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Adaptive RT

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352654/resistance-training-during-a-12-week-protein-supplemented-vlcd-treatment-enhances-weight-loss-outcomes-in-obese-patients
#1
Edward Jo, Phillip R Worts, Marcus L Elam, Ann Frost Brown, Andy V Khamoui, Do-Houn Kim, Ming-Chia Yeh, Michael J Ormsbee, Carla M Prado, Angelina Cain, Katie Snyder, Jeong-Su Kim
BACKGROUND: This investigation evaluated the efficacy by which resistance training enhances body composition, metabolic, and functional outcomes for obese patients undergoing a 12-week medically supervised hypocaloric treatment. METHODS: This was a single-blind, randomized, parallel-group prospective trial. Morbidly obese patients were prescribed a 12-week proprietary very low calorie diet (VLCD) treatment (Optifast®) with supplemental protein (1120 kcals/day) and were placed in one of two groups for 14 weeks: 1) Standard Treatment Control (CON) (n = 5) or 2) Resistance Training (RT) (n = 6)...
December 23, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347977/expansion-of-cytochrome-p450-and-cathepsin-genes-in-the-generalist-herbivore-brown-marmorated-stink-bug
#2
Raman Bansal, Andy Michel
BACKGROUND: The brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) is an invasive pest in North America which causes severe economic losses on tree fruits, ornamentals, vegetables, and field crops. The H. halys is an extreme generalist and this feeding behaviour may have been a major contributor behind its establishment and successful adaptation in invasive habitats of North America. To develop an understanding into the mechanism of H. halys' generalist herbivory, here we specifically focused on genes putatively facilitating its adaptation on diverse host plants...
January 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331404/reliability-and-validity-of-the-adapted-resistance-training-skills-battery-for-children
#3
Bonnie J Furzer, Marc D Bebich-Philip, Kemi E Wright, Siobhan L Reid, Ashleigh L Thornton
OBJECTIVES: Resistance training (RT) is emerging as a training modality to improve motor function and facilitate physical activity participation in children across the motor proficiency spectrum. Although RT competency assessments have been established and validated among adolescent cohorts, the extent to which these methods are suitable for assessing children's RT skills is unknown. This project aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the adapted Resistance Training Skills Battery for Children (RTSBc), in children with varying motor proficiency...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330490/differentially-expressed-micrornas-between-cattleyak-and-yak-testis
#4
Chuanfei Xu, Shixin Wu, Wangsheng Zhao, TserangDonko Mipam, Jingbo Liu, Wenjing Liu, Chuanping Yi, Mujahid Ali Shah, Shumin Yu, Xin Cai
Cattleyak are interspecific hybrids between cattle and yak, exhibiting the same prominent adaptability as yak and much higher performances than yak. However, male infertility of cattleyak resulted from spermatogenic arrest has greatly restricted their effective utilization in yak breeding. In past decades, much work has been done to investigate the mechanisms of spermatogenic arrest, but little is known about the differences of the post-transcriptional regulators between cattleyak and yak, which may contribute to the impaired spermatogenesis...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330460/enhanced-skeletal-muscle-ribosome-biogenesis-yet-attenuated-mtorc1-and-ribosome-biogenesis-related-signalling-following-short-term-concurrent-versus-single-mode-resistance-training
#5
Jackson J Fyfe, David J Bishop, Jonathan D Bartlett, Erik D Hanson, Mitchell J Anderson, Andrew P Garnham, Nigel K Stepto
Combining endurance training with resistance training (RT) may attenuate skeletal muscle hypertrophic adaptation versus RT alone; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated changes in markers of ribosome biogenesis, a process linked with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, following concurrent training versus RT alone. Twenty-three males underwent eight weeks of RT, either performed alone (RT group, n = 8), or combined with either high-intensity interval training (HIT+RT group, n = 8), or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT+RT group, n = 7)...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330371/transcriptional-inaccuracy-threshold-attenuates-differences-in-rna-dependent-dna-synthesis-fidelity-between-retroviral-reverse-transcriptases
