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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087917/-reasearch-progress-on-the-role-of-neutrophils-in-asthma
#1
Tingting Li, Yuehai Ke, Hongqiang Cheng
Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the airways. Studies have found that neutrophils are crucial to airway inflammation in acute asthma, persistent asthma, particularly in asthma of poor response to glucocorticoid treatment. The role of neutrophils in development of bronchial asthma is complex, as they can release a potent source of cytokines and inflammatory mediators participating in asthma. Differing from eosinophilic inflammatory asthma, neutrophilic inflammatory asthma is not depend on helper T (Th)2 cells, but may be related to Th1 and Th17 cells...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087469/tofacitinib-ameliorates-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-airway-neutrophilia-induced-by-inhaled-lps
#2
Elena Calama, Isabel Ramis, Anna Domènech, Cristina Carreño, Jorge De Alba, Neus Prats, Montserrat Miralpeix
BACKGROUND: and purpose: The Janus Kinase (JAK) family mediates the cytokine receptor-induced signalling pathways involved in inflammatory processes. The activation of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) by JAK kinases is a key point in these pathways. Four JAK proteins, JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) associate with the intracellular domains of surface cytokine receptors are phosphorylating STATs and modulating gene expression. The aim of this study was to explore the role of JAK inhibition in an acute model of inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation in rats through evaluating the effects of tofacitinib, a marketed pan-JAK inhibitor...
January 10, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086849/successful-outcome-following-pneumonectomy-in-a-teenage-boy-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-case-report
#3
Zheyi Liew, Santosh Mallikarjuna, Asif Hasan, F Kate Gould, Su Bunn, Matthew F Thomas, Jim L Lordan, Christopher O'Brien, Malcolm Brodlie
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis lung disease is generally a diffuse process however rarely one lung may become particularly damaged through chronic collapse and consolidation resulting in end-stage bronchiectasis with relative sparing of the contralateral lung. This clinical situation is sometimes referred to as "destroyed lung". Lung resection surgery is seldom indicated in cystic fibrosis and the associated medical literature is relatively sparse. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14 year old boy was referred to our centre for lung transplantation assessment...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081319/chronic-cough-clinical-characteristics-and-etiologies-of-510-cases
#4
Guiyuan Jiang, Xinying Huang, Tianlin Li, Dongping Xu
BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the clinical features and underlying etiologies of chronic cough (CC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred and ten CC patients were enrolled. The phases, characteristics and associated clinical manifestations of CC among the gastroesophageal reflux cough (GERC), cough-variant asthma (CVA), and upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) groups were compared, and the diagnostic values of each group were evaluated by multiple regression analysis...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079883/cysteamine-re-establishes-the-clearance-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-macrophages-bearing-the-cystic-fibrosis-relevant-f508del-cftr-mutation
#5
Eleonora Ferrari, Romina Monzani, Valeria R Villella, Speranza Esposito, Francesca Saluzzo, Federica Rossin, Manuela D'Eletto, Antonella Tosco, Fabiola De Gregorio, Valentina Izzo, Maria C Maiuri, Guido Kroemer, Valeria Raia, Luigi Maiuri
Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal monogenic disease in Caucasians, is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and colonization, mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, resulting in unresolved airway inflammation. CF is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, which functions as a chloride channel in epithelial cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Impaired bacterial handling by macrophages is a feature of CF airways, although it is still debated how defective CFTR impairs bacterial killing...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079794/interventional-pulmonology-for-patients-with-central-airway-obstruction-an-8-year-institutional-experience
#6
Chia-Hung Chen, Biing-Ru Wu, Wen-Chien Cheng, Chih-Yu Chen, Wei-Chun Chen, Te-Chun Hsia, Wei-Chih Liao, Chih-Yen Tu, Wu-Huei Hsu
Patients with central airway obstruction (CAO) may need endobronchial intervention to relieve their symptoms. This report is on a single-center experience of using interventional bronchoscopy in terms of complications and survival. This retrospective study was conducted in a university hospital and involved 614 patients (464 men, 150 women; mean age, 60.2 years) with benign (n = 133) and malignant (n = 481) tracheobronchial disease who received 756 endobronchial intervention procedure during the period 2008 to 2015...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079615/neuromuscular-weakness-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-chest-wall-diaphragm-and-peripheral-muscle-contributions
#7
Adam Alter, Loutfi S Aboussouan, Eduardo Mireles-Cabodevila
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive lung disease affects the lung parenchyma and airways leading to well described effects in respiratory function. This review describes the current knowledge and advances regarding neuromuscular function and chest wall mechanics, which are affected in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). RECENT FINDINGS: In COPD, progressive lung hyperinflation becomes constrained by a chest wall with decreasing capacity to expand, resulting in respiratory muscle inefficiency...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079597/histologic-findings-of-severe-therapy-resistant-asthma-from-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-biopsies
#8
Humberto E Trejo Bittar, Daniel Doberer, Mitra Mehrad, Diane C Strollo, Joseph K Leader, Sally Wenzel, Samuel A Yousem
The histologic changes occurring in severe/therapy-resistant asthma (SA) as defined by the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guidelines, particularly at the level of the distal airways are unknown. This study describes the clinical, radiologic, and histologic characteristics of 29 SA patients who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lung biopsy. Pathologic observations were correlated with clinical features, especially the presence of autoimmune disease (AID) (15/29, 51.7%). Ten biopsies (10/29, 34...
