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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150731/cellular-and-molecular-responses-of-adult-zebrafish-after-exposure-to-cuo-nanoparticles-or-ionic-copper
#1
Unai Vicario-Parés, Jose M Lacave, Paul Reip, Miren P Cajaraville, Amaia Orbea
Due to their antimicrobial, electrical and magnetic properties, copper nanoparticles (NPs) are suitable for a vast array of applications. Copper can be toxic to biota, making it necessary to assess the potential hazard of copper nanomaterials. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 10 µg Cu/L of CuO NPs of ≈100 nm (CuO-poly) or ionic copper to compare the effects provoked after 3 and 21 days of exposure and at 6 months post-exposure (mpe). At 21 days, significant copper accumulation was only detected in fish exposed to ionic copper...
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150706/application-of-directed-evolution-to-develop-ethanol-tolerant-oenococcus-oeni-for-more-efficient-malolactic-fermentation
#2
Alice L Betteridge, Krista M Sumby, Joanna F Sundstrom, Paul R Grbin, Vladimir Jiranek
Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is an important step in winemaking, which can be notoriously unreliable due to the fastidious nature of Oenococcus oeni. This study aimed to use directed evolution (DE) to produce a more robust strain of O. oeni having the ability to withstand high ethanol concentrations. DE involves an organism mutating and potentially adapting to a high stress environment over the course of extended cultivation. A continuous culture of O. oeni was established and exposed to progressively increasing ethanol content such that after approximately 330 generations, an isolate from this culture was able to complete MLF in high ethanol content medium earlier than its parent...
November 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150672/fmnh2-dependent-monooxygenases-initiate-catabolism-of-sulfonamides-in-microbacterium-sp-strain-br1-subsisting-on-sulfonamide-antibiotics
#3
Benjamin Ricken, Boris A Kolvenbach, Christian Bergesch, Dirk Benndorf, Kevin Kroll, Hynek Strnad, Čestmír Vlček, Ricardo Adaixo, Frederik Hammes, Patrick Shahgaldian, Andreas Schäffer, Hans-Peter E Kohler, Philippe F-X Corvini
We report a cluster of genes encoding two monooxygenases (SadA and SadB) and one FMN reductase (SadC) that enable Microbacterium sp. strain BR1 and other Actinomycetes to inactivate sulfonamide antibiotics. Our results show that SadA and SadC are responsible for the initial attack of sulfonamide molecules resulting in the release of 4-aminophenol. The latter is further transformed into 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene by SadB and SadC prior to mineralization and concomitant production of biomass. As the degradation products lack antibiotic activity, the presence of SadA will result in an alleviated bacteriostatic effect of sulfonamides...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150547/the-tomato-della-protein-procera-acts-in-guard-cells-to-promote-stomatal-closure
#4
Ido Nir, Hagai Shohat, Irina Panizel, Neil E Olszewski, Asaph Aharoni, David Weiss
Plants employ stomatal closure and reduced growth to avoid water deficiency damage. Reduced levels of the growth-promoting hormone gibberellin (GA) lead to increased tolerance to water deficit, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) DELLA protein PROCERA (PRO), a negative regulator of GA signaling, acts in guard cells to promote stomatal closure and reduce water loss in response to water deficiency by increasing abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity. The loss-of-function pro mutant exhibited increased stomatal conductance and rapid wilting under water-deficit stress...
