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Philosophy of perception

Samuel P L Veissière, Moriah Stendel
We present a deflationary account of smartphone addiction by situating this purportedly antisocial phenomenon within the fundamentally social dispositions of our species. While we agree with contemporary critics that the hyper-connectedness and unpredictable rewards of mobile technology can modulate negative affect, we propose to place the locus of addiction on an evolutionarily older mechanism: the human need to monitor and be monitored by others. Drawing from key findings in evolutionary anthropology and the cognitive science of religion, we articulate a hypernatural monitoring model of smartphone addiction grounded in a general social rehearsal theory of human cognition...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Linda B Cain, Sherill Nones Cronin, Debbie Nelson, Darla A Meredith, Karen Profitt Newman, Steven Rudolf
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this project was to identify key behaviors and attributes that distinguish high-performing nurses to develop a tool for employment screening, staff development, and performance management. BACKGROUND: Selecting nurses who will complement an organization's mission and philosophy is a key step toward achieving quality and safety goals, ensuring patient and family satisfaction, and improving retention rates and overall costs. METHODS: Focus group methodology was used to determine perceptions of high-performing nurses' behaviors and attributes...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Nursing Administration
Michelle Skop, Justin Lorentz, Mobin Jassi, Danny Vesprini, Gillian Einstein
Men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and may have an indication for breast cancer screening using mammography. Since breast cancer is often viewed as a woman's disease, visibilizing and understanding men's experience of having a BRCA mutation and specifically, of screening for breast cancer through mammography, were the objectives of this research study. The theoretical framework of interpretive phenomenology guided the process of data collection, coding, and analysis...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Malene Missel, Mette Hansen, Rie Jackson, Mette Siemsen, Mai Nanna Schønau
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To provide in-depth insight into patients' lived experiences of participating in an education and counseling nutritional intervention after curative surgery for esophageal cancer. BACKGROUND: Surgery for esophageal cancer carries a risk of malnutrition. The consequences of nutritional problems may lead to increased morbidity and mortality postoperatively and have consequences for convalescence, rehabilitation and quality of life. DESIGN: Qualitative study based on a phenomenological approach...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Therese I Poirier, Connie Stamper-Carr, Kate Newman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To design and implement an undergraduate honors course for pre-health professional students that develops interpersonal skills through use of a variety of humanities. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: A three credit hour course in an honors seminar sequence was developed by pharmacy practice faculty and with input from faculty in mass communications, philosophy, applied communication studies and history. The course utilized a variety of media such as literature, film, and podcasts to foster student discussion about a variety of health-related topics...
September 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Lisa A Boden, Harriet Auty, Aaron Reeves, Gustaf Rydevik, Paul Bessell, Iain J McKendrick
Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Sini Jacob, Ian Munro, Beverley Joan Taylor, Debra Griffiths
The concept of mental health recovery promotes collaborative partnership among consumers, carers and service providers. However views on mental health recovery are less explored among carers and service providers. The aim of this review was to analyse contemporary literature exploring views of mental health consumers, carers and service providers in relation to their understanding of the meaning of mental health recovery and factors influencing mental health recovery. The literature review questions were: How is mental health recovery and factors influencing mental health recovery viewed by consumers, carers and service providers? What are the differences and similarities in those perceptions? How can the outcomes and recommendations inform the Australian mental health practices? A review of the literature used selected electronic databases and specific search terms and supplemented with manual searching...
2017: Collegian: Journal of the Royal College of Nursing, Australia
Alicja Edyta Krzemińska, Anna Danuta Zaręba, Anna Dzikowska, Katarzyna Rozalia Jarosz
The concepts of the cities we know nowadays, and which we are accustomed to, change at a very rapid pace. The philosophy of their design is also changing. It will base on new standards, entering a completely different, futuristic dimension. This stage is related to changes in the perception of space, location and lack of belonging to definite, national or cultural structures. Cities of the future are cities primarily intelligent, zero-energetic, zero-waste, environmentally sustainable, self-sufficient in terms of both organic food production and symbiosis between the environment and industry...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Martin Riemer
The existence of a free will is fiercely debated in neuroscience and philosophy. The debate has great impact on society and our self-understanding as human beings. Behavioral and electrophysiological data have challenged the intuitive assumption that human behavior is the result of conscious intentions. This notion has important implications for delusions of control in schizophrenia, where patients experience bodily movements as not being controlled by themselves. Current theories explain control delusions as a deficit to perceive certain aspects of motor control, but many findings are inconsistent with this idea...