February 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077947/asthma-and-the-microbiome-defining-the-critical-window-in-early-life
#9
REVIEW
Leah T Stiemsma, Stuart E Turvey
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory immune disorder of the airways affecting one in ten children in westernized countries. The geographical disparity combined with a generational rise in prevalence, emphasizes that changing environmental exposures play a significant role in the etiology of this disease. The microflora hypothesis suggests that early life exposures are disrupting the composition of the microbiota and consequently, promoting immune dysregulation in the form of hypersensitivity disorders. Animal model research supports a role of the microbiota in asthma and atopic disease development...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077651/bromodomain-containing-4-brd4-couples-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-rela-with-airway-inflammation-and-the-irf-rig-i-amplification-loop-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#10
Bing Tian, Jun Yang, Yingxin Zhao, Teodora Ivanciuc, Hong Sun, Roberto P Garofalo, Allan R Brasier
: The airway mucosa expresses protective interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokines in response to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. In this study, we examine the role of bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4) in mediating this innate immune response in human small airway epithelial cells. We observe that RSV induces BRD4 to complex with NFκB/RelA. BRD4 is functionally required for expression of the NFκB-dependent inflammatory gene regulatory network (GRN), including the IFN Response Factor (IRFs)-1 and -7 that mediate a cross-talk pathway for RIG-I upregulation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077599/blt1-mediates-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis-independently-of-neutrophils-and-cd4-t-cells
#11
Jiaoyan Lv, Yingluo Xiong, Wenjing Li, Wei Yang, Lina Zhao, Rui He
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and its functional receptor BLT1 are closely involved in tissue inflammation by primarily mediating leukocyte recruitment and activation. Elevated LTB4 was reported in patients with lung fibrosis; however, the role of the LTB4/BLT1 axis in lung fibrosis remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that BLT1(-/-) mice exhibited significantly attenuated bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis. Interestingly, BLT1 blockade with its specific antagonist U75302 in the acute injury phase (days 0-10 after BLM treatment) significantly attenuated lung fibrosis, which was accompanied by significant decreases in early infiltrating neutrophils and later infiltrating CD4(+) T cells and the production of TGF-β, IL-13, and IL-17A...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077140/indacaterol-and-glycopyrronium-versus-indacaterol-on-body-plethysmography-measurements-in-copd-a-randomised-controlled-study
#12
Joerg Salomon, Daiana Stolz, Guido Domenighetti, Jean-Georges Frey, Alexander J Turk, Andrea Azzola, Thomas Sigrist, Jean-William Fitting, Ulrich Schmidt, Thomas Geiser, Corinne Wild, Konstantinos Kostikas, Andreas Clemens, Martin Brutsche
BACKGROUND: Dual bronchodilator therapy is recommended for symptomatic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are limited data on effects of a combination of two long-acting bronchodilators on lung function including body plethysmography. METHODS: This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, single-dose, cross-over, placebo-controlled study evaluated efficacy and safety of the free combination of indacaterol maleate (IND) and glycopyrronium bromide (GLY) versus IND alone on spirometric and body plethysmography parameters, including inspiratory capacity (IC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC) and airway resistance (Raw) in moderate-to-severe COPD patients...
January 11, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077104/effects-of-treadmill-exercise-versus-flutter%C3%A2-on-respiratory-flow-and-sputum-properties-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-randomised-controlled-cross-over-trial
#13
Tiffany J Dwyer, Rahizan Zainuldin, Evangelia Daviskas, Peter T P Bye, Jennifer A Alison
BACKGROUND: Treadmill exercise and airway clearance with the Flutter® device have previously been shown to improve mucus clearance mechanisms in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) but have not been compared. It is therefore not known if treadmill exercise is an adequate form of airway clearance that could replace established airway clearance techniques, such as the Flutter®. The aim of this study was to evaluate respiratory flow, sputum properties and subjective responses of treadmill exercise and Flutter® therapy, compared to resting breathing (control)...
