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Adaptive RT

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779936/early-response-assessment-on-mid-treatment-computed-tomography-predicts-for-locoregional-recurrence-in-oropharyngeal-cancer-patients-treated-with-definitive-radiation-therapy
#1
Rafi Kabarriti, N Patrik Brodin, George Lundgren, Nitin Ohri, Wolfgang A Tomé, Shalom Kalnicki, Madhur K Garg
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether a response assessment using mid-treatment computed tomography (CT) scans during definitive radiation therapy (RT) for oropharyngeal head and neck cancer can predict for locoregional recurrence (LRR). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Head and neck cancer patients who receive RT at our institution undergo CT repeat scans at the 15th fraction, with treatment replanning in the case of an inadequate dose to gross disease or an increased dose to organs at risk...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777949/evaluation-of-skin-or-sweat-characteristic-mrnas-for-inferring-the-human-origin-of-touched-contact-traces
#2
Tomoko Akutsu, Ken Watanabe, Ayari Takamura, Koichi Sakurada
The source of small amounts of touch DNA, which is transferred from the skin to an object when it is handled or touched, could be an issue in the forensic analysis of criminal cases. Here, we performed an extended evaluation of skin- or sweat-characteristic mRNAs to investigate their usability to infer whether an object has been handled or touched by someone. First, we compared the expression levels of candidate genes between skin swabs and other body fluids by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Among the analyzed genes, corneodesmosin (CDSN), late cornified envelope 1C (LCE1C), filaggrin (FLG), desmocollin 1, and dermcidin were selected for further analysis on the basis of their specificities and sensitivities...
May 14, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776610/comparative-evaluation-of-immune-responses-of-swine-in-prrs-stable-and-unstable-herds
#3
Michele Drigo, Enrico Giacomini, Massimiliano Lazzaro, Daniela Pasotto, Dania Bilato, Jessica Ruggeri, Maria Beatrice Boniotti, Giovani Loris Alborali, Massimo Amadori
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is an elusive model of host/virus relationship in which disease is determined by virus pathogenicity, pig breed susceptibility and phenotype, microbial infectious pressure and environmental conditions. Successful disease control in PRRS-endemic Countries corresponds to "stability", i.e. a condition with no clinical signs of PRRS in the breeding-herd population and no viremia in weaning-age pigs. The aim of this work was to compare the profile and time-course of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in stable and unstable herds, respectively...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776561/circulating-micrornas-as-emerging-cardiac-biomarkers-responsive-to-acute-exercise
#4
David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Alberto Dávalos, Manuel Fernández-Sanjurjo, Laura Amado-Rodríguez, Susana Díaz-Coto, Cristina Tomás-Zapico, Ana Montero, Ángela García-González, Vicenta Llorente-Cortés, Maria Eugenia Heras, Araceli Boraita Pérez, Ángel E Díaz-Martínez, Natalia Úbeda, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are mediators of intercellular communication with great potential as cardiac biomarkers. The analysis of c-miRNAs in response to physiological stress, such as exercise, would provide valuable information for clinical practice and a deeper understanding of the molecular response to physical activity. Here, we analysed for the first time the acute exercise response of c-miRNAs reported as biomarkers of cardiac disease in a well-characterized cohort of healthy active adults...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772057/a-4d-global-respiratory-motion-model-of-the-thorax-based-on-ct-images-a-proof-of-concept
#5
H Fayad, M Gilles, T Pan, D Visvikis
PURPOSE: Respiratory motion reduces the sensitivity and specificity of medical images especially in the thoracic and abdominal areas. It may affect applications such as cancer diagnostic imaging and/or radiation therapy (RT). Solutions to this issue include modelling of the respiratory motion in order to optimize both diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. Personalised motion modeling required patient specific four dimensional (4D) imaging which in the case of 4D computed tomography (4D CT) acquisition is associated with an increased dose...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730257/regulation-of-the-antioxidant-response-by-myod-transcriptional-coactivator-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells
#6
Shun Zhang, Lin-Hu Li, Hong-Mei Qiao, Xue Yang, Liang Chen, Xiao-Hui Luo
OBJECTIVE: To reveal the potential role of the basic helix-loop-helix myogenic transcription regulator MyoD in the regulation of of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). METHODS: Expression levels of MyoD was assessed in PCa tissues using quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry and in experimentally induced castration-resistant LNCaP/R cells using RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. Effect of MyoD knockdown on LNCaP/R cells progression was determined by assessing cell proliferation, apoptosis and colony formation rate...
