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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213886/dysregulation-of-metabolic-pathways-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-asthma
#1
Kevin D Quinn, Michaela Schedel, Yasmeen Nkrumah-Elie, Anthony Joetham, Michael Armstrong, Charmion Cruickshank-Quinn, Richard Reisdorph, Erwin W Gelfand, Nichole Reisdorph
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex lung disease resulting from the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. To understand the molecular changes that occur during the development of allergic asthma without genetic and environmental confounders, an experimental model of allergic asthma in mice was used. Our goals were to (1) identify changes at the small molecule level due to allergen exposure, (2) determine perturbed pathways due to disease, and (3) determine whether small molecule changes correlate with lung function...
February 18, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213779/adenoid-bacterial-colonization-in-a-paediatric-population
#2
João Subtil, João Carlos Rodrigues, Lúcia Reis, Luís Freitas, Joana Filipe, Alberto Santos, Carlos Macor, Aida Duarte, Luisa Jordao
Adenoids play a key role in both respiratory and ear infection in children. It has also been shown that adenoidectomy improves these symptoms in this population. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate adenoid bacterial colonization and document a possible relation with infectious respiratory disease. A prospective observational study was designed to evaluate the proposed hypothesis in a paediatric population submitted to adenoidectomy by either infectious or non-infectious indications and compare these two cohorts...
February 18, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212463/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-an-inhaled-selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-modulator-azd5423-in-copd-patients-phase-ii-study-results
#3
Piotr Kuna, Magnus Aurivillius, Carin Jorup, Susanne Prothon, Ziad Taib, Staffan Edsbäcker
AZD5423 is a novel, inhaled, selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator (SGRM), which in an allergen challenge model in asthmatics improved lung function and airway hyper-reactivity. In the current trial, AZD5423 was for the first time tested in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this double-blind, randomised and parallel group study, we examined airway and systemic effects of two doses of AZD5423, inhaled via Turbuhaler for 12 weeks, in 353 symptomatic COPD patients (average pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at screening was 50-52% of predicted normal)...
February 17, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212182/what-s-new-in-obstetric-anesthesia-the-2016-gerard-w-ostheimer-lecture
#4
Philip E Hess
This special article presents potentially important trends and issues affecting the field of obstetric anesthesia drawn from publications in 2015. Both maternal mortality and morbidity in the United States have increased in recent years because, in part, of the changing demographics of the childbearing population. Pregnant women are older and have more pre-existing conditions and complex medical histories. Cardiovascular and noncardiovascular medical diseases now account for half of maternal deaths in the United States...
March 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212154/optical-coherence-tomography-and-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-in-pulmonary-diseases
#5
Lizzy Wijmans, Julia N S d'Hooghe, Peter I Bonta, Jouke T Annema
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current imaging techniques (X-ray, computed tomography scan, ultrasound) have limitations in the identification and quantification of pulmonary diseases, in particular, on highly detailed level. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of innovative light- and laser-based imaging techniques that might fill this gap. RECENT FINDINGS: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) are high-resolution imaging techniques, which, combined with bronchoscopy, provide 'near histology' detailed imaging of the airway wall, lung parenchyma, mediastinal lymph nodes, and pulmonary vasculature...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212153/new-therapies-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-exacerbations-of-bronchiectasis
#6
Hani Abo-Leyah, James D Chalmers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exacerbations of bronchiectasis have a major impact on quality of life, healthcare costs, and long-term risk of complications. Preventing exacerbations is one of the major goals of treatment. Bronchiectasis is increasingly recognized and the impact of bronchiectasis exacerbations on daily clinical practice is also increasing. RECENT FINDINGS: Preventing bronchiectasis exacerbations are dependent on appropriate risk assessment, identifying the patients at highest risk to rationally target preventive therapies...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211571/inhibitory-effects-of-a-standardized-extract-of-justicia-pectoralis-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-airway-hyper-responsiveness
#7
Carlos T M Moura, Francisco J Batista-Lima, Teresinha S Brito, Alfredo A V Silva, Luan C Ferreira, Cássia R Roque, Karoline S Aragão, Alexandre Havt, Francisco N Fonseca, Luzia K A M Leal, Pedro J C Magalhães
OBJECTIVE: Justicia pectoralis is a plant useful for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Here, we studied the antiasthmatic properties of a standardized extract of J. pectoralis (Jp). METHODS: Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rats were actively challenged with saline or OVA to study airway hyper-responsiveness after oral treatment with saline or Jp. The ability of Jp to inhibit hyper-reactivity was evaluated in isolated trachea mounted in isolated organ bath chamber...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211191/cigarette-smoking-increases-bronchial-mucosal-il-17a-expression-in-asthmatics-which-acts-in-concert-with-environmental-aeroallergens-to-engender-neutrophilic-inflammation
#8
Leonard Quok Chean Siew, Shih-Ying Wu, Sun Ying, Christopher John Corrigan
BACKGROUND: Mild asthmatics who smoke cigarettes may develop unstable disease and neutrophilic infiltration of the airways, features more usually associated with severe asthmatic disease. The mechanisms giving rise to this response remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To address the hypothesis that smoking increases bronchial mucosal production of IL-17A which acts on bronchial epithelial cells directly and in concert with other environmental stimuli to induce the production of IL-6 and neutrophil chemotaxins...