November 17, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150517/multi-omics-reveal-the-lifestyle-of-the-acidophilic-mineral-oxidizing-model-species-leptospirillum-ferriphilum-t
#5
Stephan Christel, Malte Herold, Sören Bellenberg, Mohamed El Hajjami, Antoine Buetti-Dinh, Igor V Pivkin, Wolfgang Sand, Paul Wilmes, Ansgar Poetsch, Mark Dopson
Leptospirillum ferriphilum plays a major role in acidic, metal rich environments where it represents one of the most prevalent iron oxidizers. These milieus include acid rock and mine drainage as well as biomining operations. Despite its perceived importance, no complete genome sequence of this model species' type strain is available, limiting the possibilities to investigate the strategies and adaptations Leptospirillum ferriphilum(T) applies to survive and compete in its niche. This study presents a complete, circular genome of Leptospirillum ferriphilum(T) DSM 14647 obtained by PacBio SMRT long read sequencing for use as a high quality reference...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150501/glna-truncation-in-salmonella-enterica-results-in-a-small-colony-variant-phenotype-attenuated-host-cell-entry-and-reduced-expression-of-flagellin-and-spi-1-associated-effector-genes
#6
Philipp Aurass, Juliane Düvel, Susanne Karste, Ulrich Nübel, Wolfgang Rabsch, Antje Flieger
Many pathogenic bacteria use sophisticated survival strategies to overcome harsh environmental conditions. One is the formation of slow-growing subpopulations termed small colony variants (SCVs). Here we characterize an SCV, which spontaneously emerged from an axenic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium water culture. We found that the SCV harbors a frameshift mutation in the glutamine synthetase gene glnA leading to a ∼90% truncation of the corresponding protein. Glutamine synthetase, a central enzyme in nitrogen assimilation, converts glutamate and ammonia to glutamine...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150287/anastasis-and-the-er-stress-response-solving-the-paradox-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-cancer
#7
Rafael Vincent M Manalo
In recent years, studies have suggested a novel pathway for cell survival, which faces scientific skepticism and interest in its concept of cell 'resurrection' - that is, the anastasis of cells at late-stage apoptosis. While biomarkers have been discovered, many of these are related to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response - acting also to promote cell survival in the presence of perturbation. The promises of anastasis, if accepted, will greatly impact translational medicine especially in the treatment of cancer, since apoptosis is generally irreversible in the late stages, and chemotherapy is performed to maximize tumor death and minimize off-target effects...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150271/xenohormesis-in-early-life-new-avenues-of-research-to-explore-anti-aging-strategies-through-the-maternal-diet
#8
Philippe de Medina
Aging is a progressive internal physiological deterioration of the organism, leading to the occurrence of age-related lethal diseases. It has become a major societal challenge to understand the processes that drive aging and to develop rational pharmacological agents and dietary approaches to fight against age-related deterioration and diseases. Interestingly, several lines of evidence highlight an influence of the developmental period on the risk of age-related diseases later in life. This field is known as the developmental origins of health and disease...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149943/endocrine-and-metabolic-alterations-in-sepsis-and-implications-for-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Catherine Ingels, Jan Gunst, Greet Van den Berghe
Sepsis induces profound neuroendocrine and metabolic alterations. During the acute phase, the neuroendocrine changes are directed toward restoration of homeostasis, and also limit unnecessary energy consumption in the setting of restricted nutrient availability. Such changes are probably adaptive. In patients not recovering quickly, a prolonged critically ill phase may ensue, with different neuroendocrine changes, which may represent a maladaptive response. Whether stress hyperglycemia should be aggressively treated or tolerated remains a matter of debate...
January 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149743/multigenerational-effects-of-salinity-in-six-clonal-lineages-of-daphnia-longispina
#10
C Venâncio, R Ribeiro, A M V M Soares, I Lopes
Sea level rise, as a consequence of climate changes, is already causing seawater intrusion in some freshwater coastal ecosystems worldwide. The increase in salinity at these freshwater coastal ecosystems may occur gradually (through groundwater) or abruptly (through extreme weather events). Moreover, many of them are also being altered and threatened by anthropogenic activities. Accordingly, the present study aimed at assessing the multigenerational lethal and sublethal effects caused by increased salinity in six clonal lineages of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia longispina differing in their sensitivity to lethal levels of copper...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149692/acute-stress-affects-prospective-memory-functions-via-associative-memory-processes
#11
Ágnes Szőllősi, Péter Pajkossy, Gyula Demeter, Szabolcs Kéri, Mihály Racsmány
Recent findings suggest that acute stress can improve the execution of delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM). However, it is unclear whether this improvement can be explained by altered executive control processes or by altered associative memory functioning. To investigate this issue, we used physical-psychosocial stressors to induce acute stress in laboratory settings. Then participants completed event- and time-based PM tasks requiring the different contribution of control processes and a control task (letter fluency) frequently used to measure executive functions...
