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Philosophy of perception

Konstantinos Moutoussis
The purpose of the present article is to try and give a brief, scientific perspective on several issues raised in the Philosophy of Perception literature. This perspective gives a central role to the brain mechanisms that underlie perception: a percept is something that emerges when the brain is activated in a certain way and thus all perceptual experiences (whether veridical, illusory, or hallucinatory) have a common cause behind them, namely a given brain-activation pattern. What distinguishes between different cases of perception is what has caused this activation pattern, i...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Sanne Angel, Solfrid Vatne
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This paper examines the mutual vulnerability of patients and nurses, anticipating that an enhanced understanding of the phenomenon may help reduce vulnerability. BACKGROUND: Patient vulnerability is a key issue in nursing, aimed at protecting the patient from harm. In the literature, vulnerability is described both from a risk perspective and a subjective perspective. This implies that the objective dimension of patient vulnerability does not necessarily reflect the patient's own perception of being vulnerable...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Trine Stub, Sara A Quandt, Thomas A Arcury, Joanne C Sandberg, Agnete E Kristoffersen, Frauke Musial, Anita Salamonsen
BACKGROUND: Communication between different health care providers (conventional and complementary) and cancer patients about their use of complementary therapies affects the health and safety of the patients. The aim of this study was to examine the qualitative research literature on the perception of and communication about the risk of complementary therapies between different health care providers and cancer patients. METHODS: Systematic searches in six medical databases covering literature from 2000 to 2015 were performed...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Sandra Nicholson, Adrian Michael Hastings, Robert Kee McKinley
BACKGROUND: Despite concerns about recruitment to UK general practice, there has been no concerted educational intervention to address them. AIM: To better understand how medical students' perceptions of their experiences of their undergraduate curriculum may affect choosing general practice as a career. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative study comprising focus groups of a total of 58 students from a range of medical schools across the UK. METHOD: A range of UK medical schools students were invited by email to participate in focus groups and return a questionnaire detailing their current career choice to facilitate sampling students with varied career preferences...
October 2016: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Janice Bass, Caroline Walters, Jocelyn Toohill, Mary Sidebotham
Retention of students is critical to education programs and future workforce. A mixed methods study evaluated student engagement within a Bachelor of Midwifery program and connection with career choice through participation in student support circles. Centred on the Five Senses of Success Framework (sense of capability, purpose, identity, resourcefulness and connectedness) and including four stages of engagement (creating space, preparing self, sharing stories, focused conversations), the circles support and develop student and professional identity...
September 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Christiane Brems, Dharmakaya Colgan, Heather Freeman, Jillian Freitas, Lauren Justice, Margaret Shean, Kari Sulenes
BACKGROUND: The practice of yoga has a long history as an integrated lifestyle science. Those who have practiced yoga in its full form (including all eight traditional aspects) find that it touches almost every aspect of their inter- and intra-personal lives. Despite this rich history, the West has adopted limited aspects of yoga practice. When understood narrowly as a physical fitness practice, healthful benefits of yoga may be lost, possibly promoting body-consciousness and injury instead...
July 2016: International Journal of Yoga
Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker, Peter Clough
The present paper examined relationships between schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experience; O-LIFE scale brief), belief in the paranormal (assessed via the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; RPBS) and proneness to statistical bias (i.e., perception of randomness and susceptibility to conjunction fallacy). Participants were 254 volunteers recruited via convenience sampling. Probabilistic reasoning problems appeared framed within both standard and paranormal contexts. Analysis revealed positive correlations between the Unusual Experience (UnExp) subscale of O-LIFE and paranormal belief measures [RPBS full scale, traditional paranormal beliefs (TPB) and new age philosophy]...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Debra Parker Oliver, George Demiris, Karla Washington, Robin L Kruse, Greg Petroski
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Untrained family caregivers struggle with complicated medical management regimens for hospice patients. An intervention was tested to improve caregiver's perception of pain management and patient's pain. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The intervention was tested with a 2-group (usual care vs intervention) randomized controlled trial using parallel mixed-methods analysis of 446 caregivers in 3 Midwestern hospice programs representing rural and urban settings...
July 27, 2016: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Kiersten Pianosi, Cheri Bethune, Katrina F Hurley
BACKGROUND: Specialty career choice is a critical decision for medical students, and research has examined factors influencing particular specialties or assessed it from a demographic perspective. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe influential factors in students' decision-making, irrespective of their particular specialty in a Canadian medical school. METHODS: Study participants were recruited from fourth-year medical classes at the Memorial University of Newfoundland in 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2008...
April 2016: CMAJ Open
R West, J Gamble, J Kelly, T Milne, E Duffy, M Sidebotham
BACKGROUND: Evidence is emerging of the benefits to students of providing continuity of midwifery care as a learning strategy in midwifery education, however little is known about the value of this strategy for midwifery students. AIM: To explore Indigenous students' perceptions of providing continuity of midwifery care to Indigenous women whilst undertaking a Bachelor of Midwifery. METHODS: Indigenous Bachelor of Midwifery students' experiences of providing continuity of midwifery care to Indigenous childbearing women were explored within an Indigenous research approach using a narrative inquiry framework...
