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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724270/synergistic-effects-of-ad-libitum-low-dose-fructose-drinking-and-low-dose-streptozotocin-treatment-in-wistar-rats-a-mild-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
Asie Sadeghi, Maani Beigy, Samira Alizadeh, Hossein Mazloom, Sanaz Vakili, Saideh Ahmadi, Reza Meshkani
To develop a convenient animal model of T2D by pretreatment with low-dose 10% w/v fructose (FRC) solution followed by the injection of low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats. For this 8-week experimental study; rats were first fed a standard chow ad-libitum diet and either tap water (n=40) or 10% w/v FRC solution (n=40) for 4 weeks. Next, rats in each category were randomly allocated to 4 subgroups (n=10 each) of low-dose STZ (25,35, and 45 mg/kg). The final mean fasting blood sugar (FBG) of FRC+STZ45 (197±55...
May 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724263/mutagenesis-and-characterization-of-a-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-strain-for-cinnamomum-camphora-seed-kernel-oil-extraction-by-aqueous-enzymatic-method
#2
Cheng Zeng, Rongbin Zhao, Maomao Ma, Zheling Zeng, Deming Gong
The purpose of the present study was to increase the proteinase activity of the strain NCU116 by combining ultraviolet irradiation and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso guanidine treatment, in order to enhance the efficiency of Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) extraction by aqueous enzymatic method (AEM). The mutated strain, designated as NCU116-1, was screened out by the ratio of hydrolytic zone diameter to colony diameter on skim milk plate. The proteinase activity (9116.1 U/ml) of NCU116-1 was increased by 31...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724222/development-of-a-soft-extraction-method-for-sulfamethoxazole-and-transformation-products-from-agricultural-soils-effects-of-organic-matter-co-extraction-on-the-environmental-availability-assessment
#3
Anaïs Goulas, Marjolaine Bourdat-Deschamps, Sylvie Nélieu, Julie Jimenez, Dominique Patureau, Claire-Sophie Haudin, Pierre Benoit
The recycling of biosolids and livestock manure in agriculture may lead to the introduction of antibiotic residues, i.e., parent molecule and transformation products, into amended soils. Their fate in soils can be approached through the assessment of their environmental availability. In this work, the environmental availability of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and three transformation products (N(4)-acetyl-SMX, 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole, aniline) was assessed in soils amended with sludge compost or cow manure throughout a three-month incubation, using soft extractions with CaCl2, EDTA or cyclodextrin solutions...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724152/cost-of-incremental-expansion-of-an-existing-family-medicine-residency-program
#4
Evan A Ashkin, Warren P Newton, Brian Toomey, Ronald Lingley, Cristen P Page
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Expanding residency training programs to address shortages in the primary care workforce is challenged by the present graduate medical education (GME) environment. The Medicare funding cap on new GME positions and reductions in the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Teaching Health Center (THC) GME program require innovative solutions to support primary care residency expansion. Sparse literature exists to assist in predicting the actual cost of incremental expansion of a family medicine residency program without federal or state GME support...
July 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724003/global-health-and-brazilian-foreign-policy-the-negotiations-on-innovation-and-intellectual-property
#5
Jordão Horácio da Silva Lima
Since the TRIPS Agreement (Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) came into effect, Brazil, like other developing countries, has become more assertive in multilateral negotiations and begun to argue that the present international system of intellectual property should be better adapted to its needs and interests. In doing so, the country has emphasized that intellectual property is not a subject exclusively associated with trade, but also with public health and human rights. This paper discusses the activity of the Brazilian government in multilateral negotiations that involve public health, innovation and intellectual property...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723991/health-inequalities-a-global-perspective
#6
Mauricio Lima Barreto
The objective of this article is to present health inequalities as a global problem which afflicts the populations of the poorest countries, but also those of the richest countries, and whose persistence represents one of the most serious and challenging health problems worldwide. Two components of global inequalities are highlighted: inequalities between groups within the same society, and inequalities between nations. The understanding that many of these inequalities are unjust, and therefore inequities, is largely derived from the inequalities that are identified between the various social groups of a given society...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723941/heat-treatment-as-a-universal-technical-solution-for-silcrete-use-a-comparison-between-silcrete-from-the-western-cape-south-africa-and-the-kalahari-botswana
#7
Patrick Schmidt, David J Nash, Sheila Coulson, Matthias B Göden, Graeme J Awcock
