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Philosophy of perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901599/balancing-bioethics-by-sensing-the-aesthetic
#1
Paul Macneill
This article is critical of "bioethics" as it is widely understood and taught, noting in particular an emphasis given to philosophical justification, reason and rationality. It is proposed that "balancing" bioethics be achieved by giving greater weight to practice and the aesthetic: Defined in terms of sensory perception, emotion and feeling. Each of those three elements is elaborated as a non-cognitive capacity and, when taken together, comprise aesthetic sensitivity and responsiveness. This is to recognise the aesthetic as a productive element in bioethics as practice...
October 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840608/a-practice-model-for-rural-district-nursing-success-in-end-of-life-advocacy-care
#2
Frances M Reed, Les Fitzgerald, Melanie R Bish
AIM: The development of a practice model for rural district nursing successful end-of-life advocacy care. BACKGROUND: Resources to help people live well in the end stages of life in rural areas can be limited and difficult to access. District nurse advocacy may promote end-of-life choice for people living at home in rural Australia. The lack of evidence available internationally to inform practice in this context was addressed by exploratory study. METHOD: A pragmatic mixed method study approved by the University Faculty Ethics Committee and conducted from March 2014 to August 2015 was used to explore the successful end-of-life advocacy of 98 rural Australian district nurses...
August 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818834/designing-and-implementing-a-physiology-course-for-a-new-doctoral-occupational-therapy-program-with-student-feedback
#3
Barbara E Goodman, Moses N Ikiugu
Recently, the Occupational Therapy Department requested a custom-designed medical physiology course for the students in the new occupational therapy doctoral program. The first author, a physiologist with extensive experience in teaching both undergraduate preprofessional and medical students in human physiology, was recruited to design and implement the course. The course was designed to be consistent with the constructivist philosophy that guides the occupational therapy curriculum. The course was offered for the first time during fall/spring 2015/2016 and included both first- and second-year occupational therapy doctoral students...
September 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713467/quality-versus-quantity-debate-in-swimming-perceptions-and-training-practices-of-expert-swimming-coaches
#4
Frank J Nugent, Thomas M Comyns, Giles D Warrington
The debate over low-volume, high-intensity training versus high-volume, low-intensity training, commonly known as Quality versus Quantity, respectively, is a frequent topic of discussion among swimming coaches and academics. The aim of this study was to explore expert coaches' perceptions of quality and quantity coaching philosophies in competitive swimming and to investigate their current training practices. A purposeful sample of 11 expert swimming coaches was recruited for this study. The study was a mixed methods design and involved each coach participating in 1 semi-structured interview and completing 1 closed-ended questionnaire...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639739/philosophical-aesthetics-and-cognitive-science
#5
REVIEW
Aaron Meskin, Jon Robson, Anna Ichino, Kris Goffin, Annelies Monseré
Philosophical aesthetics is the branch of philosophy which explores issues having to do with art, beauty, and related phenomena. Philosophers have often been skeptical about the place of empirical investigation in aesthetics. However, in recent years many philosophical aestheticians have turned to cognitive science to enrich their understanding of their subject matter. Cognitive scientists have, in turn, been inspired by work in philosophical aesthetics. This essay focuses on a representative subset of the areas in which there has been fruitful dialog between philosophical aestheticians and cognitive scientists...