July 5, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Paolo Papale, Leonardo Chiesi, Alessandra C Rampinini, Pietro Pietrini, Emiliano Ricciardi
In the last decades, the rapid growth of functional brain imaging methodologies allowed cognitive neuroscience to address open questions in philosophy and social sciences. At the same time, novel insights from cognitive neuroscience research have begun to influence various disciplines, leading to a turn to cognition and emotion in the fields of planning and architectural design. Since 2003, the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture has been supporting 'neuro-architecture' as a way to connect neuroscience and the study of behavioral responses to the built environment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Hermine Warren
Significant numbers of adults, when presented with basic health care information, have been shown to struggle with their abilities to comprehend and integrate materials presented to them. This lack of perception underscores the essence of health literacy. Even though health literacy is a newer concept, its impact is gathering momentum, as politicians, health care providers, researchers, and the media become more aware of the extent this disparity is seen within the health care system and how it affects patient care...
April 2016: Plastic Surgical Nursing
Christoph Teufel, Bence Nanay
The question of whether cognition can influence perception has a long history in neuroscience and philosophy. Here, we outline a novel approach to this issue, arguing that it should be viewed within the framework of top-down information-processing. This approach leads to a reversal of the standard explanatory order of the cognitive penetration debate: we suggest studying top-down processing at various levels without preconceptions of perception or cognition. Once a clear picture has emerged about which processes have influences on those at lower levels, we can re-address the extent to which they should be considered perceptual or cognitive...
May 26, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
J Subramanian, W M Thomson
INTRODUCTION: Currently, there is a lack of studies focusing on professional doctoral students' and graduates' perceptions of their learning environment, in particular, using a qualitative approach to elicit in-depth information. This article aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge by systematically exploring, critically analysing and getting a deeper understanding of professional doctorate dental students' and graduates' insights into effective and ineffective clinical and physical learning environment characteristics...
May 28, 2016: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
Nadine Nehls, Gale Barber, Elizabeth Rice
New educational pathways are needed to increase the number of doctor of philosophy (PhD)-prepared nurses. To address this need, an early-entry PhD option designed to engage students in PhD coursework and research during the undergraduate nursing major was developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. An evaluation comparing the early-entry option with two more conventional entry points was conducted. Three groups (N = 84) comprised the sample: (a) early-entry students admitted as undergraduates or immediately upon graduation (N = 29), (b) mid-entry students with baccalaureate degrees and at least 1 year of work experience (N = 27), and (c) delayed-entry students with master's degrees and 1 or more years of work experience (N = 28)...
May 2016: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Giulia Ottonello, Annamaria Bagnasco, Simona Calza, Loredana Sasso
UNLABELLED: Theme: Accreditation and quality improvement Introduction: Most of the nurses know the principles of family-centred care (FCC) and can define it. However, we need to investigate their real perceptions about this philosophy of care. AIMS: The aim of this research paper is to analyze how nurses from Gaslini Hospital perceive FCC practices. We use data taken from a questionnaire and compare these results with those obtained from other studies carried out in different countries...
May 9, 2016: Nursing Children and Young People
Laura Menatti, Antonio Casado da Rocha
In this paper we address a frontier topic in the humanities, namely how the cultural and natural construction that we call landscape affects well-being and health. Following an updated review of evidence-based literature in the fields of medicine, psychology, and architecture, we propose a new theoretical framework called "processual landscape," which is able to explain both the health-landscape and the medical agency-structure binomial pairs. We provide a twofold analysis of landscape, from both the cultural and naturalist points of view: in order to take into account its relationship with health, the definition of landscape as a cultural product needs to be broadened through naturalization, grounding it in the scientific domain...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Vanessa Robinson-Dooley, Quienton Nichols
Healthcare reform has had its impact on many health professionals as well as clinical settings, particularly with the enactment of the Affordable Care Act. In healthcare settings, healthcare teams are challenged with new systems of care and changing philosophies of management. However, healthcare providers retain a distinctive sense that they cannot always provide care without some form of collaboration. This article presents the results of a pilot study, which measured the effectiveness of a model of practice utilised at a faculty-practitioner operated university community clinic...
July 2016: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Michael Morgan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2016: Perception
M Chirimuuta
Psychologists in the early years of the discipline were much concerned with the stimulus-error. Roughly, this is the problem encountered in introspective experiments when subjects are liable to frame their perceptual reports in terms of what they know of the stimulus, instead of just drawing on their perceptual experiences as they are supposedly felt. "Introspectionist" psychologist E. B. Titchener and his student E. G. Boring both argued in the early 20th century that the stimulus-error is a serious methodological pit-fall...
April 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
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