#6
Alba Sebastián-Martín, Verónica Barrioluengo, Luis Menéndez-Arias
In M13mp2 lacZα forward mutation assays measuring intrinsic fidelity of DNA-dependent DNA synthesis, wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RTs of group M/subtype B previously showed >10-fold higher error rates than murine leukaemia virus (MLV) and avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) RTs. An adapted version of the assay was used to obtain error rates of RNA-dependent DNA synthesis for several RTs, including wild-type HIV-1BH10, HIV-1ESP49, AMV and MLV RTs, and the high-fidelity mutants of HIV-1ESP49 RT K65R and K65R/V75I...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323436/molecular-characterization-and-gene-silencing-of-laccase-1-in-the-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae
#7
Yong Zhang, Jia Fan, Frédéric Francis, Julian Chen
Laccase 1 (Lac1), a polyphenol oxidase, has been proposed to be involved in insect iron metabolism and immunity responses. However, little information is available on the roles of Lac 1 in insect-plant interactions. The grain aphid Sitobion avenae is one of the most destructive pests of cereal, directly drawing phloem sap and transmitting viruses. In the present study, we first cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of Lac 1 from S. avenae, and the putative protein sequence was predicted to have a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane domain...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316958/molecular-subtyping-of-european-swine-influenza-viruses-and-scaling-to-high-throughput-analysis
#8
Emilie Bonin, Stéphane Quéguiner, Cédric Woudstra, Stéphane Gorin, Nicolas Barbier, Timm C Harder, Patrick Fach, Séverine Hervé, Gaëlle Simon
BACKGROUND: Swine influenza is a respiratory infection of pigs that may have a significant economic impact in affected herds and pose a threat to the human population since swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) are zoonotic pathogens. Due to the increasing genetic diversity of swIAVs and because novel reassortants or variants may become enzootic or have zoonotic implications, surveillance is strongly encouraged. Therefore, diagnostic tests and advanced technologies able to identify the circulating strains rapidly are critically important...
January 10, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316134/dosimetric-benefit-of-adaptive-radiotherapy-in-the-neoadjuvant-management-of-canine-and-feline-thymoma-an-exploratory-case-series
#9
C Rohrer Bley, V Meier, U Schneider
While surgery is the treatment of choice for thymomas, complete excision is not possible in a significant proportion of cases. For these patients, radiotherapy can be used as neoadjunctive, post-operative adjunctive or sole therapy. During radiotherapy, rapid biological clearance of tumour cells is often observed, requiring adaptation of the treatment plan. Adaptive radiation therapy (RT) is a dynamic process, whereby the treatment plan is altered throughout the treatment course due to changes in morphologic, functional or positioning changes...
January 8, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305331/differential-expression-of-micrornas-in-hemocytes-from-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-under-copper-stress
#10
Hui Guo, Zhi-Cheng Lu, Xiao-Wen Zhu, Chun-Hua Zhu, Cheng-Gui Wang, Yu-Chun Shen, Wei Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate diverse cellular processes, including organismal stress response, through posttranscriptional repression of gene transcripts. They are known to have antiviral functions in aquatic crustacean species, but little is known about the role of miRNAs against environmental stress caused by Cu, a common chemical contaminant in aquatic environment. We performed small RNA sequencing to characterize the differentially expressed microRNAs in Cu exposed shrimp. A total of 4524 known miRNAs and 73 novel miRNAs were significantly (P < ...
