panx1, ATP release conduit), nucleotide receptors, and other signaling molecules...
April 11, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905491/changes-in-urinary-metabolomic-profile-during-relapsing-renal-vasculitis
#2
Bahjat Al-Ani, Martin Fitzpatrick, Hamad Al-Nuaimi, Alice M Coughlan, Fionnuala B Hickey, Charles D Pusey, Caroline Savage, Christopher M Benton, Eóin C O'Brien, Declan O'Toole, Ken H Mok, Stephen P Young, Mark A Little
Current biomarkers of renal disease in systemic vasculitis lack predictive value and are insensitive to early damage. To identify novel biomarkers of renal vasculitis flare, we analysed the longitudinal urinary metabolomic profile of a rat model of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) vasculitis. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were immunised with human myeloperoxidase (MPO). Urine was obtained at regular intervals for 181 days, after which relapse was induced by re-challenge with MPO. Urinary metabolites were assessed in an unbiased fashion using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and analysed using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and partial least squares regression (PLS-R)...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905024/potential-anti-genotoxic-effect-of-sodium-butyrate-to-modulate-induction-of-dna-damage-by-tamoxifen-citrate-in-rat-bone-marrow-cells
#3
Haidan M El-Shorbagy
Sodium butyrate (SB) is one of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi's) that is recently evidenced to have a prooxidant activity and an ability to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage. Since the majority of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients are treated with tamoxifen citrate (TC), which exerts well established oxidative and genotoxic effects, thus the basic objective of this study is to determine whether SB could ameliorate or curate tamoxifen citrate-induced oxidative DNA damage and genotoxic effect in vivo through up-regulation of some antioxidant enzymes...
November 30, 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904030/formulation-optimization-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-orally-disintegrating-films-using-a-factorial-design-and-mathematical-modeling-for-drug-release
#4
Yeongbin Lee, Prakash Thapa, Seong Hoon Jeong, Mi Hee Woo, Du Hyung Choi
Even though experimental designs are becoming popular especially for conventional dosage forms, limited studies have been performed to optimize formulations of orally disintegrating films (ODFs). This study aimed to evaluate sildenafil citrate-loaded ODFs for a controlled release with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as a film-forming polymer. A factorial design was utilized for optimization with three control factors: ethanol ratio, plasticizer ratio, and the type of plasticizer. Tensile strength, disintegration time, water contact angle, and thickness were chosen as responses...
November 30, 2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901553/a-prediction-and-simulation-model-for-target-oriented-regional-citrate-calcium-anticoagulation-in-extracorporeal-blood-purification
#5
Martin Brandl, Karlheinz Kellner
AIMS: Regional citrate-calcium anticoagulation is becoming more and more attractive for extracorporeal treatments in the clinical routine. METHODS: A prediction and simulation tool for the safe application of RCA during extracorporeal treatments was introduced. The model predicts the course of the ionized calcium level in the patient and the current anticoagulation status in the extracorporeal circuit based on the actual settings of the dialysis machine. RESULTS: The simulation tool delivers areas in which the blood and dialysate flow can be adjusted to reach the desired target values for RCA and predicts the time course of several parameters during treatment...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901390/effects-of-various-antiplatelet-drugs-on-ex-vivo-platelet-activation-induced-by-equine-herpesvirus-type-1
#6
Daniela Hernandez, Wee Ming Yeo, Marjory B Brooks, Sally L Ness, Thomas J Divers, Tracy Stokol
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of treatment of horses with standard platelet inhibitors on ex vivo inhibition of platelet activation by equine herpesvirus type I (EHV-I). ANIMALS II healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study, horses were treated orally for 5 days with theophylline (5 mg/kg, q 12 h), pentoxifylline (10 mg/kg, q 12 h), clopidogrel bisulfate (4 mg/kg, q 24 h), acetylsalicylic acid (20 mg/kg, q 24 h), or placebo. Horses received all treatments, each separated by a 3-week washout period...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900407/do-inhibitors-of-crystallisation-play-any-role-in-the-prevention-of-kidney-stones-a-critique
#7
REVIEW
William G Robertson
A critical examination of data in the literature and in as yet unpublished laboratory records on the possible role of so-called inhibitors of crystallisation in preventing the formation of calcium-containing kidney stones leads to the following conclusions. So-called inhibitors of spontaneous "self-nucleation" are unlikely to play any role in the initiation of the crystallisation of CaOx or CaP in urine because excessive urinary supersaturation of urine with respect to these salts dominates the onset of "self-nucleation" within the normal time frame of the transit of tubular fluid through the nephron (3-4 min)...
