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Adaptive RT

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545064/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-response-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-to-epigallocatechin-gallate-by-rna-seq
#1
Xiaoxiang Liu, Bimiao Shen, Peng Du, Nan Wang, Jiaxue Wang, Jianrong Li, Aihua Sun
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a main constituent of green tea polyphenols that are widely used as food preservatives and are considered to be safe for consumption. However, the underlying antimicrobial mechanism of EGCG and the bacterial response to EGCG are not clearly understood. In the present study, a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of a typical spoilage bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens that responded to EGCG was performed using RNA-seq technology. A total of 26,365,414 and 23,287,092 clean reads were generated from P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542312/comparative-transcriptome-profiling-of-a-thermal-resistant-vs-sensitive-silkworm-strain-in-response-to-high-temperature-under-stressful-humidity-condition
#2
Wenfu Xiao, Peng Chen, Jinshu Xiao, La Wang, Taihang Liu, Yunfei Wu, Feifan Dong, Yaming Jiang, Minhui Pan, Youhong Zhang, Cheng Lu
Thermotolerance is important particularly for poikilotherms such as insects. Understanding the mechanisms by which insects respond to high temperatures can provide insights into their adaptation to the environment. Therefore, in this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of two silkworm strains with significantly different resistance to heat as well as humidity; the thermo-resistant strain 7532 and the thermos-sensitive strain Knobbed. We identified in total 4,944 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using RNA-Seq...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536672/response-to-bile-salts-in-clinical-strains-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-lacking-the-adeabc-efflux-pump-virulence-associated-with-quorum-sensing
#3
Maria López, Lucia Blasco, Eva Gato, Astrid Perez, Laura Fernández-Garcia, Luis Martínez-Martinez, Felipe Fernández-Cuenca, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Alvaro Pascual, German Bou, Maria Tomás
Introduction:Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen associated with multiple infections. This pathogen usually colonizes (first stage of microbial infection) host tissues that are in contact with the external environment. As one of the sites of entry in human hosts is the gastrointestinal tract, the pathogen must be capable of tolerating bile salts. However, studies analyzing the molecular characteristics involved in the response to bile salts in clinical strains of A. baumannii are scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534995/low%C3%A2-level-mechanical-vibration-enhances-osteoblastogenesis-via-a-canonical-wnt-signaling%C3%A2-associated-mechanism
#4
Heqi Gao, Mingming Zhai, Pan Wang, Xuhui Zhang, Jing Cai, Xiaofei Chen, Guanghao Shen, Erping Luo, Da Jing
Osteoporosis is a skeletal metabolic disease characterized by reduced bone mass and a high susceptibility to fractures, in which osteoblasts and osteoclasts are highly involved in the abnormal bone remodeling processes. Recently, low‑magnitude, high‑frequency whole‑body vibration has been demonstrated to significantly reduce osteopenia experimentally and clinically. However, the underlying mechanism regarding how osteoblastic activity is altered when bone tissues adapt to mechanical vibration remains elusive...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533222/fractionated-radiation-therapy-stimulates-anti-tumor-immunity-mediated-by-both-resident-and-infiltrating-polyclonal-t-cell-populations-when-combined-with-pd1-blockade
#5
Simon J Dovedi, Eleanor J Cheadle, Amy Popple, Edmund Poon, Michelle Morrow, Ross Stewart, Erik Yusko, Catherine Sanders, Marissa Vignali, Ryan Emerson, Harlan Robins, Robert W Wilkinson, Jamie Honeychurch, Timothy Illidge
Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) is a highly effective anti-cancer treatment forming part of the standard of care for the majority of patients, but local and distal disease recurrence remains a major cause of mortality. RT is known to enhance tumor immunogenicity; however, the contribution and mechanisms of RT induced immune responses are unknown. <p>Experimental Design: The impact of low-dose fractionated RT (5 x 2 Gy) alone and in combination with αPD-1 mAb on the tumor microenvironment was evaluated by flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the T-cell receptor (TCR)-repertoire...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532787/evolution-of-avian-encephalomyelitis-virus-during-embryo-adaptation
