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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927262/autophagy-is-pro-senescence-when-seen-in-close-up-but-anti-senescence-in-long-shot
#1
Yoojin Kwon, Ji Wook Kim, Jo Ae Jeoung, Mi-Sung Kim, Chanhee Kang
When mammalian cells and animals face a variety of internal or external stresses, they need to make homeostatic changes so as to cope with various stresses. To this end, mammalian cells are equipped with two critical stress responses, autophagy and cellular senescence. Autophagy and cellular senescence share a number of stimuli including telomere shortening, DNA damage, oncogenic stress and oxidative stress, suggesting their intimate relationship. Autophagy is originally thought to suppress cellular senescence by removing damaged macromolecules or organelles, yet recent studies also indicated that autophagy promotes cellular senescence by facilitating the synthesis of senescence-associated secretory proteins...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927047/msk1-downregulation-is-associated-with-neuronal-and-astrocytic-apoptosis-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#2
Bo Ning, Geng Guo, Hong Liu, Lei Ning, Bao-Liang Sun, Zhen Li, Shuo Wang, Zheng-Wen Lv, Cun-Dong Fan
MSK (mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase) proteins are a family of mitogen-activated protein kinases. MSKs represent a novel type of pro-survival genes, potentially enhancing the phosphorylation of Bcl2-associated agonist of cell death. However, MSK's function and expression are poorly understood in the central nervous system. In the present study, a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model was established in SD rats and the expression of MSK1 in the brain subsequent to experimental SAH was investigated...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927022/salt-stress-response-mechanisms-using-de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-of-salt-tolerant-and-sensitive-corchorus-spp-genotypes
#3
Zemao Yang, Ruike Lu, Zhigang Dai, An Yan, Qing Tang, Chaohua Cheng, Ying Xu, Wenting Yang, Jianguang Su
High salinity is a major environmental stressor for crops. To understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying salt tolerance, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis between salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive jute (Corchorus spp.) genotypes in leaf and root tissues under salt stress and control conditions. In total, 68,961 unigenes were identified. Additionally, 11,100 unigenes (including 385 transcription factors (TFs)) exhibited significant differential expression in salt-tolerant or salt-sensitive genotypes...
September 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926994/the-metabolic-response-to-stress-and-infection-in-critically-ill-children-the-opportunity-of-an-individualized-approach
#4
REVIEW
Valentina De Cosmi, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Veronica D'Oria, Marco Silano, Edoardo Calderini, Carlo Agostoni
The metabolic response to stress and infection is closely related to the corresponding requirements of energy and nutrients. On a general level, the response is driven by a complex endocrine network and related to the nature and severity of the insult. On an individual level, the effects of nutritional interventions are highly variable and a possible source of complications. This narrative review aims to discuss the metabolic changes in critically-ill children and the potential of developing personalized nutritional interventions...
September 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926983/expression-of-the-grape-vasts19-gene-in-arabidopsis-improves-resistance-to-powdery-mildew-and-botrytis-cinerea-but-increases-susceptibility-to-pseudomonas-syringe-pv-tomato-dc3000
#5
Yaqiong Wang, Dejun Wang, Fan Wang, Li Huang, Xiaomin Tian, Steve van Nocker, Hua Gao, Xiping Wang
Stilbene synthase (STS) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of resveratrol compounds and plays an important role in disease resistance. The molecular pathways linking STS with pathogen responses and their regulation are not known. We isolated an STS gene, VaSTS19, from a Chinese wild grape, Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. "Tonghua-3", and transferred this gene to Arabidopsis. We then generated VaSTS19-expressing Arabidopsis lines and evaluated the functions of VaSTS19 in various pathogen stresses, including powdery mildew, B...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926970/proteomic-characterization-of-armillaria-mellea-reveals-oxidative-stress-response-mechanisms-and-altered-secondary-metabolism-profiles
#6
Cassandra Collins, Rachel Hurley, Nada Almutlaqah, Grainne O'Keeffe, Thomas M Keane, David A Fitzpatrick, Rebecca A Owens
Armillaria mellea is a major plant pathogen. Yet, the strategies the organism uses to infect susceptible species, degrade lignocellulose and other plant material and protect itself against plant defences and its own glycodegradative arsenal are largely unknown. Here, we use a combination of gel and MS-based proteomics to profile A. mellea under conditions of oxidative stress and changes in growth matrix. 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were used to investigate the response of A. mellea to H₂O₂ and menadione/FeCl₃ exposure, respectively...
September 17, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926946/the-fungal-bzip-transcription-factor-atfb-controls-virulence-associated-processes-in-aspergillus-parasiticus
#7
Josephine Wee, Sung-Yong Hong, Ludmila V Roze, Devin M Day, Anindya Chanda, John E Linz
Fungal basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors mediate responses to oxidative stress. The ability to regulate stress response pathways in Aspergillus spp. was postulated to be an important virulence-associated cellular process, because it helps establish infection in humans, plants, and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the fungal transcription factor AtfB encodes a protein that is associated with resistance to oxidative stress in asexual conidiospores, and AtfB binds to the promoters of several stress response genes...
