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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437378/risk-factors-for-pediatric-extubation-failure-the-importance-of-respiratory-muscle-strength
#1
Robinder G Khemani, Tro Sekayan, Justin Hotz, Rutger C Flink, Gerrard F Rafferty, Narayan Iyer, Christopher J L Newth
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory muscle weakness frequently develops during mechanical ventilation, although in children there are limited data about its prevalence and whether it is associated with extubation outcomes. We sought to identify risk factors for pediatric extubation failure, with specific attention to respiratory muscle strength. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Tertiary care PICU. PATIENTS: Four hundred nine mechanically ventilated children...
April 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436965/a-three-dimensional-model-of-human-lung-development-and-disease-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
Ya-Wen Chen, Sarah Xuelian Huang, Ana Luisa Rodrigues Toste de Carvalho, Siu-Hong Ho, Mohammad Naimul Islam, Stefano Volpi, Luigi D Notarangelo, Michael Ciancanelli, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Jahar Bhattacharya, Alice F Liang, Laura M Palermo, Matteo Porotto, Anne Moscona, Hans-Willem Snoeck
Recapitulation of lung development from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in three dimensions (3D) would allow deeper insight into human development, as well as the development of innovative strategies for disease modelling, drug discovery and regenerative medicine. We report here the generation from hPSCs of lung bud organoids (LBOs) that contain mesoderm and pulmonary endoderm and develop into branching airway and early alveolar structures after xenotransplantation and in Matrigel 3D culture. Expression analysis and structural features indicated that the branching structures reached the second trimester of human gestation...
April 24, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435258/quantum-dots-modulate-intracellular-ca-2-level-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#3
Huijuan Yin, Jacopo M Fontana, Johan Solandt, Johnny Israelsson Jussi, Hao Xu, Hjalmar Brismar, Ying Fu
While adverse effects of nanoparticles on lung health have previously been proposed, few studies have addressed the direct effects of nanoparticle exposure on the airway epithelium. In this work, we examine the response of the pulmonary airway to nanoparticles by measuring intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in the Calu-3 epithelial layer stimulated by 3-mercaptopropionic-acid (3MPA) coated CdSe-CdS/ZnS core-multishell quantum dots (QDs). Simultaneous transient transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) decrease and global [Ca(2+)]i increase in Calu-3 epithelial layer, accompanied by cell displacements, contraction, and expansion, were observed under QD deposition...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434465/therapeutic-singing-as-an-early-intervention-for-swallowing-in-persons-with-parkinson-s-disease
#4
E L Stegemöller, P Hibbing, H Radig, J Wingate
OBJECTIVE: For persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), secondary motor symptoms such as swallow impairment impact the quality of life and are major contributors to mortality. There is a present need for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving swallow function during the early stages of PD. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a group therapeutic singing intervention on swallowing in persons with PD with no significant dysphagia symptoms. DESIGN: Cohort study...
April 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433201/humoral-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases-clinical-overview-and-chest-high-resolution-computed-tomography-hrct-features-in-the-adult-population
#5
REVIEW
L Cereser, R Girometti, P d'Angelo, M De Carli, A De Pellegrin, C Zuiani
Humoral primary immunodeficiency diseases (hPIDs) are a heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders resulting in abnormal susceptibility to infections of the sinopulmonary tract. Some of these conditions (e.g., common variable immunodeficiency disorders [CVID]) imply a number of non-infectious thoracic complications such as non-infectious airway disorders, diffuse lung parenchymal diseases, and neoplasms. Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a key imaging tool to characterise and quantify the extent of underlying thoracic involvement, as well as to direct and monitor treatment...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432267/assessment-of-lung-function-in-a-large-cohort-of-patients-with-acromegaly
#6
Sylvere Störmann, Bodo Gutt, Josefine Roemmler-Zehrer, Martin Bidlingmaier, Rudolf Maria Huber, Jochen Schopohl, Matthias Angstwurm
OBJECTIVE: Acromegaly is associated with increased mortality due to respiratory disease. To date, lung function in patients with acromegaly has only been assessed in small studies, with contradicting results. We assessed lung function parameters in a large cohort of patients with acromegaly. DESIGN: Lung function of acromegaly patients was prospectively assessed using spirometry, blood gas analysis and body plethysmography. Biochemical indicators of acromegaly were assessed through measurement of growth hormone and IGF-I levels...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431781/clenbuterol-hydrochloride
#7
Abdulrahman A Al-Majed, Nasr Y Khalil, Ibraheem Khbrani, Hatem A Abdel-Aziz
Clenbuterol (Broncodil and trade) is a direct-acting sympathomimetic agent with mainly beta-adrenergic activity and a selective action on β2 receptors (a β2 agonist). It has properties similar to those of salbutamol. It is used as a bronchodilator in the management of reversible airways obstruction, as in asthma and in certain patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The uses, applications, and the synthetic pathways of this drug are outlined. Physical characteristics including: ionization constant, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods of analysis, UV spectrum, IR spectrum, mass spectrum are all produced...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431248/spontaneous-chitin-accumulation-in-airways-and-age-related-fibrotic-lung-disease