Heat treatment was one of the first transformative technologies in the southern African Middle Stone Age (MSA), with many studies in the Cape coastal zone of South Africa identifying it as an essential step in the preparation of silcrete prior to its use in stone tool manufacture. To date, however, no studies have investigated whether heat treatment is necessary for all silcrete types, and how geographically widespread heat treatment was in the subcontinent. The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally whether heat treatment continued further north into the Kalahari Desert of Botswana and northernmost South Africa, the closest area with major silcrete outcrops to the Cape...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723923/on-the-mechanism-of-candida-tropicalis-biofilm-reduction-by-the-combined-action-of-naturally-occurring-anthraquinones-and-blue-light
#8
Juliana Marioni, Roger Bresolí-Obach, Montserrat Agut, Laura R Comini, José L Cabrera, María G Paraje, Santi Nonell, Susana C Núñez Montoya
The photoprocesses involved in the photo-induced Candida tropicalis biofilm reduction by two natural anthraquinones (AQs), rubiadin (1) and rubiadin-1-methyl ether (2), were examined. Production of singlet oxygen (1O2) and of superoxide radical anion (O2•-) was studied. Although it was not possible to detect the triplet state absorption of any AQs in biofilms, observation of 1O2 phosphorescence incubated with deuterated Phosphate Buffer Solution, indicated that this species is actually formed in biofilms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723915/key-findings-from-a-prospective-trauma-registry-at-a-regional-hospital-in-southwest-cameroon
#9
Alain Chichom-Mefire, Obieze C Nwanna-Nzewunwa, Vincent Verla Siysi, Isabelle Feldhaus, Rochelle Dicker, Catherine Juillard
INTRODUCTION: Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Data characterizing the burden of trauma in Cameroon is limited. Regular, prospective injury surveillance can address the shortcomings of existing hospital administrative logs and medical records. This study aims to characterize trauma as seen at the emergency department (ED) of Limbe Regional Hospital (LRH) and assess the completeness of data obtained by a trauma registry. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From January 2008 to October 2013, we prospectively captured data on injured patients using a strategically designed, context-relevant trauma registry instrument...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723895/visible-light-driven-methane-formation-from-co2-with-a-molecular-iron-catalyst
#10
Heng Rao, Luciana C Schmidt, Julien Bonin, Marc Robert
Converting CO2 into fuel or chemical feedstock compounds could in principle reduce fossil fuel consumption and climate-changing CO2 emissions. One strategy aims for electrochemical conversions powered by electricity from renewable sources, but photochemical approaches driven by sunlight are also conceivable. A considerable challenge in both approaches is the development of efficient and selective catalysts, ideally based on cheap and Earth-abundant elements rather than expensive precious metals. Of the molecular photo- and electrocatalysts reported, only a few catalysts are stable and selective for CO2 reduction; moreover, these catalysts produce primarily CO or HCOOH, and catalysts capable of generating even low to moderate yields of highly reduced hydrocarbons remain rare...
July 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723714/vent-incisions-to-facilitate-peripheral-unfolding-of-the-dmek-graft
#11
Christopher Liu, Alfonso Vasquez-Perez, Jordan Vassileff Chervenkoff, Venkata Avadhanam
PURPOSE: To present the results of 15 cases in which a modified technique of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) with vent incisions was used to assist unfolding of tight peripheral inward folds. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of 15 consecutive eyes that underwent a modified vent incision technique for DMEK. Six oblique, small-size (1 mm) vent incisions parallel to the limbus and 3.5 mm from the center were performed after descemetorhexis...
July 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723603/ginkgo-biloba-in-the-treatment-of-tinnitus-an-updated-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Mohammad Reza Mahmoudian-Sani, Morteza Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Majid Asadi-Samani, Qian Yang
INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is one of the common diseases of the ear that is associated with numerous physical and mental disorders. One of the known mechanisms in the tinnitus area with unknown reason is oxidative events. Based on the prevalence and economic costs and physical- psychological side effects caused by tinnitus and the importance of finding a suitable solution for its prevention and treatment, the need for further studies becomes more obvious in this context. This review article aimed to review studies on the effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba as a medicinal plant on patients with tinnitus...
June 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723592/effects-of-near-infrared-radiation-on-dna-dls-and-atr-ftir-study
#13
Katarzyna Szymborska-Małek, Małgorzata Komorowska, Marlena Gąsior-Głogowska
We presume that the primary effect of Near Infrared (NIR) radiation on aqueous solutions of biological molecules concerns modification of hydrogen bonded structures mainly the global and the hydration shell water molecules. Since water has a significant influence on the DNA structure, we expect that the thermal stability of DNA could be modified by NIR radiation. The herring sperm DNA was exposed to NIR radiation (700-1100nm) for 5, 10, and 20min periods. The temperature dependent infrared measurements were done for the thin films formed on the diamond ATR crystal from evaporated DNA solutions exposed and unexposed to NIR radiation...