#6
Rüdiger Hauck, C Gabriel Sentíes-Cué, Ying Wang, Colin Kern, H L Shivaprasad, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo A Gallardo
Wild-type avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) causes neurological signs in young chicks but no disease in pullets after oral or intracutaneous infection. However, if the virus gets embryo-adapted by serial passaging in chicken embryos, it will cause AE after intracutaneous infection in chickens of all ages. Recently, several cases of AE in layer pullets occurring shortly after intracutaneous vaccination were described. The present investigation was initiated to determine if vaccines that had inadvertently been embryo-adapted were responsible for these outbreaks...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529900/immunotherapy-and-radiation-therapy-for-operable-early-stage-and-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Neil K Taunk, Andreas Rimner, Melissa Culligan, Joseph S Friedberg, Julie Brahmer, Jamie Chaft
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer mortality. Although a significant proportion of patients can be cured with surgery, with or without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation, a significant proportion of patients will fail, particularly distantly. Over fifty percent of patients present with stage IV disease. There are multiple forms of immunotherapy available including T-cell transfer, cytokine therapy, and oncolytic viruses. Checkpoint inhibitors have shown tremendous activity in NSCLC and are currently under intense study given promising data on response...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526625/effects-of-resistance-training-frequency-on-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-older-men-and-women-during-intervention-and-follow-up
#8
Elena Fernández-Lezaun, Moritz Schumann, Tuomas Mäkinen, Heikki Kyröläinen, Simon Walker
This study investigated the effects of resistance training (RT) performed with different frequencies, including a follow-up period, on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy older individuals. Eighty-eight men and women (69±3years, 167±9cm and 78±14kg) were randomly placed into four groups: training one- (M1=11, W1=12), two- (M2=7, W2=14), or three- (M3=11, W3=13) times-per-week or a non-training control group (MCon=11, WCon=9). During months 1-3, all subjects trained two-times-per-week while during the subsequent 6months, training frequency was set according to the group...
May 16, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520570/long-term-exposure-to-mst-312-leads-to-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-overexpression-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#9
Karollyne S Morais, Ana Flávia R Guimarãesb, Doralina A R Ramos, Fábio P Silva, Diêgo M de Oliveira
Telomerase is an enzyme responsible for telomere maintenance in almost all human cancer cells, but generally not expressed in somatic ones. Therefore, antitelomerase therapy is a potentially revolutionary therapeutic strategy, and the antitumor activity of telomerase inhibitors (TI) has been studied extensively recently, mainly for breast cancer. However, the effects expected from treatment with TI will appear only after many cell divisions, but the effects of this long-term approach are unknown. In this work, the consequences of 3120 h exposure of human breast cancer cells to TI MST-312 were investigated...
May 17, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516199/cloning-and-stress-induced-expression-analysis-of-calmodulin-in-the-antarctic-alga-chlamydomonas-sp-ice-l
#10
Ying-Ying He, Yi-Bin Wang, Zhou Zheng, Fang-Ming Liu, Mei-Ling An, Xiao-Dong He, Chang-Feng Qu, Lu-Lu Li, Jin-Lai Miao
Calmodulin (CaM) is a Ca(2+)-binding protein that plays a role in several Ca(2+) signaling pathways, which dynamically regulates the activities of hundreds of proteins. The ice alga Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L, which has the ability to adapt to extreme polar conditions, is a crucial primary producer in Antarctic ecosystem. This study hypothesized that Cam helps the ICE-L to adapt to the fluctuating conditions in the polar environment. It first verified the overall length of Cam, through RT-PCR and RACE-PCR, based on partial Cam transcriptome library of ICE-L...