November 29, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898902/effect-of-ferric-ammonium-citrate-in-feedlot-diets-with-varying-dried-distillers-grains-inclusion-on-ruminal-hydrogen-sulfide-concentrations-and-steer-growth
#8
D J Pogge, M E Drewnoski, D Snider, W K Rumbeiha, S L Hansen
Angus-cross steers ( = 128) were used to examine the effects of supplementing ferric ammonium citrate (FAC; 300 mg ferric Fe/kg DM) to diets of 20, 40, or 60% dried distillers' grains plus solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, liver mineral and ruminal hydrogen sulfide (HS) concentrations, and carcass traits of finishing steers. Steers were blocked by initial BW (436 ± 10.6 kg) into pens of 4 and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments ( = 5 or 6 pens per treatment) including a 20, 40, or 60% DDGS inclusion diet with (+) or without (-) 300 mg Fe/kg DM from FAC...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896614/modulatory-effects-of-zn-2-ions-on-the-toxicity-of-citrate-and-pvp-capped-gold-nanoparticles-towards-freshwater-algae-scenedesmus-obliquus
#9
V Iswarya, J B Johnson, Abhinav Parashar, Mrudula Pulimi, N Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mukherjee
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are widely used for medical purposes, both in diagnostics as well as drug delivery, and hence are prone to release and distribution in the environment. Thus, we have explored the effects of GNPs with two distinct surface capping (citrate and PVP), and three different sizes (16, 27, and 37 nm) at 0.01-, 0.1-, and 1-mg L(-1) concentrations on a predominant freshwater alga Scenedesmus obliquus in the sterile freshwater matrix. We have also investigated how an abundant metal ion from freshwater, i...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896442/regional-citrate-anticoagulation-for-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-in-children
#10
Mayerly Prada Rico, Jaime Fernández Sarmiento, Ana María Rojas Velasquez, Luz Stella González Chaparro, Ricardo Gastelbondo Amaya, Hernando Mulett Hoyos, Daniel Tibaduiza, Ana Maria Quintero Gómez
BACKGROUND: Anticoagulation of the continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) circuit is an important technical aspect of this medical procedure. Most studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of citrate use have been carried out in adults, and little evidence is available for the pediatric patient population. The aim of this study was to compare regional citrate anticoagulation versus systemic heparin anticoagulation in terms of the lifetime of hemofilters in a pediatric population receiving CRRT at a pediatric center in Bogota, Colombia...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894844/the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-activity-in-cultured-primary-astrocytes-is-strongly-accelerated-by-the-protein-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-tyrphostin-23
#11
Michaela C Hohnholt, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Helle S Waagepetersen, Ralf Dringen
Tyrphostin 23 (T23) is a well-known inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases and has been considered as potential anti-cancer drug. T23 was recently reported to acutely stimulate the glycolytic flux in primary cultured astrocytes. To investigate whether T23 also affects the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, we incubated primary rat astrocyte cultures with [U-(13)C]glucose in the absence or the presence of 100 μM T23 for 2 h and analyzed the (13)C metabolite pattern. These incubation conditions did not compromise cell viability and confirmed that the presence of T23 doubled glycolytic lactate production...
November 25, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894254/divergent-selection-induced-obesity-alters-the-composition-and-functional-pathways-of-chicken-gut-microbiota
#12
Jinmei Ding, Lele Zhao, Lifeng Wang, Wenjing Zhao, Zhengxiao Zhai, Li Leng, Yuxiang Wang, Chuan He, Yan Zhang, Heping Zhang, Hui Li, He Meng
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal tract is populated by a complex and vast microbial network, with a composition that reflects the relationships of the symbiosis, co-metabolism, and co-evolution of these microorganisms with their host. The mechanism that underlies such interactions between the genetics of the host and gut microbiota remains elusive. RESULTS: To understand how genetic variation of the host shapes the gut microbiota and interacts with it to affect the metabolic phenotype of the host, we compared the abundance of microbial taxa and their functional performance between two lines of chickens (fat and lean) that had undergone long-term divergent selection for abdominal fat pad weight, which resulted in a 4...
November 28, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894093/new-use-of-an-old-drug-inhibition-of-breast-cancer-stem-cells-by-benztropine-mesylate
#13
Jihong Cui, Maija Hollmén, Lina Li, Yong Chen, Steven T Proulx, Daniel Reker, Gisbert Schneider, Michael Detmar
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play major roles in cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence and therapeutic resistance. Targeting CSCs represents a promising strategy for cancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify selective inhibitors of breast CSCs (BCSCs). We carried out a cell-based phenotypic screening with cell viability as a primary endpoint, using a collection of 2,546 FDA-approved drugs and drug-like molecules in spheres formed by malignant human breast gland-derived cells (HMLER-shEcad cells, representing BCSCs) and control immortalized non-tumorigenic human mammary cells (HMLE cells, representing normal stem cells)...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894021/toxicity-of-silver-ions-and-differently-coated-silver-nanoparticles-in-allium-cepa-roots
#14
Petra Cvjetko, Anita Milošić, Ana-Marija Domijan, Ivana Vinković Vrček, Sonja Tolić, Petra Peharec Štefanić, Ilse Letofsky-Papst, Mirta Tkalec, Biljana Balen
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the dominating nanomaterial in consumer products due to their well-known antibacterial and antifungal properties. To enhance their properties, different surface coatings may be used, which affect physico-chemical properties of AgNPs. Due to their wide application, there has been concern about possible environmental and health consequences. Since plants play a significant role in accumulation and biodistribution of many environmentally released substances, they are also very likely to be influenced by AgNPs...
