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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778080/atrazine-xenobiotic-nuclear-receptor-interactions-induce-cardiac-inflammation-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-quail-coturnix-coturnix-coturnix
#1
Xue-Nan Li, Yu-Zhu Zuo, Lei Qin, Wei Liu, Yan-Hua Li, Jin-Long Li
Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most extensively used herbicide that eventually leaches into groundwater and surface water from agricultural areas. Exposure to ATR does harm to the health of human and animals, especially the heart. However, ATR exposure caused cardiotoxicity in bird remains unclear. To evaluate ATR-exerted potential cardiotoxicity in heart, quail were exposed with 0, 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW/day ATR by gavage treatment for 45 days. Cardiac histopathological alternation was observed in ATR-induced quail...
May 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778017/the-preconception-care-experiences-of-women-with-epilepsy-on-sodium-valproate
#2
Lorna Lawther, Helen Dolk, Marlene Sinclair, Jim Morrow
PURPOSE: To understand the preconception experiences of women with epilepsy who have been taking the teratogenic drug valproate. METHODS: Seven women were recruited, three from a preconception clinic and four from an antenatal clinic in a region of the UK. All had taken valproate preconceptionally. Three preconception clinic encounters were observed and audio-recorded. Interviews with all women were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). RESULTS: Women experienced a "trajectory of balance"...
May 16, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778000/anxiety-moderates-the-effects-of-stressor-controllability-and-cognitive-reappraisal-on-distress-following-aversive-exposure-an-experimental-investigation
#3
Lillian Le, Michelle Moulds, Angela Nickerson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence suggests that the effectiveness of cognitive reappraisal (CR) depends on different factors, including the individual's psychological wellbeing (e.g., level of anxiety) and the context in which the strategy is used (e.g., stressor controllability). The present study aimed to investigate the emotional (negative affect) and physiological (skin conductance levels) effects of emotion regulation following exposure to controllable versus uncontrollable stress...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777783/accelerated-lipid-catabolism-and-autophagy-are-cancer-survival-mechanisms-under-inhibited-glutaminolysis
#4
Anna Halama, Michal Kulinski, Shaima S Dib, Shaza B Zaghlool, Kodappully S Siveen, Ahmad Iskandarani, Jonas Zierer, Kirti S Prabhu, Noothan J Satheesh, Aditya M Bhagwat, Shahab Uddin, Gabi Kastenmüller, Olivier Elemento, Steven S Gross, Karsten Suhre
Suppressing glutaminolysis does not always induce cancer cell death in glutamine dependent tumors because cells may switch to alternative energy sources. To reveal compensatory metabolic pathways, we investigated the metabolome-wide cellular response to inhibited glutaminolysis in cancer cells. Glutaminolysis inhibition with C.968 suppressed cell proliferation but was insufficient to induce cancer cell death. We found that lipid catabolism was activated as a compensation for glutaminolysis inhibition. Accelerated lipid catabolism, together with oxidative stress induced by glutaminolysis inhibition, triggered autophagy...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777754/hmgb1-neutralization-attenuates-hippocampal-neuronal-death-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rats-with-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-via-suppressing-inflammatory-responses-and-oxidative-stress
#5
Yue Hei, Rong Chen, Xicai Yi, Qianfa Long, Dakuan Gao, Weiping Liu
High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) acts as a proinflammatory molecule once released into the extracellular space and inhibition of HMGB1 signaling has been reported be neuroprotective in neurodegenerative diseases. Besides, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we tested the protective role of HMGB1 inhibition using anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody (Ab) against CCH in rats after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO). 169 male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 2VO or sham operation...
May 16, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777709/amelioration-of-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-sirt4-involves-mitochondrial-protection-and-reduced-apoptosis
#6
Guangwei Zeng, Hui Liu, Haiyan Wang
Apoptosis and mitochondria dysfunction are key contributors to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI-R) injury. SIRT4, a mitochondrial-localized sirtuin, controls cellular energy metabolism and stress response, and is abundantly present in the heart, however, its role in MI-R injury is not clear. In the current study, we demonstrate that SIRT4 is downregulated in cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo models after MI-R. Functionally, SIRT4 overexpression decreases myocardial infarct size and serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) level, and vice versa, SIRT4 depletion by siRNA increases myocardial infarct size and serum CPK level...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777687/physiological-stress-responses-in-wild-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-a-human-dominated-landscape-in-the-western-ghats-southern-india
#7
Sreedhar Vijayakrishnan, Mavatur Ananda Kumar, G Umapathy, Vinod Kumar, Anindya Sinha
Increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, especially in the tropical regions of the world, have restricted several large mammalian species such as the Asian elephant to fragmented habitats within human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we assessed the effects of an anthropogenic landscape and its associated conflict with humans on the physiological stress responses displayed by Asian elephants in the Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats mountains in south India. We have quantified faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations in focal individual elephants within and across herds, inhabiting both anthropogenic and natural habitats, and evaluated their physiological responses to different socio-ecological situations between November 2013 and April 2014...