January 2, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304073/tissue-type-plasminogen-activator-contributes-to-remodeling-of-the-rat-ductus-arteriosus
#11
Junichi Saito, Utako Yokoyama, Naoki Nicho, Yun-Wen Zheng, Yasuhiro Ichikawa, Satoko Ito, Masanari Umemura, Takayuki Fujita, Shuichi Ito, Hideki Taniguchi, Toshihide Asou, Munetaka Masuda, Yoshihiro Ishikawa
AIMS: The ductus arteriosus (DA) closes after birth to adapt to the robust changes in hemodynamics, which require intimal thickening (IT) to occur. The smooth muscle cells of the DA have been reported to play important roles in IT formation. However, the roles of the endothelial cells (ECs) have not been fully investigated. We herein focused on tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which is a DA EC dominant gene, and investigated its contribution to IT formation in the DA. METHODS AND RESULTS: ECs from the DA and aorta were isolated from fetal rats using fluorescence-activated cell sorting...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299945/a-review-of-plan-library-approaches-in-adaptive-radiotherapy-of-bladder-cancer
#12
Shane D Collins, Michelle M Leech
BACKGROUND: Large variations in the shape and size of the bladder volume are commonly observed in bladder cancer radiotherapy (RT). The clinical target volume (CTV) is therefore frequently inadequately treated and large isotropic margins are inappropriate in terms of dose to organs at risk (OAR); thereby making adaptive radiotherapy (ART) attractive for this tumour site. There are various methods of ART delivery, however, for bladder cancer, plan libraries are frequently used. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review of published studies on plan libraries for bladder cancer using four databases (Pubmed, Science Direct, Embase and Cochrane Library) was conducted...
January 4, 2018: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282089/evaluation-of-a-software-module-for-adaptive-treatment-planning-and-re-irradiation
#13
Anne Richter, Stefan Weick, Thomas Krieger, Florian Exner, Sonja Kellner, Bülent Polat, Michael Flentje
BACKGROUND: The aim of this work is to validate the Dynamic Planning Module in terms of usability and acceptance in the treatment planning workflow. METHODS: The Dynamic Planning Module was used for decision making whether a plan adaptation was necessary within one course of radiation therapy. The Module was also used for patients scheduled for re-irradiation to estimate the dose in the pretreated region and calculate the accumulated dose to critical organs at risk...
December 28, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280053/cd200fc-attenuates-retinal-glial-responses-and-rgcs-apoptosis-after-optic-nerve-crush-by-modulating-cd200-cd200r1-interaction
#14
Rong Huang, Qianqian Lan, Lifei Chen, Haibin Zhong, Ling Cui, Li Jiang, Hui Huang, Li Li, Siming Zeng, Min Li, Xin Zhao, Fan Xu
To explore the hypothesis that CD200Fc, a CD200R1 agonist with anti-inflammatory properties, will inhibit retinal glial cells hyperactivation and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) apoptosis after optic nerve injury. CD200Fc was immediately administered after optic nerve crush (ONC) once by intravitreal injection. Rats were euthanized at 5 days after ONC. The density of RGCs was counted by immunostaining of retina flat mounts for Brn3a. TUNEL assay, immunoblotting analysis of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1(iba1) (microglia marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (astrocytes and Müller cells marker), RT-PCR analysis of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10, ELISA measure protein levels of inflammatory cytokines and western blot analysis of CD200 and CD200R1 were evaluated...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278387/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-ido-enzyme-links-innate-immunity-and-altered-t-cell-differentiation-in-non-st-segment-elevation-acute-coronary-syndrome
#15
Chiara Zara, Anna Severino, Davide Flego, Aureliano Ruggio, Daniela Pedicino, Ada Francesca Giglio, Francesco Trotta, Claudia Lucci, Domenico D'Amario, Ramona Vinci, Eugenia Pisano, Giulio La Rosa, Luigi Marzio Biasucci, Filippo Crea, Giovanna Liuzzo
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a complex interplay between innate and adaptive immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in T-cell activation and regulation by promoting a tolerogenic environment through the expression of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an intracellular enzyme involved in tryptophan catabolism. IDO expression and activity was analyzed in monocytes derived DCs (MDDCs) from non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients, stable angina (SA) patients and healthy controls (HC) by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) before and after in vitro maturation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258429/mesenchymal-stem-cell-conditioned-medium-alleviates-oxidative-stress-injury-induced-by-hydrogen-peroxide-via-regulating-mir143-and-its-target-protein-in-hepatocytes
#16
Xuejing Xu, Dong Li, Xue Li, Qing Shi, Xiuli Ju
BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of miRNA (microRNA) on hepatic oxidative stress damage under the human mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium (MSC-CM) and explore the roles of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) and hexokinase 2 (HK2) in this process. METHODS: Hydrogen peroxide was used to induce oxidative stress injury in the human normal liver cell line L02. MSC-CM was separately prepared. After treatment with MSC-CM, the protective effects of MSC-CM on oxidative stress injury were assessed by changes in apoptosis, cell viability, cell cycle, and mitochondrial membrane potential...