November 14, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149661/unraveling-the-effects-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-on-uptake-translocation-and-distribution-of-cadmium-in-phragmites-australis-cav-trin-ex-steud
#12
Xiaochen Huang, Li Wang, Shishu Zhu, Shih-Hsin Ho, Jieting Wu, Prasanta K Kalita, Fang Ma
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. has been reported to form a symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF). However, the tolerance mechanism for AMF symbiosis on cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity still remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Rhizophagus irregularis inoculation on Cd-stressed (0, 1, and 20mgL(-1)) roots, stems, and leaves of P. australis with regard to subcellular Cd distribution and chemical forms of Cd. In addition, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate variations in subcellular structures and functional groups in plant organs...
November 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149645/xylella-fastidiosa-induces-differential-expression-of-lignification-related-genes-and-lignin-accumulation-in-tolerant-olive-trees-cv-leccino
#13
Erika Sabella, Andrea Luvisi, Alessio Aprile, Carmine Negro, Marzia Vergine, Francesca Nicolì, Antonio Miceli, Luigi De Bellis
Recently, Xylella fastidiosa was reported in Italy, associated with the "Olive Quick Decline Syndrome". The cv. Leccino exhibits an evident tolerance with a slow disease progression compared with the other cultivars. Between the mechanisms proposed to explain the putative tolerance of some hosts to X. fastidiosa diseases, lignin deposition plays an important role. Analysis of phenolic compounds in healthy and infected Leccino and Cellina di Nardò leaves showed, in the two cultivars, a reduction of hydroxytyrosol glucoside (usually associated with drought and cold stress) and, only in Leccino, an increase of quinic acid, precursor of lignin...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149643/the-role-of-the-p38-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway-mediated-autophagy-in-cadmium-exposed-monogonont-rotifer-brachious-koreanus
#14
Hye-Min Kang, Chang-Bum Jeong, Min-Sub Kim, Jin-Sol Lee, Jiaying Zhou, Young Hwan Lee, Duck-Hyun Kim, Eunyoung Moon, Hee-Seok Kweon, Su-Jae Lee, Jae-Seong Lee
Autophagy is a 'self-eating' system that regulates the degradation of cellular components and is involved in various biological processes including survival and development. However, despite its crucial role in organisms, the regulatory mechanism of autophagy remains largely unclear, particularly in invertebrates. In this study, conserved autophagy in the rotifer Brachionus koreanus in response to cadmium (Cd) exposure was verified by measuring acidic vesicle organelles using acridine orange (AO) and neutral red (NR) staining, and by detecting LC3 I/II on Western blot and immunofluorescence...
November 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149642/oxidative-stress-cell-cycle-arrest-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio-induced-by-tris-1-3-dichloro-2-propyl-phosphate
#15
Hanyan Chen, Pingping Wang, Zhongkun Du, Guowei Wang, Shixiang Gao
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP) is an additive flame retardant of high production volume, and frequently detected in biota and environment. However, knowledge on its potential risk and toxicological mechanism still remains limited. In this study, DNA damage, transcriptomic responses and biochemical changes in the liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio) induced by TDCPP were investigated. Zebrafish was exposed to 45.81μg/L (1/100 (96h-LC50)) and 229.05μg/L (1/20 (96h-LC50)) TDCPP for 7 d. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and GSH contents, in addition to antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver changed significantly, and the mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress were alerted in a dose-dependent and/or sex-dependent manner after exposure to TDCPP...