November 25, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893618/early-resuscitation-with-lyophilized-plasma-provides-equal-neuroprotection-compared-with-fresh-frozen-plasma-in-a-large-animal-survival-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#15
Ihab Halaweish, Ted Bambakidis, Vahagn C Nikolian, Patrick Georgoff, Peter Bruhn, Patryk Piascik, Lisa Buckley, Ashok Srinivasan, Baoling Liu, Yongqing Li, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: Combined traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) is highly lethal. In previous models of combined TBI + HS, we showed that early resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) improves neurologic outcomes. Delivering FFP, however, in austere environments is difficult. Lyophilized plasma (LP) is a logistically superior alternative to FFP, but data are limited regarding its efficacy for treatment of TBI. We conducted this study to determine the safety and long-term outcomes of early treatment with LP in a large animal model of TBI + HS...
December 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893419/silver-nanoparticles-enhance-the-sensitivity-of-temozolomide-on-human-glioma-cells
#16
Ping Liang, Hongming Shi, Weiguo Zhu, Qunfeng Gui, Ya Xu, Jianfeng Meng, Xiaoyuan Guo, Zhuang Gong, Huaqun Chen
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) continues to be associated with a dismal prognosis despite aggressive treatment. Significant efforts are being made to develop new nanotechnology-based therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Nanoparticles can act directly on cancer cells or as drug carriers to enhance the cancer therapeutic effect. In this study, we investigated the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on human glioma U251 cells and its role in the combinational use with Temozolomide (TMZ), an imidazotetrazine derivative of the alkylating agent dacarbazine, against glioma cells...
November 22, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892864/influence-of-a-low-dosage-of-clopidogrel-on-platelet-function-in-cats-as-measured-by-the-platelet-function-analyser-pfa-100-and-the-multiplate-analyser
#17
M Teuber, R Mischke
The antiplatelet drug clopidogrel is widely used for prophylaxis of arterial thromboses in cats in a standard dosage of 18.75mg per cat once daily. The aim of the study was to verify if a reduced daily dose of 10mg clopidogrel per cat has a similar antiplatelet effect as the standard dosage. Platelet function was measured with the platelet function analyser PFA-100(®) and a novel impedance aggregometer. Suitability of the platelet function analyser was tested in citrated blood samples of 59 healthy cats and reference ranges were established...
September 17, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892461/liver-specific-atp-citrate-lyase-inhibition-by-bempedoic-acid-decreases-ldl-c-and-attenuates-atherosclerosis
#18
Stephen L Pinkosky, Roger S Newton, Emily A Day, Rebecca J Ford, Sarka Lhotak, Richard C Austin, Carolyn M Birch, Brennan K Smith, Sergey Filippov, Pieter H E Groot, Gregory R Steinberg, Narendra D Lalwani
Despite widespread use of statins to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and associated atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk, many patients do not achieve sufficient LDL-C lowering due to muscle-related side effects, indicating novel treatment strategies are required. Bempedoic acid (ETC-1002) is a small molecule intended to lower LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic patients, and has been previously shown to modulate both ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in rodents...
November 28, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892457/amplification-of-usp13-drives-ovarian-cancer-metabolism
#19
Cecil Han, Lifeng Yang, Hyun Ho Choi, Joelle Baddour, Abhinav Achreja, Yunhua Liu, Yujing Li, Jiada Li, Guohui Wan, Cheng Huang, Guang Ji, Xinna Zhang, Deepak Nagrath, Xiongbin Lu
Dysregulated energetic metabolism has been recently identified as a hallmark of cancer. Although mutations in metabolic enzymes hardwire metabolism to tumourigenesis, they are relatively infrequent in ovarian cancer. More often, cancer metabolism is re-engineered by altered abundance and activity of the metabolic enzymes. Here we identify ubiquitin-specific peptidase 13 (USP13) as a master regulator that drives ovarian cancer metabolism. USP13 specifically deubiquitinates and thus upregulates ATP citrate lyase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, two key enzymes that determine mitochondrial respiration, glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis...
November 28, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890545/organic-acid-anions-an-effective-defensive-weapon-for-plants-against-aluminum-toxicity-and-phosphorus-deficiency-in-acidic-soils
#20
REVIEW
Zhi Chang Chen, Hong Liao
Aluminum (Al) toxicity and phosphorous (P) deficiency are two major limiting factors for plant growth on acidic soils. Thus, the physiological mechanisms for Al tolerance and P acquisition have been intensively studied. A commonly observed trait is that plants have developed the ability to utilize organic acid anions (OAs; mainly malate, citrate and oxalate) to combat Al toxicity and P deficiency. OAs secreted by roots into the rhizosphere can externally chelate Al(3+) and mobilize phosphate (Pi), while OAs synthesized in the cell can internally sequester Al(3+) into the vacuole and release free Pi for metabolism...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
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