#8
Steven J Van Dyken, Hong-Erh Liang, Ram P Naikawadi, Prescott G Woodruff, Paul J Wolters, David J Erle, Richard M Locksley
The environmentally widespread polysaccharide chitin is degraded and recycled by ubiquitous bacterial and fungal chitinases. Although vertebrates express active chitinases from evolutionarily conserved loci, their role in mammalian physiology is unclear. We show that distinct lung epithelial cells secrete acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase), which is required for airway chitinase activity. AMCase-deficient mice exhibit premature morbidity and mortality, concomitant with accumulation of environmentally derived chitin polymers in the airways and expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429903/causes-of-interruptions-in-postoperative-enteral-nutrition-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#9
Jirong Qi, Zhuo Li, Yueshuang Cun, Xiaonan Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perioperative nutritional support has become a hot topic in the clinical management of congenital heart disease (CHD). Postoperative enteral nutrition (EN) offers many benefits, such as protection of the intestinal mucosa, reduced risk of infection, and low clinical costs. Interruptions in EN frequently influence nutritional support and clinical outcomes. We, therefore, aimed to determine the causes of interruptions in postoperative EN in CHD patients and discuss clinical counter measures...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429032/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-are-they-connected
#10
Yingjuan Mok, Chee Wei Tan, Hang Siang Wong, Choon How How, Kah Leong Alvin Tan, Pon Poh Hsu
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a sleep-related breathing condition, is diagnosed based on a patient's apnoea-hypopnea index from a sleep study, and the presence or absence of symptoms. Diabetes mellitus (DM) and OSA share a significant common risk factor, obesity, with all three conditions contributing to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiological links between OSA and DM are still unclear, but intermittent hypoxia may be an important mechanism. More awareness of the possible link between OSA and DM is needed, given their increasing prevalence locally and worldwide...
April 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428948/understanding-the-entanglement-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-nets-in-cystic-fibrosis
#11
REVIEW
Saira R Martínez-Alemán, Lizbeth Campos-García, José P Palma-Nicolas, Romel Hernández-Bello, Gloria M González, Alejandro Sánchez-González
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene that codes for the CF trans-membrane conductance regulator. These mutations result in abnormal secretions viscous airways of the lungs, favoring pulmonary infection and inflammation in the middle of neutrophil recruitment. Recently it was described that neutrophils can contribute with disease pathology by extruding large amounts of nuclear material through a mechanism of cell death known as Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) into the airways of patients with CF...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427552/integrating-the-microbiota-of-the-respiratory-tract-with-the-unified-airway-model
#12
REVIEW
Alissa S Hanshew, Marie E Jetté, Sarah P Rosen, Susan L Thibeault
The unified airway model has developed from indications that the upper and lower respiratory tracts share key elements of pathogenesis. These shared traits likely extend to similar niche characteristics that support bacterial communities, and as such, we suspect that similar microbes exist on upper and lower respiratory tract epithelium. Over the past decade and a half there have been significant improvements in microbiological identification and analysis due to the development of new molecular technologies, including next-generation sequencing...
May 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427542/recurrent-respiratory-papillomatosis-a-state-of-the-art-review
#13
REVIEW
Helena Ribeiro Fortes, Felipe Mussi von Ranke, Dante Luiz Escuissato, Cesar Augusto Araujo Neto, Gláucia Zanetti, Bruno Hochhegger, Carolina Althoff Souza, Edson Marchiori
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a benign disease of the upper aero-digestive tract caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which affects children and young adults. The aim of this review is to describe the main etiological, epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and treatment aspects of RRP. Most infections in children occur at birth, during passage through the birth canals of contaminated mothers. In adults, HPV is transmitted sexually. Papillomas usually appear as exophytic nodules, primarily in the larynx, but occasionally involving the nasopharynx, tracheobronchial tree, and pulmonary parenchyma...
May 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427314/capturing-complexity-in-pulmonary-system-modelling
#14
Alys R Clark, Haribalan Kumar, Kelly Burrowes
Respiratory disease is a significant problem worldwide, and it is a problem with increasing prevalence. Pathology in the upper airways and lung is very difficult to diagnose and treat, as response to disease is often heterogeneous across patients. Computational models have long been used to help understand respiratory function, and these models have evolved alongside increases in the resolution of medical imaging and increased capability of functional imaging, advances in biological knowledge, mathematical techniques and computational power...