November 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149595/sterol-oxidation-mediates-stress-responsive-vms1-translocation-to-mitochondria
#16
Jason R Nielson, Eric K Fredrickson, T Cameron Waller, Olga Zurita Rendón, Heidi L Schubert, Zhenjian Lin, Christopher P Hill, Jared Rutter
Vms1 translocates to damaged mitochondria in response to stress, whereupon its binding partner, Cdc48, contributes to mitochondrial protein homeostasis. Mitochondrial targeting of Vms1 is mediated by its conserved mitochondrial targeting domain (MTD), which, in unstressed conditions, is inhibited by intramolecular binding to the Vms1 leucine-rich sequence (LRS). Here, we report a 2.7 Å crystal structure of Vms1 that reveals that the LRS lies in a hydrophobic groove in the autoinhibited MTD. We also demonstrate that the oxidized sterol, ergosterol peroxide, is necessary and sufficient for Vms1 localization to mitochondria, through binding the MTD in an interaction that is competitive with binding to the LRS...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149522/melatonin-improves-the-meiotic-maturation-of-porcine-oocytes-by-reducing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-during-in-vitro-maturation
#17
Hyo-Jin Park, Jae-Young Park, Jin-Woo Kim, Seul-Gi Yang, Jae-Min Jung, Min-Ji Kim, Man-Jong Kang, Young Ho Cho, Gabbine Wee, Hee-Young Yang, Bong-Seok Song, Sun-Uk Kim, Deog-Bon Koo
Under endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress conditions, the unfolded protein response (UPR) generates a defense mechanism in mammalian cells. The regulation of UPR signaling is important in oocyte maturation, embryo development, and female reproduction of pigs. Recent studies have shown that melatonin plays an important role as an anti-oxidant to improve pig oocyte maturation. However, there is no report on the role of melatonin in the regulation of UPR signaling and ER-stress during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149453/melatonin-and-serotonin-mediators-in-the-symphony-of-plant-morphogenesis
#18
Lauren A E Erland, Mukund R Shukla, Amritpal S Singh, Susan J Murch, Praveen K Saxena
Melatonin and serotonin are important signaling and stress mitigating molecules that play important roles across growth and development in plants. Despite many well-documented responses, a systematic investigation of the entire metabolic pathway (tryptophan, tryptamine and N-acetylserotonin) does not exist, leaving many open questions. The objective of this study was to determine the responses of Hypericum perforatum (L.) to melatonin, serotonin and their metabolic precursors. Two well characterized germplasm lines (#4 and 112) created by mutation and a haploid breeding program were compared to wildtype to identify specific responses...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149404/the-translational-controlled-tumour-protein-tctp-biological-functions-and-regulation
#19
Ulrich-Axel Bommer
The Translational Controlled Tumour Protein TCTP (gene symbol TPT1, also called P21, P23, Q23, fortilin or histamine-releasing factor, HRF) is a highly conserved protein present in essentially all eukaryotic organisms and involved in many fundamental cell biological and disease processes. It was first discovered about 35 years ago, and it took an extended period of time for its multiple functions to be revealed, and even today we do not yet fully understand all the details. Having witnessed most of this history, in this chapter, I give a brief overview and review the current knowledge on the structure, biological functions, disease involvements and cellular regulation of this protein...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149280/whole-genome-re-sequencing-of-two-italian-tomato-landraces-reveals-sequence-variations-in-genes-associated-with-stress-tolerance-fruit-quality-and-long-shelf-life-traits
#20
Valentina Tranchida-Lombardo, Riccardo Aiese Cigliano, Irantzu Anzar, Simone Landi, Samuela Palombieri, Chiara Colantuono, Hamed Bostan, Pasquale Termolino, Riccardo Aversano, Giorgia Batelli, Maria Cammareri, Domenico Carputo, Maria Luisa Chiusano, Clara Conicella, Federica Consiglio, Nunzio D'Agostino, Monica De Palma, Antonio Di Matteo, Silvana Grandillo, Walter Sanseverino, Marina Tucci, Stefania Grillo
Tomato is a high value crop and the primary model for fleshy fruit development and ripening. Breeding priorities include increased fruit quality, shelf life and tolerance to stresses. To contribute towards this goal, we re-sequenced the genomes of Corbarino (COR) and Lucariello (LUC) landraces, which both possess the traits of plant adaptation to water deficit, prolonged fruit shelf-life and good fruit quality. Through the newly developed pipeline Reconstructor, we generated the genome sequences of COR and LUC using datasets of 65...
November 14, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
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