September 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926940/stress-exposure-and-physical-mental-and-behavioral-health-among-american-indian-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Melissa L Walls, Kelley J Sittner, Benjamin D Aronson, Angie K Forsberg, Les B Whitbeck, Mustafa al'Absi
American Indian (AI) communities experience disproportionate exposure to stressors and health inequities including type 2 diabetes. Yet, we know little about the role of psychosocial stressors for AI diabetes-related health outcomes. We investigated associations between a range of stressors and psychological, behavioral, and physical health for AIs with diabetes. This community-based participatory research with 5 AI tribes includes 192 AI adult type 2 diabetes patients recruited from clinical records at tribal clinics...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926933/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-reveals-cold-responsive-proteins-involved-in-leaf-senescence-in-upland-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l
#9
Xuewei Zheng, Shuli Fan, Hengling Wei, Chengcheng Tao, Qiang Ma, Qifeng Ma, Siping Zhang, Hongbin Li, Chaoyou Pang, Shuxun Yu
Premature leaf senescence occurs in the ultimate phase of the plant, and it occurs through a complex series of actions regulated by stress, hormones and genes. In this study, a proteomic analysis was performed to analyze the factors that could induce premature leaf senescence in two cotton cultivars. We successfully identified 443 differential abundant proteins (DAPs) from 7388 high-confidence proteins at four stages between non-premature senescence (NS) and premature senescence (PS), among which 158 proteins were over-accumulated, 238 proteins were down-accumulated at four stages, and 47 proteins displayed overlapped accumulation...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926799/iron-deficiency-stimulates-anthocyanin-accumulation-in-grapevine-apical-leaves
#10
Leila Caramanico, Laura Rustioni, Gabriella De Lorenzis
Iron chlorosis is a diffuse disorder affecting Mediterranean vineyards. Beside the commonly described symptom of chlorophyll decrease, an apex reddening was recently observed. Secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, are often synthetized to cope with stresses in plants. The present work aimed to evaluate grapevine responses to iron deficiency, in terms of anthocyanin metabolism (reflectance spectrum, total anthocyanin content, HPLC profile and gene expression) in apical leaves of Cabernet sauvignon and Sangiovese grown in hydroponic conditions...
September 9, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926798/cloning-and-expression-profiling-of-the-pacsnrk2-and-pacpp2c-gene-families-during-fruit-development-aba-treatment-and-dehydration-stress-in-sweet-cherry
#11
Xinjie Shen, Xiao Guo, Di Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Yuzhuang Jiang, Yantao Wang, Xiang Peng, Yan Wei, Zefeng Zhai, Wei Zhao, Tianhong Li
Plant SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) and protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family members are core components of the ABA signal transduction pathway. SnRK2 and PP2C proteins have been suggested to play crucial roles in fruit ripening and improving plant tolerance to drought stress, but supporting genetic information has been lacking in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Here, we cloned six full-length SnRK2 genes and three full-length PP2C genes from sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that PacSnRK2...
September 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926769/experimental-study-of-time-response-of-bending-deformation-of-bone-cantilevers-in-an-electric-field
#12
Huimin Kang, Zhende Hou, Qing-Hua Qin
Bone is a complex composite material with hierarchical structures and anisotropic mechanical properties. Bone also processes electromechanical properties, such as piezoelectricity and streaming potentials, which termed as stress generated potentials. Furthermore, the electrostrictive effect and flexoelectric effect can also affect electromechanical properties of the bone. In the present work, time responses of bending deflections of bone cantilever in an external electric field are measured experimentally to investigate bone's electromechanical behavior...
September 13, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926761/the-cortisol-awakening-response-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-function-in-maltreated-depressed-versus-non-maltreated-depressed-youth
#13
Karina Quevedo, Jennifer Doty, Leslie Roos, Justin J Anker
Symptomatology of depression among children who have (vs. have not) experienced maltreatment is greater in severity, more resistant to conventional treatment, and associated with elevated risk for suicide. Recent evidence implicates perturbations in stress regulatory systems and heightened negative self-appraisals as factors that increase the severity of psychopathology experienced by depressed maltreated (vs. non-maltreated) youth. Likely explanatory mechanisms for these differences are disturbances in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) and persistent negative self-referential biases supported by prefrontal cortex function including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)...
September 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926746/effect-of-modeled-microgravity-on-uv-c-induced-interplant-communication-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Ting Wang, Wei Xu, Huasheng Li, Chenguang Deng, Hui Zhao, Yuejin Wu, Min Liu, Lijun Wu, Jinying Lu, Po Bian
Controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) will be an important feature of long-duration space missions of which higher plants are one of the indispensable components. Because of its pivotal role in enabling plants to cope with environmental stress, interplant communication might have important implications for the ecological stability of such CELSS. However, the manifestations of interplant communication in microgravity conditions have yet to be fully elucidated. To address this, a well-established Arabidopsis thaliana co-culture experimental system, in which UV-C-induced airborne interplant communication is evaluated by the alleviation of transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in bystander plants, was placed in microgravity modeled by a two-dimensional rotating clinostat...
