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Cancer associated fibroblast

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538690/dysregulation-of-mirna-expression-in-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-cafs-and-its-consequences-on-the-tumor-microenvironment
#1
REVIEW
Maren Schoepp, Anda Jana Ströse, Jörg Haier
The tumor microenvironment, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), has developed as an important target for understanding tumor progression, clinical prognosis and treatment responses of cancer. Cancer cells appear to transform normal fibroblasts (NF) into CAFs involving direct cell-cell communication and epigenetic regulations. This review summarizes the current understanding on miR involvement in cancer cell-tumor environment/stroma communication, transformation of NFs into CAFs, their involved targets and signaling pathways in these interactions; and clinical relevance of CAF-related miR expression profiles...
May 24, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535649/-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-regulate-the-chemoresistance-of-lung-cancer-cell-line-a549-via-sdf-1-secretion
#2
F Zou, Z H Zhang, Y T Zhang, J Q Zhao, X L Zhang, C L Wen, X Y Song, W M Zhou
Objective: To investigate whether cancer-associated- fibroblasts (CAF), the key component of tumor microenvironment, regulate the chemoresistant capacity of lung cancer cell line A549 through SDF-1 secretion. Methods: Primary cell isolation techniques was used to isolate cancer-associated-fibroblasts from lung cancer patients. MTT assay was applied to determine the proliferation and chemoresistance of A549 cells. Quantative PCR was used to detect the mRNA changes of Bcl-xL. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression of Bcl-xL...
May 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534511/stromal-derived-igf2-promotes-colon-cancer-progression-via-paracrine-and-autocrine-mechanisms
#3
C Unger, N Kramer, D Unterleuthner, M Scherzer, A Burian, A Rudisch, M Stadler, M Schlederer, D Lenhardt, A Riedl, S Walter, A Wernitznig, L Kenner, M Hengstschläger, J Schüler, W Sommergruber, H Dolznig
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)2/IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling axis has an important role in intestinal carcinogenesis and overexpression of IGF2 is an accepted risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Genetic amplifications and loss of imprinting contribute to the upregulation of IGF2, but insufficiently explain the extent of IGF2 expression in a subset of patients. Here, we show that IGF2 was specifically induced in the tumor stroma of CRC and identified cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) as the major source...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533502/clinical-value-and-prospective-pathway-signaling-of-microrna-375-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-a-study-based-on-the-cancer-genome-atlas-tcga-gene-expression-omnibus-geo-and-bioinformatics-analysis
#4
Ting-Qing Gan, Wen-Jie Chen, Hui Qin, Su-Ning Huang, Li-Hua Yang, Ye-Ying Fang, Lin-Jiang Pan, Zu-Yun Li, Gang Chen
BACKGROUND Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most frequent lung cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to have fundamental roles in tumorigenesis of LUAD. Although miRNAs are broadly recognized in LUAD, the role of microRNA-375 in LUAD is still not fully elucidated. MATERIAL AND METHODS We evaluated the significance of miR-375 expression in LUAD by using analysis of a public dataset from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and a literature review. Furthermore, we investigated the biological function of miR-375 by gene ontology enrichment and target prediction analysis...
May 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533482/cd147-functions-as-the-signaling-receptor-for-extracellular-divalent-copper-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#5
Pengfei Ding, Xin Zhang, Shujuan Jin, Bo Duan, Pengxiang Chu, Yufei Zhang, Zhi-Nan Chen, Bin Xia, Fei Song
Elevated copper levels in tumor microenvironment are directly correlated to cancer progression in a variety of malignancies. Copper is required in angiogenesis, and promotes the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism of copper in promoting cancer progression remains elusive. Here we report that CD147 serves as a signaling receptor for extracellular Cu2+ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Cu2+ binds to the extracellular membrane-proximal domain of CD147 and mediates its self-association...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533055/high-asma-fibroblasts-and-low-cytoplasmic-hmgb1-breast-cancer-cells-predict-poor%C3%A2-prognosis
#6
Kamolporn Amornsupak, Pranisa Jamjuntra, Malee Warnnissorn, Pornchai O-Charoenrat, Doonyapat Sa-Nguanraksa, Peti Thuwajit, Suzanne A Eccles, Chanitra Thuwajit
INTRODUCTION: The influence of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been recognized in several cancers, although their roles in breast cancer are unclear. The present study aimed to determine the levels and prognostic significance of α-smooth muscle actin-positive (ASMA(+)) CAFs, plus HMGB1 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 127 breast samples, including 96 malignant and 31 benign, were examined for ASMA, HMGB1, and RAGE by immunohistochemistry...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532535/-tumor-associated-fibroblasts-promote-pd-l1-expression-in-lung-cancer-cells
#7
Haiyang He, Luyu Qi, Yongsheng Xiao, Yiling Hou
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) is an important part of TME, which inhibits the function of immune cells. CD8+ T cells play a significant role in tumor immunity. T-cell membrane possesses a distinct type of molecule with a negative regulatory function. Upon interaction with its corresponding ligand [programmed death factor ligand 1 (PD-L1)], programmed death factor 1 (PD-1) is activated and thus inhibits the kinase activity of T cells. This study aims to explore the possible effects of TAF on PD-L1 expression in lung cancer cells...