May 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513574/transcriptional-and-physiological-responses-to-nutrient-loading-on-toxin-formation-and-photosynthesis-in-microcystis-aeruginosa-fachb-905
#11
Guotao Peng, Sijie Lin, Zhengqiu Fan, Xiangrong Wang
An important goal of understanding harmful algae blooms is to determine how environmental factors affect the growth and toxin formation of toxin-producing species. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional responses of toxin formation gene (mcyB) and key photosynthesis genes (psaB, psbD and rbcL) of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 in different nutrient loading conditions using real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Three physio-biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH)) were also evaluated to provide insight into the physiological responses of Microcystis cells...
May 17, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506589/the-relationship-between-dosimetric-factors-side-effects-and-survival-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-definitive-radiotherapy
#12
Dilruba Okumus, Sureyya Sarihan, Sema Gozcu, Deniz Sigirli
The patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive conformal radiotherapy (RT) were evaluated in terms of side effects and survival. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was calculated for 68 patients treated between 2009 and 2012. Clinical and dosimetric factors were analyzed. The median dose of 63 Gy (range: 54 to 70 Gy) was given with conformal RT with blocks (n = 37), 3-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT) (n = 11), or intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) (n = 20)...
May 12, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505570/clinical-evaluation-of-the-biofire-filmarray-%C3%A2-biothreat-e-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-guinea
#13
Françoise Gay-Andrieu, N'Fally Magassouba, Valentina Picot, Cynthia L Phillips, Christophe N Peyrefitte, Brigitte Dacosta, Ahmadou Doré, Fode Kourouma, Véronique Ligeon-Ligeonnet, Corentin Gauby, Christophe Longuet, Matt Scullion, Ousmane Faye, Jean Louis Machuron, Mark Miller
BACKGROUND: The recent West Africa Ebola outbreak highlighted the need to provide access to rapid, safe and reliable Ebola Virus Disease diagnostics. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this field study was to assess the clinical performance of the FilmArray(®) BioThreat-E test for the detection of Ebola Zaïre virus in whole blood in symptomatic patients suspected of Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry (Guinea) from March to July 2015. STUDY DESIGN: The BioThreat-E test was compared to the two RT-PCRs, using serum, implemented at Donka Hospital in the emergency context: an in-house developed quantitative one-step RT-PCR adapted from the Weidmann technique, and the RealStar(®) Filovirus RT-PCR Kit 1...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502722/radiotherapy-rescue-of-a-nivolumab-refractory-immune-response-in-a-patient-with-pd-l1-negative-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-lung
#14
Zhigang Yuan, Allison Fromm, Kamran A Ahmed, George D Grass, George Q Yang, Daniel E Oliver, Thomas J Dilling, Scott J Antonia, Bradford A Perez
Nivolumab, a PD-1 immune-checkpoint inhibitor antibody, has been approved in the second line for metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer (sqNSCLC)(1). However, only a minority of patients respond to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy, and mechanisms of de novo and adaptive resistance to nivolumab are unclear. There are limited treatment options to rescue the immunotherapy refractory status. We herein describe a patient who was nivolumab refractory and subsequently developed global response after a course of palliative thoracic radiotherapy (RT)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502089/association-between-cytokine-profile-and-transcription-factors-produced-by-t-cells-subsets-in-early-and-late-onset-preeclampsia
#15
Vanessa R Ribeiro, Mariana Romao-Veiga, Graziela G Romagnoli, Mariana L Matias, Priscila R Nunes, Vera Therezinha M Borges, Jose C Peracoli, Maria Terezinha S Peracoli
Preeclampsia (PE) is an obstetric pathology characterized by abnormal activation of the innate and adaptive immune system dependent on the imbalance of T helper subsets. The present study aimed to evaluate the gene and protein expression of Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg T-cell transcription factors in peripheral blood lymphocytes from pregnant women with PE employing RT-qPCR and flow cytometry techniques, as well as the cytokine profile produced by these CD4(+) T cell subsets in the plasma of pregnant women with PE, classified in early-onset PE (n=20), late-onset PE (n=20) and normotensive pregnant women (n=20)...
