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Adaptive RT

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634448/from-behavioral-facilitation-to-inhibition-the-neuronal-correlates-of-the-orienting-and-reorienting-of-auditory-attention
#1
Faith M Hanlon, Andrew B Dodd, Josef M Ling, Juan R Bustillo, Christopher C Abbott, Andrew R Mayer
Successful adaptive behavior relies on the ability to automatically (bottom-up) orient attention to different locations in the environment. This results in a biphasic pattern in which reaction times (RT) are faster for stimuli that occur in the same spatial location (valid) for the first few hundred milliseconds, which is termed facilitation. This is followed by faster RT for stimuli that appear in novel locations (invalid) after longer delays, termed inhibition of return. The neuronal areas and networks involved in the transition between states of facilitation and inhibition remain poorly understood, especially for auditory stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632746/body-part-compatibility-effects-are-modulated-by-the-tendency-for-women-to-experience-negative-social-comparative-emotions-and-the-body-type-of-the-model
#2
Eva Pila, Kimberely Jovanov, Timothy N Welsh, Catherine M Sabiston
Although exposure to physique-salient media images of women's bodies has been consistently linked with negative psychological consequences, little is known about the cognitive processes that lead to these negative effects. The present study employed a novel adaptation of a computerized response time (RT) task to (i) assess implicit cognitive processing when exposed to the body of another individual, and (ii) examine individual differences in social comparative emotions that may influence the cognitive processing of human bodies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630577/effects-of-high-velocity-elastic-band-versus-heavy-resistance-training-on-hamstring-strength-activation-and-sprint-running-performance
#3
Donatas Janusevicius, Audrius Snieckus, Albertas Skurvydas, Viktoras Silinskas, Eugenijus Trinkunas, Joan Aureli Cadefau, Sigitas Kamandulis
Hamstring muscle injuries occur during high-speed activities, which suggests that muscular strength at high velocities may be more important than maximal strength. This study examined hamstring adaptations to training for maximal strength and for strength at high velocities. Physically active men (n = 25; age, 23.0 ± 3.2 years) were randomly divided into: (1) a resistance training (RT, n = 8) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions; (2) a resistance training concentric (RTC; n = 9) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-only hamstring contractions; and (3) a high-velocity elastic band training (HVT, n = 8) group, which performed low-load, high-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627420/distinct-neural-processes-supports-post-success-and-post-error-slowing-in-the-stop-signal-task
#4
Yihe Zhang, Jaime S Ide, Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Nikola S Valchev, Xiaoying Tang, Chiang-Shan R Li
Executive control requires behavioral adaptation to environmental contingencies. In the stop signal task (SST), participants exhibit slower go trial reaction time (RT) following a stop trial, whether or not they successfully interrupt the motor response. In previous fMRI studies, we demonstrated activation of the right-hemispheric ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, in the area of inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis (IFGpo) and anterior insula (AI), during post-error slowing (PES). However, in similar analyses we were not able to identify regional activities during post-success slowing (PSS)...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626770/upregulation-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-protein-8-like-2-mrna-is-negatively-correlated-with-serum-concentrations-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-interleukin-6-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Yongliang Liu, Xinmei Wang, Yan Zhao, Peiqing Zhao, Lianqing Wang, Qiaoli Zhai, Xiaowei Zhang, Wenxiu Tian, Xinxin Xiang, Tao Li
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2 or TNFAIP8L2) is a negative regulator of natural and adaptive immunity. The role of TIPE2 in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains unknown, although TIPE2 plays key roles in preserving inflammatory homeostasis. METHODS: TIPE2 expression was measured by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from T2DM patients and healthy controls, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and other related biometabolic parameters were detected using a nephelometer or by ELISA...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623781/inhibition-activities-of-catechol-diether-based-non-nucleoside-inhibitors-against-the-hiv-reverse-transcriptase-variants-insights-from-molecular-docking-and-oniom-calculations
#6
Pabitra Narayan Samanta, Kalyan Kumar Das
The therapeutic effectiveness of the catechol diether analogs against both the wild-type and drug-resistant reverse transcriptase (RT) mutants of HIV strains are investigated by performing molecular docking and hybrid ONIOM calculations. The docking protocol has been used to predict the binding modes of the non-nucleoside inhibitors inside the active site cavity of the viral enzymes. For each enzyme-inhibitor adduct, the predicted docked poses are assessed by employing different scoring function based programs...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617804/integrating-tenascin-c-protein-expression-and-1q25-copy-number-status-in-pediatric-intracranial-ependymoma-prognostication-a-new-model-for-risk-stratification
#7
Felipe Andreiuolo, Gwénaël Le Teuff, Mohamed Amine Bayar, John-Paul Kilday, Torsten Pietsch, André O von Bueren, Hendrik Witt, Andrey Korshunov, Piergiorgio Modena, Stefan M Pfister, Mélanie Pagès, David Castel, Felice Giangaspero, Leila Chimelli, Pascale Varlet, Stefan Rutkowski, Didier Frappaz, Maura Massimino, Richard Grundy, Jacques Grill
PURPOSE: Despite multimodal therapy, prognosis of pediatric intracranial ependymomas remains poor with a 5-year survival rate below 70% and frequent late deaths. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This multicentric European study evaluated putative prognostic biomarkers. Tenascin-C (TNC) immunohistochemical expression and copy number status of 1q25 were retained for a pooled analysis of 5 independent cohorts. The prognostic value of TNC and 1q25 on the overall survival (OS) was assessed using a Cox model adjusted to age at diagnosis, tumor location, WHO grade, extent of resection, radiotherapy and stratified by cohort...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617715/strength-and-muscular-adaptations-following-6-weeks-of-rest-pause-versus-traditional-multiple-sets-resistance-training-in-trained-subjects