July 12, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723330/active-surveillance-for-low-risk-cancers-a-viable-solution-to-overtreatment
#14
Megan R Haymart, David C Miller, Sarah T Hawley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723222/extraction-of-2-phenylethanol-pea-from-aqueous-solution-using-ionic-liquids-synthesis-phase-equilibrium-investigation-selectivity-in-separation-and-thermodynamic-models
#15
Urszula Maria Domanska, Patrycja Okuniewska, Kamil Paduszyński, Marta Królikowska, Maciej Zawadzki, Mikolaj Wieckowski
This work presents some important issues and topics related to possible extraction of 2-phenylethanol (PEA) from aqueous phase "in situ" during the biosynthesis. It consist of a series of experimental phase equilibrium measurements in binary and ternary systems. Ionic liquids (ILs) are an important new media for imaging and sensing applications because of their solvation property, thermal stability and negligible vapor pressure. However, complex procedures and non-miscibility with water are often required in PEA extraction...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723214/electrokinetic-manipulation-integrated-plasmonic-photonic-hybrid-raman-nanosensors-with-dually-enhanced-sensitivity
#16
Chao Liu, Zheng Wang, Erwen Li, Zexi Liang, Swapnajit Chakravarty, Xiaochuan Xu, Alan X Wang, Ray T Chen, Donglei Fan
To detect biochemicals with ultrahigh sensitivity, efficiency, reproducibility, and specificity has been the holy grail in the development of nanosensors. In this work, we report an innovative type of photonic-plasmonic hybrid Raman nanosensor integrated with electrokinetic manipulation by rational design, which offers dual mechanisms that enhance the sensitivity for molecule detection directly in solution. For the first time, we integrate large arrays of synthesized plasmonic nanocapsules with densely surface distributed silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) on lithographically patterned photonic crystal slabs via electric-field assembling...
March 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723210/bipolar-electrodes-with-100-current-efficiency-for-sensors
#17
Xiaowei Zhang, Qingfeng Zhai, Huanhuan Xing, Jing Li, Erkang Wang
A bipolar electrode (BPE) is an electron conductor that is embedded in the electrolyte solution without the direct connection with the external power source (driving electrode). When the sufficient voltage was provided, the two poles of BPE promote different oxidation and reduction reactions. During the past few years, BPEs with wireless feature and easy integration showed great promise in the various fields including asymmetric modification/synthesis, motion control, targets enrichment/separation, and chemical sensing/biosensing combined with the quantitative relationship between two poles of BPE...
March 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723203/multicolor-functional-carbon-dots-via-one-step-refluxing-synthesis
#18
Ting-Yi Wang, Chong-You Chen, Chang-Ming Wang, Ying Zi Tan, Wei-Ssu Liao
Carbon dots are admirable fluorescent nanomaterials due to their low cost, high photostability, excellent biocompatibility, and environmental friendliness. Most conventional carbon dot fabrication approaches produce single-colored fluorescent material in the preparation process; different methods are therefore required to synthesize distinct carbon dots for specific optical applications. In this study, carbon dots carrying different emission colors are prepared through a one-step refluxing process. The emission of these materials can be well-tuned by sodium hydroxide content in the precursor solution...
March 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723194/aromatization-of-9-10-dihydroacridine-derivatives-discovering-a-highly-selective-and-rapid-responding-fluorescent-probe-for-peroxynitrite
#19
Zhi-Heng Li, Rui Liu, Zheng-Li Tan, Lan He, Zhong-Lin Lu, Bing Gong
As part of an effort to develop generally applicable strategies for creating probes suitable for detecting important molecular and ionic species, the oxidative aromatization of nonfluorescent 9,10-dihydroacridine derivatives triggered by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) led to the identification of compound 2H, 9-phenyl-9,10-dihydroacridine-4-carboxylic acid, as a rapid-responding fluorescent probe capable of detecting ONOO(-) with an extraordinary selectivity. Adding a little more than 1 equiv of ONOO(-) to a solution of 2H resulted in over 100-fold fluorescence enhancement...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723193/highly-sensitive-squaraine-based-water-soluble-far-red-near-infrared-chromofluorogenic-thiophenol-probe
#20
Li Xiong, Jun Ma, Yan Huang, Zihe Wang, Zhiyun Lu
A squaraine-based far-red/near-infrared fluorescent probe (SQ-DNBS) was exploited for thiophenol detection. SQ-DNBS is a colorimetric and "off-on" fluorometric dual-channel "naked-eye" chemosensor showing high selectivity, high sensitivity (detection limit: 9.9 nM), and rapid response to thiophenol in aqueous solution. SQ-DNBS also can be used in practical applications for the detection of thiophenol in water samples. Photophysical and spectral characterization results revealed that the probing mechanism of SQ-DNBS toward thiophenol lies in the thiolate-mediated cleavage reaction...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
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