December 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Susan L Travis, Paul E Dux, Jason B Mattingley
The relationship between visual attention and conscious perception has been the subject of debate across a number of fields, including philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience. Whereas some researchers view attention and awareness as inextricably linked, others propose that the two are supported by distinct neural mechanisms that can be fully dissociated. In a pioneering study, van Boxtel, Tsuchiya, and Koch (2010b) reported evidence for a dissociation between attention and conscious perception using a perceptual adaptation task in which participants' perceptual awareness and visual attention were manipulated independently...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Roger Coates, Renate Czarwinski
The system of protection, which provides the basic underpinning philosophy and principles for radiation protection, is constantly evolving in the light of developing scientific understanding and practical experience. Over recent times there has been significant learning from experiences relating to the Fukushima accident, and there is also increasing recognition of the importance of enhancing public understanding of radiation and risk. The practical application of radiation protection is undertaken by thousands of practitioners around the world, and it is IRPA's task to ensure that this experience is fed back for the benefit of all...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Kathrin Glüer
In natural language, looks-talk is used in a variety of ways. I investigate three uses of 'looks' that have traditionally been distinguished - epistemic, comparative, and phenomenal 'looks' - and endorse and develop considerations in support of the view that these amount to polysemy. Focusing on the phenomenal use of 'looks', I then investigate connections between its semantics, the content of visual experience, and the metaphysics of looks. I argue that phenomenal 'looks' is not a propositional attitude operator: We do not use it to ascribe propositional attitudes to subjects, but to directly ascribe looks to objects, where looks are relational properties...
2017: Review of Philosophy and Psychology
Sinéad Murphy, Raphael Mc Mullin, Sinéad Brennan, Therese Connell Meehan
AIM: To explore the effectiveness and feasibility of implementing the two clinical dimensions of the Careful Nursing Philosophy and Professional Practice Model(©) (Careful Nursing) in an acute care hospital. BACKGROUND: Implementation of a professional practice model by nurses in hospitals supports nurses' control over their practice and enhances the quality of their contribution to patient care. Implementing such change is complex and initially best approached on a small scale...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Nursing Management
Patricia Grace-Farfaglia, Denise Pickett-Bernard, Andrea White Gorman, Jaleh Dehpahlavan
Studies of health providers suggest that satisfaction with life is related to their values and sense of purpose which is best achieved when their professional role is in harmony with personal philosophy. Cross-sectional surveys suggest that personal health beliefs and practices of health professionals influence their clinical counseling practices. However, little is known about the influence of health philosophy on the personal satisfaction with life for dietitians. This study recruited a randomly selected, cross-sectional sample to complete a self-administered online survey...
October 19, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
Sheryl Kubiak, Erin Comartin, Edita Milanovic, Deborah Bybee, Elizabeth Tillander, Celeste Rabaut, Heidi Bisson, Lisa M Dunn, Michael J Bouchard, Todd Hill, Steven Schneider
The crisis intervention team (CIT) is a tool that can be used to foster pre-booking diversion of individuals with mental illness from the criminal justice system and into community treatment services. Although CIT is often implemented solely as the training of law enforcement officers, the model stipulates that CIT is a vehicle for collaboration with community stakeholders who share a similar philosophy, as well as expanded mental health services offering a 24 hour-seven days per week drop-off option for law enforcement officers...
October 5, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Diane Wright, Jan Pincombe, Lois McKellar
BACKGROUND: Listening to women as part of their antenatal care has been recognized as valuable in understanding the woman's needs. Conversations as part of routine antenatal interactions offer ideal opportunities for women to express themselves and for midwives to learn about the woman's issues and concerns. The antenatal visit and the convention of antenatal consultations for midwives have not been well explored or defined and much of what takes place replicate medical consultative processes...
September 29, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Roisin Lennon, Anne Fallon
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of nurse prescribers in an acute service setting. DESIGN: A descriptive phenomenological design underpinned by Husserl's philosophy was used as the guiding framework. METHODS: Data were collected using semistructured interviews and purposive sampling of 11 current registered nurse prescribers from two acute hospitals. Colaizzi's seven steps were employed to analyse the data and develop themes which reflected the participants' experiences of prescribing...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Simone de Araújo Medina Mendonça, Erika Lourenço de Freitas, Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To understand students' and tutors' perceptions of the development of clinical competencies for the delivery of comprehensive medication management services in an experiential learning project linked to a Brazilian school of pharmacy. METHODS: An autoethnographic qualitative study was carried out based on participant observation, focus groups and individual interviews with students and tutors involved in an experiential learning project. RESULTS: The study revealed the development of competencies related to the philosophy of practice, the pharmacotherapy workup of drug therapy and interprofessional relationships...
2017: PloS One
Karen Chan Osilla, Magdalena Kulesza, Jeanne Miranda
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are common among first-time driving under the influence (DUI) offenders. Individuals with a DUI arrest may attend a DUI alcohol education program for license reinstatement. We evaluated the acceptability of cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for AUDs adapted for DUI programs. Participants (N=35) were enrolled in one of two DUI programs in Los Angeles and were an average of 34.5 (SD=11.9) years old; 66% male; 37.1% African American, 34.2% Hispanic/Latino(a), and 20% non-Hispanic White...
2017: Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly
Paul Macneill
This article is critical of "bioethics" as it is widely understood and taught, noting in particular an emphasis given to philosophical justification, reason and rationality. It is proposed that "balancing" bioethics be achieved by giving greater weight to practice and the aesthetic: Defined in terms of sensory perception, emotion and feeling. Each of those three elements is elaborated as a non-cognitive capacity and, when taken together, comprise aesthetic sensitivity and responsiveness. This is to recognise the aesthetic as a productive element in bioethics as practice...
October 2017: Bioethics
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