#8
Jonato Prestes, Ramires Alsamir Tibana, Eduardo de Araujo Sousa, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento, Pollyanna de Oliveira Rocha, Nathalia Ferreira Camarço, Nuno Manuel Frade de Sousa, Jeffrey M Willardson
The purpose of the present study was to compare the longitudinal effects of six weeks of rest-pause versus traditional multiple-set RT on muscle strength, hypertrophy, localized muscular endurance, and body composition in trained subjects. Eighteen trained subjects (mean ± SD; age = 30.2 ± 6.6 years; weight = 74.8 ± 17.2 kg; height = 171.4 ± 10.3 cm) were randomly assigned to either a traditional multiple-set group (n = 9; 7 males and 2 females; 3 sets of 6 repetitions with 80% of 1-RM and 2 min rest intervals between sets) or a rest-pause group (n = 9; 7 males and 2 females)...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611799/endophytic-paecilomyces-formosus-lhl10-augments-glycine-max-l-adaptation-to-ni-contamination-through-affecting-endogenous-phytohormones-and-oxidative-stress
#9
Saqib Bilal, Abdul L Khan, Raheem Shahzad, Sajjad Asaf, Sang-Mo Kang, In-Jung Lee
This study investigated the Ni-removal efficiency of phytohormone-producing endophytic fungi Penicillium janthinellum, Paecilomyces formosus, Exophiala sp., and Preussia sp. Among four different endophytes, P. formosus LHL10 was able to tolerate up to 1 mM Ni in contaminated media as compared to copper and cadmium. P. formosus LHL10 was further assessed for its potential to enhance the phytoremediation of Glycine max (soybean) in response to dose-dependent increases in soil Ni (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mM). Inoculation with P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611445/insulin-like-growth-factor-i-and-its-binding-protein-3-are-regulators-of-lactation-and-maternal-responsiveness
#10
András H Lékó, Melinda Cservenák, Éva Rebeka Szabó, János Hanics, Alán Alpár, Árpád Dobolyi
Adaptation to motherhood includes maternal behaviour and lactation during the postpartum period. The major organizing centres of maternal behaviour and lactation are located in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area (MPOA) and the arcuate nucleus, respectively. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an effector of the growth hormone axis; however, its function in the brain is largely unexplored. We identified increased maternal IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) expression in preoptic rat microarray data and confirmed it by RT-PCR...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604153/modified-structural-network-backbone-in-the-contralesional-hemisphere-chronically-after-stroke-in-rat-brain
#11
Michel Rt Sinke, Willem M Otte, Maurits Pa van Meer, Annette van der Toorn, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Functional outcome after stroke depends on the local site of ischemic injury and on remote effects within connected networks, frequently extending into the contralesional hemisphere. However, the pattern of large-scale contralesional network remodeling remains largely unresolved. In this study, we applied diffusion-based tractography and graph-based network analysis to measure structural connectivity in the contralesional hemisphere chronically after experimental stroke in rats. We used the minimum spanning tree method, which accounts for variations in network density, for unbiased characterization of network backbones that form the strongest connections in a network...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595650/acute-neuroinflammation-induces-ais-structural-plasticity-in-a-nox2-dependent-manner
#12
S D Benusa, N M George, B A Sword, G H DeVries, J L Dupree
BACKGROUND: Chronic microglia-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress are well-characterized underlying factors in neurodegenerative disease, whereby reactive inflammatory microglia enhance ROS production and impact neuronal integrity. Recently, it has been shown that during chronic inflammation, neuronal integrity is compromised through targeted disruption of the axon initial segment (AIS), the axonal domain critical for action potential initiation. AIS disruption was associated with contact by reactive inflammatory microglia which wrap around the AIS, increasing association with disease progression...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589363/tracking-b-cell-repertoires-and-clonal-histories-in-normal-and-malignant-lymphocytes
#13
Nicola J Weston-Bell, Graeme Cowan, Surinder S Sahota
Methods for tracking B-cell repertoires and clonal history in normal and malignant B-cells based on immunoglobulin variable region (IGV) gene analysis have developed rapidly with the advent of massive parallel next-generation sequencing (mpNGS) protocols. mpNGS permits a depth of analysis of IGV genes not hitherto feasible, and presents challenges of bioinformatics analysis, which can be readily met by current pipelines. This strategy offers a potential resolution of B-cell usage at a depth that may capture fully the natural state, in a given biological setting...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583858/a-rapid-silica-spin-column-based-method-of-rna-extraction-from-fruit-trees-for-rt-pcr-detection-of-viruses
#14
Fan Yang, Guoping Wang, Wenxing Xu, Ni Hong
Efficient recovery of high quality RNA is very important for successful RT-PCR detection of plant RNA viruses. High levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides in plant tissues can irreversibly bind to and/or co-precipitate with RNA, which influences RNA isolation. In this study, a silica spin column-based RNA isolation method was developed by using commercially available silica columns combined with the application of a tissue lysis solution, and binding and washing buffers with high concentration guanidinium thiocyanate (GuSCN, 50% w/v), which helps remove plant proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583151/identification-and-validation-of-a-schistosoma-japonicum-u6-promoter
#15
Qing Li, Wan Wang, Nan Zhao, Pengcheng Li, Yue Xin, Wei Hu
BACKGROUND: RNA polymerase III promoters have been widely used to express short hairpin-RNA (shRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and small guide RNA (sgRNA) in gene functional analysis in a variety of organisms including Schistosoma mansoni. However, no endogenous RNA polymerase III promoters have been identified in Schistosoma japonicum. The lack of appropriate promoters in S. japonicum has hindered its gene functional analysis. Identification of functional promoters in S. japonicum is therefore in urgent need...