January 11, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076986/utilising-exhaled-nitric-oxide-information-to-enhance-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-respiratory-disease-current-evidence-for-clinical-practice-and-proposals-to-improve-the-methodology
#14
Marieann Högman, Lauri Lehtimäki, Anh Tuan Dinh-Xuan
A non-invasive tool to diagnose respiratory diseases and to follow treatment has long been looked-for. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a promising marker of inflammation in asthma but nearly 25-years of research has shown that it works in only certain endotypes of asthma. The modelling of NO dynamics of the lung can give more information than a single FENO value. Areas covered: The estimation of the NO production in the conducting airways and in the gas exchange area has given new insight of the NO production in diseases beyond asthma...
January 11, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075489/cough-augmentation-techniques-for-extubation-or-weaning-critically-ill-patients-from-mechanical-ventilation
#15
REVIEW
Louise Rose, Neill Kj Adhikari, David Leasa, Dean A Fergusson, Douglas McKim
BACKGROUND: There are various reasons why weaning and extubation failure occur, but ineffective cough and secretion retention can play a significant role. Cough augmentation techniques, such as lung volume recruitment or manually- and mechanically-assisted cough, are used to prevent and manage respiratory complications associated with chronic conditions, particularly neuromuscular disease, and may improve short- and long-term outcomes for people with acute respiratory failure. However, the role of cough augmentation to facilitate extubation and prevent post-extubation respiratory failure is unclear...
January 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075361/role-of-ire1%C3%AE-xbp-1-in-cystic-fibrosis-airway-inflammation
#16
REVIEW
Carla M P Ribeiro, Bob A Lubamba
Cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary disease is characterized by chronic airway infection and inflammation. The infectious and inflamed CF airway environment impacts on the innate defense of airway epithelia and airway macrophages. The CF airway milieu induces an adaptation in these cells characterized by increased basal inflammation and a robust inflammatory response to inflammatory mediators. Recent studies have indicated that these responses depend on activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). This review discusses the contribution of airway epithelia and airway macrophages to CF airway inflammatory responses and specifically highlights the functional importance of the UPR pathway mediated by IRE1/XBP-1 in these processes...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070196/airway-autoimmune-responses-in-severe-eosinophilic-asthma-following-low-dose-mepolizumab-therapy
#17
Manali Mukherjee, Hui Fang Lim, Sruthi Thomas, Douglas Miller, Melanie Kjarsgaard, Bruce Tan, Roma Sehmi, Nader Khalidi, Parameswaran Nair
BACKGROUND: Anti-interleukin (IL)-5 monoclonal antibodies as an eosinophil-depleting strategy is well established, with Mepolizumab being the first biologic approved as an adjunct treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year old woman diagnosed with severe eosinophilic asthma showed poor response to Mepolizumab therapy (100 mg subcutaneous dose/monthly) and subsequent worsening of symptoms. The treatment response to Mepolizumab was monitored using both blood and sputum eosinophil counts...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069067/end-stage-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease-is-characterised-by-a-diverse-inflammatory-pattern-an-immunohistochemical-analysis
#18
Elise J Lammertyn, Elly Vandermeulen, Hannelore Bellon, Stephanie Everaerts, Stijn E Verleden, Kathleen Van Den Eynde, Ken R Bracke, Guy G Brusselle, Pieter C Goeminne, Erik K Verbeken, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Lieven J Dupont
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by vigorous airway inflammation eventually resulting in severe lung damage. This study aimed to describe the diversity of the inflammatory pattern in end-stage CF lungs by evaluating and quantifying which components of the innate and adaptive immunity are involved, and by assessing whether this is gender-specific. METHODS: CF explant lung tissue (n = 20) collected at time of transplantation and control tissue (n = 22) was sectioned (9 μm) and stained for neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, CD4 T cells, cytotoxic T cells and B cells...
January 10, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068996/non-linear-parameters-of-specific-resistance-loops-to-characterise-obstructive-airways-diseases
#19
Marko Topalovic, Vasileios Exadaktylos, Thierry Troosters, Geert Celis, Jean-Marie Aerts, Wim Janssens
BACKGROUND: Specific resistance loops appear in different shapes influenced by different resistive properties of the airways, yet their descriptive ability is compressed to a single parameter - its slope. We aimed to develop new parameters reflecting the various shapes of the loop and to explore their potential in the characterisation of obstructive airways diseases. METHODS: Our study included 134 subjects: Healthy controls (N = 22), Asthma with non-obstructive lung function (N = 22) and COPD of all disease stages (N = 90)...
January 9, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066622/the-role-bronchoscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-airway-disease-in-children
#20
REVIEW
Tutku Soyer
Bronchoscopy is endoscopic examination of airways that allows both diagnostic and interventional procedures in the evaluation of airway disease in children. It can be performed with either rigid or flexible instruments, depending on the particular needs of patients and skills of bronchoscopist. In addition to visualization of airways, bronchoscopy enables to obtain specimens from lungs and distal airways. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) yields samples from surfaces of the alveoli and aids differential diagnosis of various pulmonary disease...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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