May 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531107/analysis-of-gene-expression-signatures-in-cancer-associated-stroma-from-canine-mammary-tumours-reveals-molecular-homology-to-human-breast-carcinomas
#8
Julia Ettlin, Elena Clementi, Parisa Amini, Alexandra Malbon, Enni Markkanen
Cancer-associated stroma (CAS) plays a key role in cancer initiation and progression. Spontaneously occurring canine mammary carcinomas are viewed as excellent models of human breast carcinomas. Considering the importance of CAS for human cancer, it likely plays a central role in canine tumours as well. So far, however, canine CAS lacks characterisation, and it remains unclear whether the biology between CAS from canine and human tumours is comparable. In this proof-of-principle study, using laser-capture microdissection, we isolated CAS and normal stroma from 13 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded canine simple mammary carcinomas and analysed the expression of seven known human CAS markers by RT-qPCR (Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR) and validated some targets by immunohistochemistry...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529153/model-of-vascular-desmoplastic-multispecies-tumor-growth
#9
Chin F Ng, Hermann B Frieboes
We present a three-dimensional nonlinear tumor growth model composed of heterogeneous cell types in a multicomponent-multispecies system, including viable, dead, healthy host, and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) tissue species. The model includes the capability for abnormal ECM dynamics noted in tumor development, as exemplified by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, including dense desmoplasia typically characterized by a significant increase of interstitial connective tissue. An elastic energy is implemented to provide elasticity to the connective tissue...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528691/the-igf-axis-in-hpv-associated-cancers
#10
REVIEW
Adam Pickard, Julia Durzynska, Dennis J McCance, Elisabeth R Barton
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect and replicate in stratified epithelium at cutaneous and mucosal surfaces. The proliferation and maintenance of keratinocytes, the cells which make up this epithelium, are controlled by a number of growth factor receptors such as the keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR, also called fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b)), the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the insulin-like growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (IGF1R and IGF2R). In this review, we will delineate the mutation, gene transcription, translation and processing of the IGF axis within HPV associated cancers...
April 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527242/-small-cell-lung-cancer-associated-with-multiple-paraneoplastic-syndromes
#11
Diana L Franco, Leslie Thomas
We report the case of a patient presenting with multiple severe electrolyte disturbances who was subsequently found to have small cell lung cancer. Upon further evaluation, she demonstrated three distinct paraneoplastic processes, including the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, Fanconi syndrome, and an inappropriate elevation in fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). The patient underwent one round of chemotherapy, but she was found to have progressive disease. After 36 days of hospitalization, the patient made the decision to enter hospice care and later she expired...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526414/a-novel-sirt1-inhibitor-4bb-induces-apoptosis-in-hct116-human-colon-carcinoma-cells-partially-by-activating-p53
#12
Ananga Ghosh, Amrita Sengupta, Guru Pavan Kumar Seerapu, Ali Nakhi, E V Venkat Shivaji Ramarao, Navneet Bung, Gopalakrishnan Bulusu, Manojit Pal, Devyani Haldar
The NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 has emerged as an important target for epigenetic therapeutics of colon cancer as its increased expression is associated with cancer progression. Additionally, SIRT1 represses p53 function via deacetylation, promoting tumor growth. Therefore, inhibition of SIRT1 is of great therapeutic interest for the treatment of colon cancer. Here, we report discovery of a novel quinoxaline based small molecule inhibitor of human SIRT1, 4bb, investigated its effect on viability of colon cancer cells and molecular mechanism of action...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525898/ginsenoside-rg3-inhibits-the-senescence-of-prostate-stromal-cells-through-down-regulation-of-interleukin-8-expression
#13
Yanfei Peng, Ran Zhang, Lingfei Kong, Yongmei Shen, Da Xu, Fang Zheng, Jianwei Liu, Qian Wu, Bona Jia, Ju Zhang
Senescent stromal cells support the development of prostate cancer and are considered potential therapeutic targets. This research evaluated the regulatory effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on the senescence of prostatic stromal cells pre-incubated in medium supplemented with 0.5% fetal bovine serum. The results revealed that ginsenoside Rg3 decreased the number of stromal cells positively stained with a senescent cell marker (senescence-associated β-galactosidase). Ginsenoside Rg3 also increased the viability of stromal cells and promoted cell cycle transition from G0/G1 to S phase, as well as inhibited the carcinoma-associated fibroblast-like phenotype in prostate stromal cells, through the up-regulation of smooth muscle cell markers SM22 and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524768/anti-microrna-targeting-using-peptide-based-nanocomplexes-to-inhibit-differentiation-of-human-pancreatic-stellate-cells
#14
Jonas Schnittert, Praneeth R Kuninty, Tomasz F Bystry, Roland Brock, Gert Storm, Jai Prakash
AIM: To develop novel peptide-based nanocomplexes (NCs) for delivery of anti-miRNA oligonucleotides to human-derived pancreatic stellate cells (hPSCs), precursors of cancer-associated fibroblasts. MATERIALS & METHODS: NCs of anti-miRNA oligonucleotides and cell-penetrating peptides (different variants) were formed and characterized. The effects of anti-miR-199a delivery on hPSC differentiation and 3D heterospheroid formation were investigated. RESULTS: Dimeric cell-penetrating peptide based NCs (NC-2) showed 130-fold higher uptake by hPSCs compared with monomer-based NCs (NC-1) and tenfold higher uptake compared with general fibroblasts and different pancreatic tumor cells...