May 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777682/inhibition-of-bet-bromodomains-restores-corticosteroid-responsiveness-in-a-mixed-granulocytic-mouse-model-of-asthma
#8
Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F Ahmad, Naif O Al-Harbi, Nahid Siddiqui, Khalid E Ibrahim, Sabry M Attia
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by different endotypes/phenotypes. Th2/Th17 driven mixed granulocytic asthma is one of them and shows resistance to corticosteroid therapy. Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are required for differentiation of Th17 cells which play a pivotal role in neutrophilic inflammation. Therefore, we sought to characterize the differential effects of BET inhibitor versus corticosteroids, and their potential synergism in cockroach allergen extract (CE)-induced mixed granulocytic (eosinophilic and neutrophilic) mouse model of asthma having Th2/Th17 endotype...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777504/implementation-and-validation-of-constitutive-relations-for-human-dermis-mechanical-response
#9
Alessandra Aldieri, Mara Terzini, Cristina Bignardi, Elisabetta M Zanetti, Alberto L Audenino
Finite element models in conjunction with adequate constitutive relations are pivotal in several physiological and medical applications related to both native and engineered tissues, allowing to predict the tissue response under various loading states. In order to get reliable results, however, the validation of the constitutive models is crucial. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to provide an experimental-computational approach to the biomechanical investigation of soft tissues such as the dermis...
May 19, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777502/oxi1-kinase-plays-a-key-role-in-resistance-of-arabidopsis-towards-aphids-myzus-persicae
#10
Tahsin Shoala, Martin G Edwards, Marc R Knight, Angharad M R Gatehouse
Plants have co-evolved with a diverse array of pathogens and insect herbivores and so have evolved an extensive repertoire of constitutive and induced defence mechanisms activated through complex signalling pathways. OXI1 kinase is required for activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and is an essential part of the signal transduction pathway linking oxidative burst signals to diverse downstream responses. Furthermore, changes in the levels of OXI1 appear to be crucial for appropriate signalling...
May 17, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777486/physiological-and-quantitative-proteomic-analyses-unraveling-potassium-deficiency-stress-response-in-alligator-weed-alternanthera-philoxeroides-l-root
#11
Li-Qin Li, Lun Liu, Wei Zhuo, Qian Chen, Sheng Hu, Shuang Peng, Xi-Yao Wang, Yi-Fei Lu, Li-Ming Lu
Physiological and iTRAQ based proteomic analysis provided new insights into potassium deficiency stress response in alligator weed root. Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) has a strong ability to adapt to potassium deficiency (LK) stress. Proteomic changes in response to this stress are largely unknown in alligator weed. In this study, we investigated physiological and molecular mechanisms under LK using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation to characterize proteome-level changes in this plant...
May 18, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777484/identification-of-differentially-expressed-micrornas-in-sahiwal-bos-indicus-breed-of-cattle-during-thermal-stress
#12
Gyanendra Singh Sengar, Rajib Deb, Umesh Singh, Vivek Junghare, Saugata Hazra, T V Raja, Rani Alex, Ashish Kumar, R R Alyethodi, Rajiv Kant, Subhash Jakshara, C G Joshi
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play key roles in post transcriptional gene regulation that influence various fundamental cellular processes, including the cellular responses during environmental stresses. However, perusal of literatures revealed few reports on the differential expression of miRNA during thermal stress in Indian native (Bos indicus) cattle breeds. The present investigation aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs during thermal stress in Sahiwal (Bos indicus) dairy cattle breed of India, adapted with tropical climate over a long period of time...
May 18, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777359/regulatory-mechanisms-of-thiol-based-redox-sensors-lessons-learned-from-structural-studies-on-prokaryotic-redox-sensors
#13
REVIEW
Sang Jae Lee, Dong-Gyun Kim, Kyu-Yeon Lee, Ji Sung Koo, Bong-Jin Lee
Oxidative stresses, such as reactive oxygen species, reactive electrophilic species, reactive nitrogen species, and reactive chlorine species, can damage cellular components, leading to cellular malfunction and death. In response to oxidative stress, bacteria have evolved redox-responsive sensors that enable them to simultaneously monitor and eradicate potential oxidative stress. Specifically, redox-sensing transcription regulators react to oxidative stress by means of modifying the thiol groups of cysteine residues, functioning as part of an efficient survival mechanism for many bacteria...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777319/what-does-sex-have-to-do-with-it-the-role-of-sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Sara L Kornfield, Liisa Hantsoo, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the neurobiological aspects of sex differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specifically focusing on the physiological responses to trauma and presents evidence supporting hormone and neurosteroid/peptide differences from both preclinical and clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: While others have suggested that trauma type or acute emotional reaction are responsible for women's disproportionate risk to PTSD, neither of these explanations fully accounts for the sex differences in PTSD...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777224/progression-of-whole-blood-transcriptional-signatures-from-interferon-induced-to-neutrophil-associated-patterns-in-severe-influenza
#15
Jake Dunning, Simon Blankley, Long T Hoang, Mike Cox, Christine M Graham, Philip L James, Chloe I Bloom, Damien Chaussabel, Jacques Banchereau, Stephen J Brett, Miriam F Moffatt, Anne O'Garra, Peter J M Openshaw
Transcriptional profiles and host-response biomarkers are used increasingly to investigate the severity, subtype and pathogenesis of disease. We now describe whole-blood mRNA signatures and concentrations of local and systemic immunological mediators in 131 adults hospitalized with influenza, from whom extensive clinical and investigational data were obtained by MOSAIC investigators. Signatures reflective of interferon-related antiviral pathways were common up to day 4 of symptoms in patients who did not require mechanical ventilator support; in those who needed mechanical ventilation, an inflammatory, activated-neutrophil and cell-stress or death ('bacterial') pattern was seen, even early in disease...