February 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210214/arginine-vasopressin-alters-both-spontaneous-and-phase-locked-synaptic-inputs-to-airway-vagal-preganglionic-neuron-via-activation-of-v1a-receptor-insights-into-stress-related-airway-vagal-excitation
#9
Xianxia Yan, Xingxin Chen, Yuhong Guo, Ding He, Yonghua Chen, Chunmei Xia, Jijiang Wang
The airway vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs) in the external formation of the nucleus ambiguus (eNA) play a major role in the vagal control of tracheobronchial smooth muscle tone and maintenance of airway resistance. The eNA receives vasopressinergic projection from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the key node for the genesis of psychological stress. Since airway vagal excitation is reportedly to be associated with the psychological stress-induced/exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatics, arginine vasopressin (AVP) might be involved in stress-related airway vagal excitation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209625/association-of-blood-eosinophil-and-blood-neutrophil-counts-with-asthma-exacerbations-in-the-copenhagen-general-population-study
#10
Signe Vedel-Krogh, Sune Fallgaard Nielsen, Peter Lange, J Rgen Vestbo, B Rge Gr Nne Nordestgaard
BACKGROUND: Blood eosinophil count is a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation and disease severity in asthma. However, blood neutrophil count might also be associated with disease severity. We tested the hypothesis that high blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts are both associated with the risk of asthma exacerbations among individuals with asthma from the general population. METHODS: From the Copenhagen General Population Study with 81351 participants, we included 4838 with self-reported asthma...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209270/crosstalk-between-glucocorticoids-and-il-4-modulates-ym1-expression-in-alternatively-activated-myeloid-cells
#11
Nathalie Ng Kuet Leong, Frank Brombacher, Alexander H Dalpke, Michael Weitnauer
Airway epithelial cells induce a tolerogenic microenvironment by modulating immune cells in the lung. We recently showed that the supernatant of airway epithelial cells induces two marker genes of alternative activation, Ym1 and Ms4a8a, in respiratory myeloid cells. This induction was partially mediated by glucocorticoids, secreted by airway epithelial cells. In this study, we further investigated Ym1 and Ms4a8a regulation in alternatively activated myeloid cells in the presence of the TH2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13...
February 9, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208871/clinical-utility-of-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-feno-as-a-biomarker-to-predict-severity-of-disease-and-response-to-inhaled-corticosteroid-ics-in-asthma-patients
#12
Revathy Neelamegan, Vinodkumar Saka, Kadhiravan Tamilarasu, Manju Rajaram, Sandhiya Selvarajan, Adithan Chandrasekaran
INTRODUCTION: Bronchial asthma is a common chronic inflammatory airway disease diagnosed and is based on symptomatic history and Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT). Fractional exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) is exclusively a non-invasive biomarker of on-going eosinophilic airway inflammation which remains unpredictable only with PFTs. FeNO measurement is recommended in predicting asthma severity and Inhaled Corticosteroid (ICS) response but further research is required to understand its clinical utility and agreement with current recommendations in a specific population...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207927/attenuated-airway-hyperresponsiveness-and-mucus-secretion-in-hdm-exposed-igf1r-deficient-mice
#13
S Piñeiro-Hermida, J A Gregory, I P López, R Torrens, C Ruíz-Martínez, M Adner, J G Pichel
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic lung disease characterized by airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation. IGFs have been reported to play a role in asthma but little is known about how the Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) affects asthma pathobiology. METHODS: Female Igf1r-deficient and control mice were intranasally challenged with house dust mite (HDM) extract or PBS five days per week for four weeks. Lung function measurements, and bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), serum and lungs were collected on day 28 for further cellular, histological and molecular analysis...