May 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426164/protease-activated-receptor-2-suppresses-interleukin-il-10-expression-in-b-cells-via-up-regulating-bcl2l12-in-patients-with-allergic-rhinitis
#15
Jin-Mei Xue, Li-Tao Yang, Gui Yang, Xiao-Rui Geng, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Shuai Wang, Hai-Liang Zhao, Zhi-Gang Liu, Chang-Qing Zhao, Ping-Chang Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The function of interleukin (IL)-10 producing B cells (B10 cell) is compromised in patients with allergic diseases. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 has immune regulatory functions. This study aims to elucidate the role of PAR2 in the suppression of IL-10 expression in peripheral B cells. METHODS: Peripheral blood B cells were collected from patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). A correlation between the expression of Bcl2 like protein 12 (Bcl2L12) and IL-10 in the B cells was analyzed...
April 20, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425965/comparison-of-cpap-and-hfnc-in-management-of-bronchiolitis-in-infants-and-young-children
#16
Majken Bisgaard Pedersen, Signe Vahlkvist
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used in infants with bronchiolitis for decades. Recently, high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was introduced We conducted a retrospective study of treatment with CPAP vs. HFNC between 2013 and 2015, comparing the development in respiratory rate, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) and heart rate, treatment failure, duration of treatment, and length of hospital stay. A sample size of 49 children were included. Median age was 1.9 months. Median baseline pCO₂ was 7...
April 20, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425504/suv39h1-reduction-is-implicated-in-abnormal-inflammation-in-copd
#17
Tzu-Tao Chen, Sheng-Ming Wu, Shu-Chuan Ho, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Chien-Ying Liu, Yao-Fei Chan, Lu-Wei Kuo, Po-Hao Feng, Wen-Te Liu, Kuan-Yuan Chen, Ta-Chih Hsiao, Jer-Nan Juang, Kang-Yun Lee
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) is characterized by enhanced chronic inflammation in the airways, lung parenchyma, and circulation. We investigated whether SUV39H1, a histone methyltransferase, is causatively implicated in the abnormal inflammation observed in COPD. The SUV39H1 and H3K9me3 levels were reduced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs), primary human small airway epithelial cells(HSAEpCs) and lung tissues from COPD patients, which were correlated with poor lung function and the serum IL-8 and IL-6 levels...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425146/a-deep-nasopharyngeal-swab-versus-nonendoscopic-bronchoalveolar-lavage-for-isolation-of-bacterial-pathogens-from-preweaned-calves-with-respiratory-disease
#18
L Van Driessche, B R Valgaeren, L Gille, F Boyen, R Ducatelle, F Haesebrouck, P Deprez, B Pardon
BACKGROUND: Nonendoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a practical alternative for a deep nasopharyngeal swab (DNS) to sample the airways of a large number of calves in a short period of time. The extent of commensal overgrowth and agreement of BAL with DNS culture results in preweaned calves are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To compare commensal overgrowth and bacterial culture results between DNS and BAL samples. ANIMALS: A total of 183 preweaned calves (144 with bovine respiratory disease and 39 healthy animals)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424691/increased-autophagy-related-5-gene-expression-is-associated-with-collagen-expression-in-the-airways-of-refractory-asthmatics
#19
Audrey H Poon, David F Choy, Fazila Chouiali, Rakhee K Ramakrishnan, Bassam Mahboub, Severine Audusseau, Andrea Mogas, Jeffrey M Harris, Joseph R Arron, Catherine Laprise, Qutayba Hamid
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis, particularly excessive collagen deposition, presents a challenge for treating asthmatic individuals. At present, no drugs can remove or reduce excessive collagen in asthmatic airways. Hence, the identification of pathways involved in collagen deposition would help to generate therapeutic targets to interfere with the airway remodeling process. Autophagy, a cellular degradation process, has been shown to be dysregulated in various fibrotic diseases, and genetic association studies in independent human populations have identified autophagy-related 5 (ATG5) to be associated with asthma pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424361/computed-tomographic-findings-in-subjects-who-died-from-respiratory-disease-in-the-national-lung-screening-trial
#20
Esther Pompe, Pim A de Jong, David A Lynch, Nikolas Lessmann, Ivana Išgum, Bram van Ginneken, Jan-Willem J Lammers, Firdaus A A Mohamed Hoesein
We evaluated the prevalence of significant lung abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) in patients who died from a respiratory illness other than lung cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST).In this retrospective case-control study, NLST participants in the CT arm who died of respiratory illness other than lung cancer were matched for age, sex, pack-years and smoking status to a surviving control. A chest radiologist and a radiology resident blinded to the outcome independently scored baseline CT scans visually and qualitatively for the presence of emphysema, airway wall thickening and fibrotic lung disease...
April 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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