September 6, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926744/chronic-high-protein-diet-induces-oxidative-stress-and-alters-the-salivary-gland-function-in-rats
#15
Urszula Kołodziej, Mateusz Maciejczyk, Wiesława Niklińska, Danuta Waszkiel, Małgorzata Żendzian-Piotrowska, Piotr Żukowski, Anna Zalewska
OBJECTIVE: Chronic high protein intake leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, there is no data on the impact of high-protein diet on the antioxidant barrier, oxidative stress and secretory function in the salivary glands of healthy individuals. DESIGN: 16 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=8): normal protein (C) and high-protein diet (HP) for 8 weeks. Salivary antioxidants: peroxidase (Px), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD 1), uric acid (UA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and the oxidative stress index (OSI), as well as protein carbonyls (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE protein adduct), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and protein content were determined in the salivary glands and plasma...
September 10, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926644/assessment-of-housing-density-space-allocation-and-social-hierarchy-of-laboratory-rats-on-behavioural-measures-of-welfare
#16
Timothy Hugh Barker, Rebecca Peta George, Gordon Stanley Howarth, Alexandra Louise Whittaker
Minimum space allowances for laboratory rats are legislated based on weight and stocking rates, with the understanding that increased housing density encourages crowding stress. However, there is little evidence for these recommendations, especially when considering positive welfare outcomes. This study consisted of two experiments which investigated the effects of housing density (rats per cage), space allocation (surface area per rat) and social rank (dominance hierarchy) on the ability to perform simple behavioural tests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926633/effects-of-salinity-on-the-cellular-physiological-responses-of-natrinema-sp-j7-2
#17
Yunjun Mei, Huan Liu, Shunxi Zhang, Ming Yang, Chun Hu, Jian Zhang, Ping Shen, Xiangdong Chen
The halophilic archaea (haloarchaea) live in hyersaline environments such as salt lakes, salt ponds and marine salterns. To cope with the salt stress conditions, haloarchaea have developed two fundamentally different strategies: the "salt-in" strategy and the "compatible-solute" strategy. Although investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance to high salt concentrations has made outstanding achievements, experimental study from the aspect of transcription is rare. In the present study, we monitored cellular physiology of Natrinema sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926624/molecular-characterization-expression-analysis-and-heterologous-expression-of-two-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-genes-from-cucumis-sativus
#18
Xiang Nan Meng, Qiu Min Chen, Hai Yan Fan, Tie Feng Song, Na Cui, Ju Yong Zhao, Shu Min Jia, Ke Xin Meng
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a family of abundant and ubiquitous proteins involved in several important primary functions. Cucumbers harbor two TCTP genes, CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2; however, their functional roles remain unclear. In this study, we isolated CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2 (XP-004134215 and XP-004135602, respectively) promoters, full-length cDNA and genomic sequences from Cucumis sativus. Bioinformatics analysis, containing cis-acting elements, structural domains, phylogenetic tree and conserved motifs, suggested the conservation and divergence of CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2, thus providing knowledge regarding their functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926614/effect-of-chronic-stress-on-running-wheel-activity-in-mice
#19
Evan DeVallance, Dale Riggs, Barbara Jackson, Travis Parkulo, Stanley Zaslau, Paul D Chantler, I Mark Olfert, Randy W Bryner
Acute and chronic stress have been reported to have differing effects on physical activity in rodents, but no study has examined a chronic stress protocol that incorporates stressors often experienced by rodents throughout a day. To examine this, the effects of the Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS) protocol on voluntary running wheel activity at multiple time points, and/or in response to acute removal of chronic stress was determined. Twenty male Balb/c mice were given access and accustomed to running wheels for 4 weeks, after which they were randomized into 2 groups; exercise (EX, n = 10) and exercise with chronic stress using a modified UCMS protocol for 7 hours/day (8:00 a...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926611/activation-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-sarcoma-cells-treated-with-rapamycin-or-temsirolimus
#20
Joseph W Briggs, Ling Ren, Kristi R Chakrabarti, Yien Che Tsai, Allan M Weissman, Ryan J Hansen, Daniel L Gustafson, Yousuf A Khan, Jonathan D Dinman, Chand Khanna
Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in eukaryotic cells represents an evolutionarily conserved response to physiological stress. Here, we report that the mTOR inhibitors rapamycin (sirolimus) and structurally related temsirolimus are capable of inducing UPR in sarcoma cells. However, this effect appears to be distinct from the classical role for these drugs as mTOR inhibitors. Instead, we detected these compounds to be associated with ribosomes isolated from treated cells. Specifically, temsirolimus treatment resulted in protection from chemical modification of several rRNA residues previously shown to bind rapamycin in prokaryotic cells...
2017: PloS One
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