February 16, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203436/chest-physiotherapy-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-without-pneumonia-a-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Herbert D Spapen, Jouke De Regt, Patrick M Honoré
A beneficial adjuvant role of chest physiotherapy (CPT) to promote airway clearance, alveolar recruitment, and ventilation/perfusion matching in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients with pneumonia or relapsing lung atelectasis is commonly accepted. However, doubt prevails regarding the usefulness of applying routine CPT in MV subjects with no such lung diseases. In-depth narrative review based on a literature search for prospective randomized trials comparing CPT with a non-CPT strategy in adult patients ventilated for at least 48 h...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202552/airway-dynamics-in-copd-patients-by-within-breath-impedance-tracking-effects-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#15
András Lorx, Dorottya Czövek, Zoltán Gingl, Gergely Makan, Bence Radics, Dóra Bartusek, Szabolcs Szigeti, János Gál, György Losonczy, Peter D Sly, Zoltán Hantos
Tracking of the within-breath changes of respiratory mechanics using the forced oscillation technique may provide outcomes that characterise the dynamic behaviour of the airways during normal breathing.We measured respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) at 8 Hz in 55 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and 20 healthy controls, and evaluated Rrs and Xrs as functions of gas flow (V') and volume (V) during normal breathing cycles. In 12 COPD patients, additional measurements were made at continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) levels of 4, 8, 14 and 20 hPa...
February 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202112/-risk-factors-for-poor-prognosis-in-children-with-severe-adenovirus-pneumonia
#16
Miao Huang, Rong Luo, Zhou Fu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for poor prognosis of severe adenovirus pneumonia (SAP) in children. METHODS: The clinical data of 189 children with SAP were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk factors for poor prognosis. RESULTS: The univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the patients with hemoglobin <90 g/L, plasma albumin <30 g/L, C-reactive protein >30 mg/L, procalcitonin >10 ng/mL, alanine aminotransferase >100 U/L, or aspartate aminotransferase >100 U/L had poor prognosis (P<0...
February 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199345/impact-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-on-severe-asthma-patients
#17
Ta-Jen Lee, Chia-Hsiang Fu, Chun-Hua Wang, Chi-Che Huang, Chien-Chia Huang, Po-Hung Chang, Yi-Wei Chen, Chia-Chen Wu, Ching-Lung Wu, Han-Pin Kuo
Coexistence of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with asthma appears to impair asthma control. Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) respond to the cytokines of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin (IL)-25 and IL-33, thus contributing to airway diseases such as CRS and asthma. We investigate whether the augmented Th2-cytokines in CRS might be related to sinonasal tract ILC2s corresponding to enhanced IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP release in severe asthmatics, and be involved in asthma control. Twenty-eight asthmatics (12 non-severe and 16 severe) with CRS receiving nasal surgery were enrolled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199136/updates-on-mri-evaluation-of-pediatric-large-airways
#18
Mark C Liszewski, Pierluigi Ciet, Kushaljit Singh Sodhi, Edward Y Lee
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this article are to present a practical approach to imaging of common congenital and acquired diseases of the pediatric large airways with MRI and to describe the imaging findings. CONCLUSION: High-quality MRI of the airways is an increasingly feasible alternative to conventional radiography, fluoroscopy, and CT in the evaluation of many diseases of the pediatric large airways.
February 15, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199134/genetic-control-of-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#19
Zhiqiang Jiang, Nelson H Knudsen, Gang Wang, Weiliang Qiu, Zun Zar Chi Naing, Yan Bai, Xingbin Ai, Chih-Hao Lee, Xiaobo Zhou
Bioenergetics homeostasis is important for cells to sustain normal functions and defend against injury. Genetics controls on bioenergetics homeostasis, especially lipid metabolism remain poorly understood in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), the third leading cause of death in the world. Additionally, biological function of most susceptible genes identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in COPD remains unclear. Here, we aim to address 1) how fatty acid oxidation, specifically β-oxidation (FAO), a key lipid metabolism pathway that provides energy to cells, contributes to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD; and 2) whether and how FAM13A (family with sequence similarity 13 member A), a well-replicated COPD GWAS gene, modulates FAO pathway...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198571/pulmonary-mri-morphometry-modeling-of-airspace-enlargement-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#20
Alexei Ouriadov, Eric Lessard, Khadija Sheikh, Grace Parraga
PURPOSE: We generated lung morphometry measurements using single-breath diffusion-weighted MRI and three different acinar duct models in healthy participants and patients with emphysema stemming from chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). METHODS: Single-breath-inhaled (3) He MRI with five diffusion sensitizations (b-value = 0, 1.6, 3.2, 4.8, and 6.4 s/cm(2) ) was used, and signal intensities were fit using a cylindrical and single-compartment acinar-duct model to estimate MRI-derived mean linear intercept (Lm ) and surface-to-volume ratio (S/V)...
February 15, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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