May 3, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728761/adaptation-strategies-of-yak-to-seasonally-driven-environmental-temperatures-in-its-natural-habitat
#7
G Krishnan, V Paul, T K Biswas, V S Chouhan, P J Das, V Sejian
The gradual increase of ambient temperature (TA) at high altitude can cause heat stress as an effect of climate change and may shift the traditional habitat of yak to further higher altitude. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the thermo-adaptability of yaks to different seasons at high altitude. The adaptive capabilities of yaks were assessed based on different heat tolerance tests in relation to changes in rectal temperature (RT; °F), respiration rate (RR; breaths/min), pulse rate (PR; beats/min), and plasma heat shock protein (HSP) profile...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727312/routine-adaptive-replanning-of-p16-positive-stage-n2b-oropharyngeal-cancer-quality-improvement-or-waste-of-time
#8
James H Zhu, Robert J Amdur, Bo Lu, Chihray Liu, Kathryn E Hitchcock, William M Mendenhall
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): To determine if routinely replanning patients treated for oropharyngeal cancer that is p16-positive and clinical neck stage N2b (AJCC 7th edition) is likely to result in dose changes that will improve patient outcomes to a meaningful degree. METHODS: In 10 consecutive patients treated with primary radiotherapy (RT) and concurrent weekly chemotherapy for p16-positive N2b oropharyngeal carcinoma, we prospectively evaluated dose changes from replanning for the final 4 or 2 weeks of RT of a 7-week RT program...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718968/acute-attenuation-of-fatigue-after-sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-does-not-manifest-into-greater-training-adaptations-after-10-weeks-of-resistance-training-exercise
#9
Jason C Siegler, Paul W M Marshall, Harrison Finn, Rebecca Cross, Kurt Mudie
PURPOSE: In two concurrent studies, we aimed to a) confirm the acute effect of 0.3 g·kg-1 body weight (BW) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation on central and peripheral mechanisms associated with explosive power (Study 1) and b) determine whether chronic NaHCO3 supplementation would improve the adaptive response of the neuromuscular system during a 10-week resistance training program (Study 2). METHODS: Eight resistance trained participants volunteered after providing written consent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706937/aerobic-growth-of-rhodococcus-aetherivorans-bcp1-using-selected-naphthenic-acids-as-the-sole-carbon-and-energy-sources
#10
Alessandro Presentato, Martina Cappelletti, Anna Sansone, Carla Ferreri, Elena Piacenza, Marc A Demeter, Silvia Crognale, Maurizio Petruccioli, Giorgio Milazzo, Stefano Fedi, Alexander Steinbüchel, Raymond J Turner, Davide Zannoni
Naphthenic acids (NAs) are an important group of toxic organic compounds naturally occurring in hydrocarbon deposits. This work shows that Rhodococcus aetherivorans BCP1 cells not only utilize a mixture of eight different NAs (8XNAs) for growth but they are also capable of marked degradation of two model NAs, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (CHCA) and cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (CPCA) when supplied at concentrations from 50 to 500 mgL-1 . The growth curves of BCP1 on 8XNAs, CHCA, and CPCA showed an initial lag phase not present in growth on glucose, which presumably was related to the toxic effects of NAs on the cell membrane permeability...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698530/differentially-expressed-micrornas-associated-with-changes-of-transcript-levels-in-detoxification-pathways-and-ddt-resistance-in-the-drosophila-melanogaster-strain-91-r
#11
Keon Mook Seong, Brad S Coates, Do-Hyup Kim, Allison K Hansen, Barry R Pittendrigh
Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) resistance among arthropod species is a model for understanding the molecular adaptations in response to insecticide exposures. Previous studies reported that DDT resistance may involve one or multiple detoxification genes, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), esterases, and ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, or changes in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel. However, the possible involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes associated with DDT resistance in the Drosophila melanogaster strain 91-R remains poorly understood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695977/effect-of-resistance-training-on-extracellular-matrix-adaptations-in-skeletal-muscle-of-older-rats
#12
Vinicius Guzzoni, Manoel B T Ribeiro, Gisele N Lopes, Rita de Cássia Marqueti, Rosângela V de Andrade, Heloisa S Selistre-de-Araujo, João L Q Durigan
Accumulation of connective tissue, particularly extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, has been observed in skeletal muscles with advancing age. Resistance training (RT) has been widely recommended to attenuate age-induced sarcopenia, even though its effects on the components that control ECM turnover in skeletal muscles remain to be elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of RT on connective tissue content and gene expression of key components of ECM in the skeletal muscles of aged rats...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689060/the-changing-epidemiological-pattern-of-dengue-in-swat-khyber-pakhtunkhwa
#13
Jehangir Khan, Abdul Ghaffar, Shujaat Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Pakistan is suffering from dengue fever since 1994. In the country, major dengue outbreaks have been documented in 2010, 2011 and 2013 in Punjab (Lahore) and Sindh (Karachi) Provinces. District Swat was hit for the first time by dengue virus in 2013, claiming 57 deaths and 8000 morbidities. The molecular and entomological aspects along with the ecological and social context of the dengue outbreaks were investigated in this study. METHOD: In addition to entomological survey, the data collected from patients' files (Saidu Sharif Teaching Hospital, Swat) and by directly questioning the patients (field data) was analyzed for epidemiological trends, molecular identification (RT-PCR based serotyping of DENV), clinical profile, socioeconomic status (SES) and demographic features...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688883/high-microrna-28-5p-expression-in-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-predicts-short-term-relapse-of-node-negative-patients-and-poor-overall-survival-of-patients-with-non-metastatic-disease