June 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581345/development-and-identification-of-a-new-vero-cell-based-live-attenuated-influenza-b-vaccine-by-a-modified-classical-reassortment-method
#16
Fan Yang, Lei Ma, Jian Zhou, Yinjie Wu, Jingxia Gao, Shaohui Song, Xingliang Geng, Qi Guo, Zhuofan Li, Weidong Li, Guoyang Liao
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to generate a new Vero and cold-adapted live attenuated influenza B vaccine and evaluate its safety and immunogenicity with experiments in a guinea pig model. METHODS: A modified classical reassortment method was used to generate the new vaccine strain. The donor strain was B/Yunnan/2/2005Vca(B), and the parental virus strain was B/Brisbane/60/2008wt. After co-infection in Vero cells, the prepared antibody serum inhibited the donor strain growth, and screening conditions inhibited the candidate virus growth, which induced the growth of the new reassortant virus B/Brisbane/60/2008Vca(B) grow...
June 5, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577518/development-of-transgenic-pigeonpea-cajanus-cajan-l-millsp-overexpressing-citrate-synthase-gene-for-high-phosphorus-uptake
#17
Aftab Aftab Hussain, I S Pavithra, Rohini Sreevathsa, K N Nataraja, Naveen Babu
Plants have developed several adaptive strategies to enhance the availability and uptake of phosphorus (P) from the soil under conditions of P deficiency. Exudation of organic acids like citrate is one of the important strategies. In this study, we developed transgenic pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) over-expressing Dacus carota citrate synthase (DcCs) gene to increase the synthesis and exudation of citrate. Transgenic plants were generated through agro bacterium mediated in-planta transformation technique. Integration and expression of the transgene was confirmed by genomic Southern and RT-PCR analysis...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572782/timing-of-gun-fire-influences-sprinters-multiple-joint-reaction-times-of-whole-body-in-block-start
#18
Mitsuo Otsuka, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Tadao Isaka
Experienced sprinters are specifically adapted to pre-planning an advanced motor program. Herein, sprinters are able to immediately accelerate their center of mass forward with a whole-body coordinated motion, following a steady state crouched position. We examined the effect of variable timing of reaction signals on multiple joint reaction times (RT) and whole-body RT for specialist sprinters. Twenty well-experienced male sprinters performed five start-dashes from a block start under five variable foreperiod (FP) length conditions (1...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570742/effect-of-midtreatment-pet-ct-adapted-radiation-therapy-with-concurrent-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-phase-2-clinical-trial
#19
Feng-Ming Kong, Randall K Ten Haken, Matthew Schipper, Kirk A Frey, James Hayman, Milton Gross, Nithya Ramnath, Khaled A Hassan, Martha Matuszak, Timothy Ritter, Nan Bi, Weili Wang, Mark Orringer, Kemp B Cease, Theodore S Lawrence, Gregory P Kalemkerian
Importance: Our previous studies demonstrated that tumors significantly decrease in size and metabolic activity after delivery of 45 Gy of fractionated radiatiotherapy (RT), and that metabolic shrinkage is greater than anatomic shrinkage. This study aimed to determine whether 18F-fludeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) acquired during the course of treatment provides an opportunity to deliver higher-dose radiation to the more aggressive areas of the tumor to improve local tumor control without increasing RT-induced lung toxicity (RILT), and possibly improve survival...
June 1, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560642/identification-and-characterization-of-micrornas-and-their-targets-in-high-altitude-stress-adaptive-plant-maca-lepidium-meyenii-walp
#20
Sujay Paul
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, short (~21-nucleotide), non-coding RNA molecules that play pivotal roles in plant growth, development, and stress response signaling. In this study using recently published draft genome sequence of a high-altitude plant maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) and applying genome-wide computational-based approaches, a total of 62 potentially conserved miRNAs belonging to 28 families were identified and four (lme-miR160a, lme-miR164c, lme-miR 166a, and lme-miR 319a) of them further validated by RT-PCR...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
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