May 19, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523716/cd44-fibroblasts-increases-breast-cancer-cell-survival-and-drug-resistance-via-igf2bp3-cd44-igf2-signalling
#15
Yonglei Liu, Conghui Yu, Yonggang Wu, Xiangjun Sun, Quanping Su, Cuiping You, Hongwu Xin
CD44, a cell adhesion protein, involves in various process in cancer such as cell survival and metastasis. Most researches on CD44 in cancer focus on cancer cells. Recently, it is found that CD44 expression is high in fibroblasts of tumour microenvironment. However, its role in communication between fibroblasts and breast cancer cells is seldom known. In this study, CD44-positive (CD44(+) Fbs) and CD44-negative carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CD44(-) Fbs) were isolated and cocultured with breast cancer cells for analysis of cell survival and drug resistance...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521404/silencing-tak1-alters-gene-expression-signatures-in-bladder-cancer-cells
#16
Jimin Chen, Nan Zhang, Jiaming Wen, Zhewei Zhang
The aim of the present study was to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that are induced by the silencing of transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in bladder cancer cells and to analyze the potential biological effects. Dataset GSE52452 from mutant fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) bladder cancer cells transfected with control siRNA or TAK1-specific siRNA was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. The DEGs between the two groups were identified using Limma package following data pre-processing by Affy in Bioconductor...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518141/caf-secreted-cxcl1-conferred-radioresistance-by-regulating-dna-damage-response-in-a-ros-dependent-manner-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Hongfang Zhang, Jing Yue, Zhenzhen Jiang, Rongjing Zhou, Ruifei Xie, Yiping Xu, Shixiu Wu
Five-year survival rate of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients treated with radiotherapy is <20%. Our study aimed to investigate whether cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), one major component of tumor microenvironment, were involved in tumor radioresistance in ESCC. By use of human chemokine/cytokine array, human chemokine CXCL1 was found to be highly expressed in CAFs compared with that in matched normal fibroblasts. Inhibition of CXCL1 expression in CAFs significantly reversed CAF-conferred radioresistance in vitro and in vivo...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510269/kallikrein-related-peptidase-4-induces-cancer-associated-fibroblast-features-in-prostate-derived-stromal-cells
#18
T Kryza, L M Silva, N Bock, R A Fuhrman-Luck, C R Stephens, J Gao, H Samaratunga, M G Lawrence, J D Hooper, Y Dong, G P Risbridger, J A Clements
The reciprocal communication between cancer cells and their microenvironment is critical in cancer progression. Although involvement of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) in cancer progression is long established, the molecular mechanisms leading to differentiation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts are poorly understood. Here, we report that kallikrein-related peptidase-4 (KLK4) promotes CAF differentiation. KLK4 is highly expressed in prostate epithelial cells of premalignant (prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia) and malignant lesions compared to normal prostate epithelia, especially at the peri-stromal interface...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506312/pathomimetic-avatars-reveal-divergent-roles-of-microenvironment-in-invasive-transition-of-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#19
Mansoureh Sameni, Dora Cavallo-Medved, Omar E Franco, Anita Chalasani, Kyungmin Ji, Neha Aggarwal, Arulselvi Anbalagan, Xuequn Chen, Raymond R Mattingly, Simon W Hayward, Bonnie F Sloane
BACKGROUND: The breast tumor microenvironment regulates progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). However, it is unclear how interactions between breast epithelial and stromal cells can drive this progression and whether there are reliable microenvironmental biomarkers to predict transition of DCIS to IDC. METHODS: We used xenograft mouse models and a 3D pathomimetic model termed mammary architecture and microenvironment engineering (MAME) to study the interplay between human breast myoepithelial cells (MEPs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) on DCIS progression...
May 15, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504692/mint3-mediated-l1cam-expression-in-fibroblasts-promotes-cancer-cell-proliferation-via-integrin-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-and-tumour-growth
#20
H J Nakaoka, Z Tanei, T Hara, J S Weng, A Kanamori, T Hayashi, H Sato, A Orimo, K Otsuji, K Tada, T Morikawa, T Sasaki, M Fukayama, M Seiki, Y Murakami, T Sakamoto
Fibroblasts are some of the major cells in tumour tissues that influence tumour progression and drug resistance. However, our understanding on fibroblast-mediated tumour malignancy remains incomplete. Munc18-1-interacting protein 3 (Mint3) is known as an activator of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) even during normoxia in cancer cells, macrophages and fibroblasts. Although Mint3 promotes ATP production via glycolysis by activating HIF-1 in cancer cells and macrophages, the biological role of Mint3-mediated HIF-1 activation in fibroblasts remains unclear...
May 15, 2017: Oncogenesis
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