#14
Panagiotis Tsiakanikas, Christos K Kontos, Dimitrios Kerimis, Iordanis N Papadopoulos, Andreas Scorilas
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may function either as oncogenes or tumor suppressors and are heavily involved in the initiation and progression of cancer, and in metastasis of tumor cells. MicroRNA-28-5p (miR-28-5p) targets several cancer-related genes and is hence involved in cell proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In this study, we investigated the potential diagnostic and prognostic significance of miR-28-5p expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma, the most frequent type of colorectal cancer (CRC)...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683462/polysome-profiling-in-leishmania-human-cells-and-mouse-testis
#15
Zemfira N Karamysheva, Elena B Tikhonova, Petar N Grozdanov, James C Huffman, Kristen R Baca, Alexander Karamyshev, R Brian Denison, Clinton C MacDonald, Kai Zhang, Andrey L Karamyshev
Proper protein expression at the right time and in the right amounts is the basis of normal cell function and survival in a fast-changing environment. For a long time, the gene expression studies were dominated by research on the transcriptional level. However, the steady-state levels of mRNAs do not correlate well with protein production, and the translatability of mRNAs varies greatly depending on the conditions. In some organisms, like the parasite Leishmania, the protein expression is regulated mostly at the translational level...
April 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681008/micromanaging-freeze-tolerance-the-biogenesis-and-regulation-of-neuroprotective-micrornas-in-frozen-brains
#16
Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Kenneth B Storey
When temperatures plummet below 0 °C, wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) can endure the freezing of up to ~ 65% of their body water in extracellular ice masses, displaying no measurable brain activity, no breathing, no movement, and a flat-lined heart. To aid survival, frogs retreat into a state of suspended animation characterized by global suppression of metabolic functions and reprioritization of energy usage to essential survival processes that is elicited, in part, by the regulatory controls of microRNAs...
April 21, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676955/mitochondrial-genome-modulates-myocardial-akt-glut-hk-salvage-pathway-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-adapted-to-chronic-hypoxia
#17
Iveta Nedvedova, David Kolar, Barbara Elsnicova, Daniela Hornikova, Jiri Novotny, Martin Kalous, Michal Pravenec, Jan Neckar, Frantisek Kolar, Jitka M Zurmanova
Recently we have shown that adaptation to continuous normobaric hypoxia (CNH) decreases myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in conplastic strain (SHR-mtBN ). The protective effect was stronger in the latter group characterized by a selective replacement of SHR mitochondrial genome with that of a more ischemia-resistant Brown Norway strain. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible involvement of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-dependent pathway of the protein kinase B/glucose transporters/hexokinase (Akt/GLUT/HK) in this mitochondrial genome-related difference of the cardioprotective phenotype...
April 20, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662477/new-genes-involved-in-mild-stress-response-identified-by-transposon-mutagenesis-in-lactobacillus-paracasei
#18
Aurore Palud, Hélène Scornec, Jean-François Cavin, Hélène Licandro
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are associated with various plant, animal, and human niches and are also present in many fermented foods and beverages. Thus, they are subjected to several stress conditions and have developed advanced response mechanisms to resist, adapt, and grow. This work aimed to identify the genes involved in some stress adaptation mechanisms in LAB. For this purpose, global reverse genetics was applied by screening a library of 1287 Lactobacillus paracasei transposon mutants for mild monofactorial stresses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626334/a-meta-analysis-of-resistance-training-in-female-youth-its-effect-on-muscular-strength-and-shortcomings-in-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Jason Moran, Gavin Sandercock, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Cain C T Clark, John F T Fernandes, Benjamin Drury
BACKGROUND: Resistance training is an effective way to enhance strength in female youth but, to date, no researcher has meta-analysed its effect on muscular strength in that population. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis characterised female youths' adaptability to resistance training (RT). A second objective was to highlight the limitations of the body of literature with a view to informing future research. DATA SOURCES: Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science...
April 6, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625493/characterization-of-a-spontaneously-immortalized-murine-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cell-line-qmmuc-1
#20
Josy Augustine, Sofia Pavlou, Michael O'Hare, Kevin Harkin, Alan Stitt, Tim Curtis, Heping Xu, Mei Chen
Purpose: Müller glia are critical for the survival of retinal neurons and the integrity of retinal blood vessels. Müller glial cultures are important tools for investigating Müller glial pathophysiology. Here, we report a spontaneously immortalized Müller glial cell line originally cultured and subsequently cloned from mouse pups. The cell line, Queen's University Murine Müller glia Clone-1 (QMMuC-1), has been cultured for over 60 passages, has morphologic features like primary Müller cell (PMC) cultures and remains stable...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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