June 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634457/perceptual-categories-derived-from-reid-s-common-sense-philosophy
#6
Adam Reeves, Birgitta Dresp-Langley
The 18th-century Scottish 'common sense' philosopher Thomas Reid argued that perception can be distinguished on several dimensions from other categories of experience, such as sensation, illusion, hallucination, mental images, and what he called 'fancy.' We extend his approach to eleven mental categories, and discuss how these distinctions, often ignored in the empirical literature, bear on current research. We also score each category on five properties (ones abstracted from Reid) to form a 5 × 11 matrix, and thus can generate statistical measures of their mutual dependencies, a procedure that may have general interest as illustrating what we can call 'computational philosophy...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602119/improving-the-quality-of-end-of-life-care-in-pediatric-oncology-patients-through-the-early-implementation-of-palliative-care
#7
Lauren Ranallo
Providing end-of-life care to children with cancer is most ideally achieved by initiating palliative care at the time of diagnosis, advocating for supportive care throughout the treatment trajectory, and implementing hospice care during the terminal phase. The guiding principles behind offering palliative care to pediatric oncology patients are the prioritization of providing holistic care and management of disease-based symptoms. Pediatric hematology-oncology nurses and clinicians have a unique responsibility to support the patient and family unit and foster a sense of hope, while also preparing the family for the prognosis and a challenging treatment trajectory that could result in the child's death...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588463/looking-for-the-self-phenomenology-neurophysiology-and-philosophical-significance-of-drug-induced-ego-dissolution
#8
Raphaël Millière
There is converging evidence that high doses of hallucinogenic drugs can produce significant alterations of self-experience, described as the dissolution of the sense of self and the loss of boundaries between self and world. This article discusses the relevance of this phenomenon, known as "drug-induced ego dissolution (DIED)", for cognitive neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. Data from self-report questionnaires suggest that three neuropharmacological classes of drugs can induce ego dissolution: classical psychedelics, dissociative anesthetics and agonists of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554452/characterizing-the-orthodontic-patient-s-purchase-decision-a-novel-approach-using-netnography
#9
Joseph W Pittman, M Elizabeth Bennett, Lorne D Koroluk, Stacey G Robinson, Ceib L Phillips
INTRODUCTION: A deeper and more thorough characterization of why patients do or do not seek orthodontic treatment is needed for effective shared decision making about receiving treatment. Previous orthodontic qualitative research has identified important dimensions that influence treatment decisions, but our understanding of patients' decisions and how they interpret benefits and barriers of treatment are lacking. The objectives of this study were to expand our current list of decision-making dimensions and to create a conceptual framework to describe the decision-making process...
June 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536548/complementarity-as-generative-principle-a-thought-pattern-for-aesthetic-appreciations-and-cognitive-appraisals-in-general
#10
Yan Bao, Alexandra von Stosch, Mona Park, Ernst Pöppel
In experimental aesthetics the relationship between the arts and cognitive neuroscience has gained particular interest in recent years. But has cognitive neuroscience indeed something to offer when studying the arts? Here we present a theoretical frame within which the concept of complementarity as a generative or creative principle is proposed; neurocognitive processes are characterized by the duality of complementary activities like bottom-up and top-down control, or logistical functions like temporal control and content functions like perceptions in the neural machinery...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366885/spinoza-s-life-1677-1802
#11
Wiep van Bunge
Immediately after Spinoza's death in 1677 his first biographers framed a life which would play an important part in the eighteenth-century perception of the Dutch philosopher. Bayle's entry on Spinoza in the Dictionnaire in particular, together with Jelles's preface to the Opera posthuma, created the image of a philosopher whose dedication to philosophy was unconditional and whose moral behavior was impeccable. Despite the general hostility which Spinoza's views continued to meet, his life appears to have contributed considerably to the gradual rediscovery of his works during the dying decades of the eighteenth century, most notably in Germany and the Netherlands...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340573/a-questionnaire-measuring-staff-perceptions-of-lean-adoption-in-healthcare-development-and-psychometric-testing
#12
Monica Kaltenbrunner, Lars Bengtsson, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Maria Engström
BACKGROUND: During the past decade, the concept of Lean has spread rapidly within the healthcare sector, but there is a lack of instruments that can measure staff's perceptions of Lean adoption. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring Lean in healthcare, based on Liker's description of Lean, by adapting an existing instrument developed for the service sector. METHODS: A mixed-method design was used. Initially, items from the service sector instrument were categorized according to Liker's 14 principles describing Lean within four domains: philosophy, processes, people and partners and problem-solving...
March 24, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300480/impossible-decision-an-investigation-of-risk-trade-offs-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#13
Tom W Reader, Geetha Reddy, Stephen J Brett
In the intensive care unit (ICU), clinicians must often make risk trade-offs on patient care. For example, on deciding whether to discharge a patient before they have fully recovered in order to create a bed for another, sicker, patient. When misjudged, these decisions can negatively influence patient outcomes: yet it can be difficult, if not impossible, for clinicians to evaluate with certainty the safest course of action. Using a vignette-based interview methodology, a naturalistic decision-making approach was utilised to study this phenomena...