May 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777212/regulation-of-macrophage-immunometabolism-in-atherosclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Graeme J Koelwyn, Emma M Corr, Ebru Erbay, Kathryn J Moore
After activation, cells of the myeloid lineage undergo robust metabolic transitions, as well as discrete epigenetic changes, that can dictate both ongoing and future inflammatory responses. In atherosclerosis, in which macrophages play central roles in the initiation, growth, and ultimately rupture of arterial plaques, altered metabolism is a key feature that dictates macrophage function and subsequent disease progression. This Review explores how factors central to the plaque microenvironment (for example, altered cholesterol metabolism, oxidative stress, hypoxia, apoptotic and necrotic cells, and hyperglycemia) shape the metabolic rewiring of macrophages in atherosclerosis as well as how these metabolic shifts in turn alter macrophage immune-effector and tissue-reparative functions...
May 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777170/systematic-biology-analysis-on-photosynthetic-carbon-metabolism-of-maize-leaf-following-sudden-heat-shock-under-elevated-co-2
#17
Mingnan Qu, Genyun Chen, James A Bunce, Xiaocen Zhu, Richard C Sicher
Plants would experience more complex environments, such as sudden heat shock (SHS) stress combined with elevated CO2 in the future, and might adapt to this stressful condition by optimizing photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM). It is interesting to understand whether this acclimation process would be altered in different genotypes of maize under elevated CO2 , and which metabolites represent key indicators reflecting the photosynthetic rates (PN ) following SHS. Although B76 had greater reduction in PN during SHS treatment, our results indicated that PN in genotype B76, displayed faster recovery after SHS treatment under elevated CO2 than in genotype B106...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777151/integrated-proteomics-genomics-metabolomics-approaches-reveal-oxalic-acid-as-pathogenicity-factor-in-tilletia-indica-inciting-karnal-bunt-disease-of-wheat
#18
Vishakha Pandey, Manoj Singh, Dinesh Pandey, Anil Kumar
Tilletia indica incites Karnal bunt (KB) disease in wheat. To date, no KB resistant wheat cultivar could be developed due to non-availability of potential biomarkers related to pathogenicity/virulence for screening of resistant wheat genotypes. The present study was carried out to compare the proteomes of T. indica highly (TiK) and low (TiP) virulent isolates. Twenty one protein spots consistently observed as up-regulated/differential in the TiK proteome were selected for identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Identified sequences showed homology with fungal proteins playing essential role in plant infection and pathogen survival, including stress response, adhesion, fungal penetration, invasion, colonization, degradation of host cell wall, signal transduction pathway...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777132/the-modulation-of-acetic-acid-pathway-genes-in-arabidopsis-improves-survival-under-drought-stress
#19
Sultana Rasheed, Khurram Bashir, Jong-Myong Kim, Marina Ando, Maho Tanaka, Motoaki Seki
The Arabidopsis histone deacetylase 6 (HDA6) mutant exhibits increased tolerance to drought stress by negatively regulating the expression of ALDH2B7 and PDC1. Therefore, it was logical to determine if transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing PDC1 or ALDH2B7 using a suitable promoter would also exhibit tolerance to drought stress. An analysis of published microarray data indicated the up-regulation of the TSPO gene, which encodes an outer membrane tryptophan-rich sensory protein (TSPO), by drought stress. RT-qPCR, as well as GUS analysis of the promoter, confirmed the up-regulation of TSPO by drought stress in Arabidopsis roots and shoots...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777131/activity-of-acetyltransferase-toxins-involved-in-salmonella-persister-formation-during-macrophage-infection
#20
Julian A Rycroft, Bridget Gollan, Grzegorz J Grabe, Alexander Hall, Angela M Cheverton, Gerald Larrouy-Maumus, Stephen A Hare, Sophie Helaine
Non-typhoidal Salmonella strains are responsible for invasive infections associated with high mortality and recurrence in sub-Saharan Africa, and there is strong evidence for clonal relapse following antibiotic treatment. Persisters are non-growing bacteria that are thought to be responsible for the recalcitrance of many infections to antibiotics. Toxin-antitoxin systems are stress-responsive elements that are important for Salmonella persister formation, specifically during infection. Here, we report the analysis of persister formation of clinical invasive strains of Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis in human primary macrophages...
May 18, 2018: Nature Communications
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