May 14, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496155/selection-of-reference-genes-for-microrna-analysis-associated-to-early-stress-response-to-handling-and-confinement-in-salmo-salar
#16
Eduardo Zavala, Daniela Reyes, Robert Deerenberg, Rodrigo Vidal
MicroRNAs are key non-coding RNA molecules that play a relevant role in the regulation of gene expression through translational repression and/or transcript cleavage during normal development and physiological adaptation processes like stress. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become the approach normally used to determine the levels of microRNAs. However, this approach needs the use of endogenous reference. An improper selection of endogenous references can result in confusing interpretation of data...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493944/a-decade-of-viral-mutations-and-associated-drug-resistance-in-a-population-of-hiv-1-puerto-ricans-2002-2011
#17
Lycely Del C Sepúlveda-Torres, Lavanya Rishishwar, Maria Luisa Rogers, Eddy Ríos-Olivares, Nawal Boukli, I King Jordan, Luis A Cubano
Puerto Rico has one of the highest rates of HIV/AIDS seen for any US state or territory, and antiretroviral therapy has been a mainstay of efforts to mitigate the HIV/AIDS public health burden on the island. We studied the evolutionary dynamics of HIV-1 mutation and antiretroviral drug resistance in Puerto Rico by monitoring the population frequency of resistance-associated mutations from 2002 to 2011. Whole blood samples from 4,475 patients were analyzed using the TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Kit and OpenGene DNA Sequencing System in the Immunoretrovirus Research Laboratory at Universidad Central del Caribe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493295/towards-ultrasound-guided-adaptive-radiotherapy-for-cervical-cancer-evaluation-of-elekta-s-semi-automated-uterine-segmentation-method-on-3d-ultrasound-images
#18
Sarah A Mason, Tuathan P O'Shea, Ingrid M White, Susan Lalondrelle, Kate Downey, Mariwan Baker, Claus F Behrens, Jeffrey C Bamber, Emma J Harris
PURPOSE: 3D ultrasound (US) images of the uterus may be used to adapt radiotherapy (RT) for cervical cancer patients based on changes in daily anatomy. This requires accurate on-line segmentation of the uterus. The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of Elekta's "Assisted Gyne Segmentation" (AGS) algorithm in semi-automatically segmenting the uterus on 3D transabdominal ultrasound images by comparison with manual contours. MATERIALS & METHODS: Nine patients receiving RT for cervical cancer were imaged with the 3D Clarity(®) transabdominal probe at RT planning, and 1 to 7 times during treatment...
May 10, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490543/molecular-regulation-of-exercise-induced-muscle-fiber-hypertrophy
#19
Marcas M Bamman, Brandon M Roberts, Gregory R Adams
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is a widely sought exercise adaptation to counteract the muscle atrophy of aging and disease, or to improve athletic performance. While this desired muscle enlargement is a well-known adaptation to resistance exercise training (RT), the mechanistic underpinnings are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is thus to provide the reader with a summary of recent advances in molecular mechanisms-based on the most current literature-that are thought to promote RT-induced muscle hypertrophy...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472298/adiponectin-stimulates-lipid-metabolism-via-ampk-in-rabbit-blastocysts
#20
Maria Schindler, Mareike Pendzialek, Katarzyna Joanna Grybel, Tom Seeling, Jacqueline Gürke, Bernd Fischer, Anne Navarrete Santos
STUDY QUESTION: How does a maternal diabetic hyperadiponectineamia affect signal transduction and lipid metabolism in rabbit preimplantation blastocysts? SUMMARY ANSWER: In a diabetic pregnancy increased levels of adiponectin led to a switch in embryonic metabolism towards a fatty acid-dependent energy metabolism, mainly affecting genes that are responsible for fatty acid uptake and turnover. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although studies in cell culture experiments have shown that adiponectin is able to regulate lipid metabolism via 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), data on the effects of adiponectin on embryonic lipid metabolism are not available...
May 4, 2017: Human Reproduction
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