March 16, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248434/perceptions-of-learning-disability-nurses-and-support-staff-towards-people-with-a-diagnosis-of-schizophrenia
#14
S McCorkindale, M P Fleming, C R Martin
WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: People with learning disability are more likely than the general population to develop schizophrenia. Personal recovery philosophies are based on positive attitudes and an optimism that recognizes and values people and their strengths and capacity to achieve goals. Little is known from previous studies about the illness perceptions of learning disability practitioners who work with people that experience both a learning disability and schizophrenia. The illness beliefs of learning disability practitioners about schizophrenia may mediate the potential for social exclusion and limit recovery outcomes...
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237008/kansei-engineering-as-a-tool-for-the-design-of-in-vehicle-rubber-keypads
#15
Joana Vieira, Joana Maria A Osório, Sandra Mouta, Pedro Delgado, Aníbal Portinha, José Filipe Meireles, Jorge Almeida Santos
Manufacturers are currently adopting a consumer-centered philosophy which poses the challenge of developing differentiating products in a context of constant innovation and competitiveness. To merge both function and experience in a product, it is necessary to understand customers' experience when interacting with interfaces. This paper describes the use of Kansei methodology as a tool to evaluate the subjective perception of rubber keypads. Participants evaluated eleven rubber keys with different values of force, stroke and snap ratio, according to seven Kansei words ranging from "pleasantness" to "clickiness"...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182960/paediatric-nurses-perceptions-and-practices-of-family-centred-care-in-saudi-hospitals-a-mixed-methods-study
#16
Hawa Alabdulaziz, Cheryle Moss, Beverley Copnell
BACKGROUND: Family-centred care is widely accepted as the underlying philosophy of paediatric nursing. Studies of family-centred care have mainly been conducted in western countries and little is known of its practice in other contexts. No studies have been undertaken in the Middle East. AIM: To explore family-centred care in the Saudi context from the perspectives of paediatric nurses. DESIGN: A mixed methodology was utilised with an explanatory sequential design...
April 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095762/a-moral-profession
#17
Roger Newham, Louise Terry, Siobhan Atherley, Sinead Hahessy, Yolanda Babenko-Mould, Marilyn Evans, Karen Ferguson, Graham Carr, S H Cedar
BACKGROUND: Lack of compassion is claimed to result in poor and sometimes harmful nursing care. Developing strategies to encourage compassionate caring behaviours are important because there is evidence to suggest a connection between having a moral orientation such as compassion and resulting caring behaviour in practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to articulate a clearer understanding of compassionate caring via nurse educators' selection and use of published texts and film...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091738/-historical-pain-concepts-cultural-influences-on-pain-perception-and-interpretation
#18
D Schäfer
In the age of globalization and cultural diversification differing concepts of pain in patient care are of increasing importance. Historical models of the origin and interpretation of pain, which in this article are presented in a cursory and exemplary way, help to understand the panoply of modern concepts outside of medicine. Basically, pain was viewed not only in religion and philosophy but also by premodern physicians as a psychophysical phenomenon crucially depending on the determination by a "soul" therefore creating therapeutic options even before the discovery of an effective analgesia...
January 13, 2017: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051888/the-benefits-and-burdens-of-cancer-a-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-adolescents-and-young-adults
#19
Joelle P Straehla, Krysta S Barton, Joyce P Yi-Frazier, Claire Wharton, Kevin Scott Baker, Kira Bona, Joanne Wolfe, Abby R Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Adolescents and early young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at high risk for poor outcomes. Positive psychological responses such as benefit-finding may buffer the negative impacts of cancer but are poorly understood in this population. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to prospectively describe the content and trajectory of benefit- and burden-finding among AYAs to develop potential targets for future intervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One-on-one semistructured interviews were conducted with English-speaking AYA patients (aged 14-25 years) within 60 days of diagnosis of a noncentral nervous system malignancy requiring chemotherapy, 6-12 and 12-18 months later...
May 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938717/how-we-load-our-data-sets-with-theories-and-why-we-do-so-purposefully
#20
Guillaume Rochefort-Maranda
In this paper, I compare theory-laden perceptions with imputed data sets. The similarities between the two allow me to show how the phenomenon of theory-ladenness can manifest itself in statistical analyses. More importantly, elucidating the differences between them will allow me to broaden the focus of the existing literature on theory-ladenness and to introduce some much-needed nuances. The topic of statistical imputation has received no attention in philosophy of science. Yet, imputed data sets are very similar to theory-laden perceptions, and they are now an integral part of many scientific inferences...
December 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
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