December 19, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248583/gmplp1-a-pas-lov-protein-functions-as-a-possible-new-type-of-blue-light-photoreceptor-in-soybean
#17
Yongguang Li, Yanzheng Zhang, Mengting Li, Qiulan Luo, Ali Inayat Mallano, Ya Jing, Yuhang Zhang, Lin Zhao, Wenbin Li
Light is one of the most important environmental factors for the growth and development of plants. To adapt to changes in day length, the photoreception and transmission of the light signals in plants mainly depend on the various light receptor proteins. The PAS/LOV protein (PLP) has a PAS domain in the N-terminal and LOV domain in the C-terminal and has been confirmed as a new type of blue light receptor in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the role of its counterpart in soybean remains largely unclear. In this study, the expression pattern of the GmPLP1 under different light qualities was determined by real-time RT-PCR analysis using the cultivar 'DongNong 42', a photosensitive soybean cultivar, suggesting that GmPLP1 was affected by the circadian clock and was a dark-induced gene...
December 14, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248489/-in-vitro-studies-on-galectin-3-in-human-natural-killer-cells
#18
Alvaro Brittoli, Silvia Fallarini, Hao Zhang, Roland J Pieters, Grazia Lombardi
Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside binding protein able to modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. First identified in macrophages, Gal-3 has been studied widely in many mammalian immune cells, but scarcely in natural killer (NK) cells. The aim of this study was to analyze Gal-3 in human NK cells, isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Both PCR and RT-PCR analysis showed that resting human NK cells express Gal-3 mRNA, which can be modulated upon cytokine stimulation (100 U/ml IL-2 + 20 ng/ml IL-15) for different period of time (1-24 h)...
December 14, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246543/oncostatin-m-upregulates-hif-1%C3%AE-in-breast-tumor-associated-macrophages-independent-of-intracellular-oxygen-concentration
#19
Richa Shrivastava, Varsha Singh, Mohammad Asif, Mahendra Pal Singh Negi, Smrati Bhadauria
AIMS: HIF is an important transcription-regulator for adaptation to cellular stress in cells of myeloid origin. Classically, expression and activity of HIF1-α is regulated by oxygen-concentration within cell. However, there exists an alternative regulatory mechanism affecting HIF1-α levels independent of oxygen concentration particularly in inflammatory cells like macrophages. Here we report the mechanism of HIF1-α upregulation in TAMs by Oncostatin-M (OSM) independent of cellular oxygen concentration...
December 12, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246105/the-function-and-evolutionary-significance-of-a-triplicated-na-k-atpase-gene-in-a-toxin-specialized-insect
#20
Jennifer N Lohr, Fee Meinzer, Safaa Dalla, Renja Romey-Glüsing, Susanne Dobler
BACKGROUND: The Na,K-ATPase is a vital animal cell-membrane protein that maintains the cell's resting potential, among other functions. Cardenolides, a group of potent plant toxins, bind to and inhibit this pump. The gene encoding the α-subunit of the pump has undergone duplication events in some insect species known to feed on plants containing cardenolides. Here we test the function of these duplicated gene copies in the cardenolide-adapted milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, which has three known copies of the gene: α1A, α1B and α1C...
December 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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