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Elisabeth M Weiss, Walther Parson, Harald Niederstätter, Josef Marksteiner, Astrid Lampe
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder following a severe traumatic experience and is characterized by high rates of comorbidity with related psychiatric disorders. However, even for individuals experiencing the same trauma, there is considerable inter-individual variability in the risk of PTSD, and this is largely thought to be determined by biological processes, such as genetic predisposition and epigenetic mechanism. In this review we will summarize recent research on genetics of PTSD, primarily focusing on candidate gene-association studies, targeting on functional genetic variants in the monoaminergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
July 19, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Massimiliano Orri, Lea C Perret, Gustavo Turecki, Marie-Claude Geoffroy
BACKGROUND: Irritability is gaining considerable attention as a risk factor for suicide-related outcomes (suicide mortality, attempt, and ideation). However, the evidence of this association is scant. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence regarding the associations between irritability and suicide-related outcomes across the life-course. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search on Medline and PsycINFO (up to January 2018) for original articles published in English investigating the association between irritability and suicide-related outcomes...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jorge Mota Pereira, Daniela Fonte
Treatment resistant major depressive disorder (TR-MDD) is a severe disease, with very low remission rates. The resistance to pharmacotherapy leads to the search of non-pharmacological alternative approaches. Animal therapy has been used in patients with psychiatric conditions and the results have been promising. However, there have been no studies in TR-MDD patients with pet adoption. This study assessed the impact of TR-MDD patients adopting a pet. Eighty patients were suggested to adopt a pet, and 33 accepted the challenge...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Katelynn M Corder, Mariana A Cortes, Aundrea F Bartley, Samantha A Lear, Farah D Lubin, Lynn E Dobrunz
GABAergic dysfunction has been implicated in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders are the most common type of psychiatric disorder during adolescence. There is a deficiency of GABAergic transmission in anxiety, and enhancement of GABA transmission through pharmacological means reduces anxiety behaviors. GAD67-the enzyme responsible for GABA production-has been linked to anxiety disorders. One class of GABAergic interneurons, Neuropeptide Y (NPY) expressing cells, is abundantly found in brain regions associated with anxiety and fear learning, including prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala...
2018: PloS One
Satomi Doi, Masaya Ito, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Kumiko Muramatsu, Masaru Horikoshi
The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is commonly used to screen for depressive disorder and for monitoring depressive symptoms. However, there are mixed findings regarding its factor structure (i.e., whether it has a unidimensional, two-dimensional, or bi-factor structure). Furthermore, its measurement invariance between non-clinical and clinical populations and that between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and MDD with comorbid anxiety disorder (AD) is unknown. Japanese adults with MDD (n = 406), MDD with AD (n = 636), and no psychiatric disorders (non-clinical population; n = 1,163) answered this questionnaire on the Internet...
2018: PloS One
Aishwarya Vijay, Jessica E Becker, Joseph S Ross
Off-label prescribing of psychiatric drugs is common, despite lacking strong scientific evidence of efficacy and potentially increasing risk for adverse events. The goal of this study was to characterize prevalence of off-label prescriptions of psychiatric drugs and examine patient and clinician predictors of off-label use. This manuscript presents a retrospective, cross-sectional study using data from the 2012 and 2013 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NAMCS). The study examined all adult outpatient visits to psychiatric practices for chronic care management with a single listed visit diagnosis in which at least one psychiatric drug was prescribed...
2018: PloS One
Vanteemar S Sreeraj, Venkataram Shivakumar, Selvaraj Sowmya, Anushree Bose, Hema Nawani, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that uses low-intensity alternating current, has been postulated to be a potential therapeutic option in treating the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Transcranial alternating current stimulation synchronizes the neural oscillations to the applied stimulation frequency in the stimulated cortical regions. In this report, we have reviewed the literature pertinent to the clinical application of tACS in psychiatric disorders; in addition, we have described the clinical use of online theta tACS in a schizophrenia patient with cognitive deficits...
July 17, 2018: Journal of ECT
Viktoria Johansson, Eva Norén Selinus, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Sebastian Lundström, Natalie Durbeej, Henrik Anckarsäter, Paul Lichtenstein, Clara Hellner
OBJECTIVE: The Quantified Behavioral Test (QbTest) is a computerized diagnostic test for ADHD, used in clinical psychiatric care, but its validity may be questioned. We analyzed the QbTest's diagnostic validity and its relation to cognitive ability and psychosocial factors in an adolescent population with a high occurrence of neurodevelopmental disorders. METHOD: In total, 340 participants aged 15 years, completed the QbTest, along with questionnaires, clinical and intelligence quotient (IQ) assessments...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Jessica R Lunsford-Avery, Scott H Kollins, John T Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms uniquely contribute to psychiatric and functional outcomes in child samples; however, the psychometric properties of SCT measures among adult outpatients are unknown. METHOD: Adults ( n = 124) presenting for an ADHD evaluation provided self- and collateral report of SCT symptoms. RESULTS: The SCT scale had good internal consistency and yielded three factors across raters: Slow/Daydreamy, Sleepy/Sluggish, and Low Initiation/Persistence...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Ryan W Carpenter, Sarah L Tragesser, Sean P Lane, Timothy J Trull
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with dysregulation in multiple domains of functioning. Physical health, and specifically pain, is one such domain that has gone understudied. Although evidence suggests that BPD is associated with chronic pain, few studies have examined nonchronic pain in the disorder. The current study used ambulatory assessment to examine momentary physical pain in everyday life in BPD outpatients ( N = 26) and community comparisons (COM; N = 26) not in treatment for chronic pain ( N observations = 5,458)...
July 19, 2018: Personality Disorders
Richard B Lipton, Kristina M Fanning, Dawn C Buse, Vincent T Martin, Michael L Reed, Aubrey Manack Adams, Peter J Goadsby
OBJECTIVE: To identify natural subgroups of people with migraine based on profiles of comorbidities and concomitant conditions, hereafter referred to as comorbidities. BACKGROUND: Migraine is a heterogeneous disease. Identifying natural subgroups (endophenotypes) may facilitate biological and genetic characterization and the development of personalized treatment. METHODS: The Chronic Migraine Epidemiology and Outcomes Study is a prospective web-based survey study designed to characterize the course of migraine and related comorbidities in a systematic US sample of people with migraine...
July 19, 2018: Headache
Bodil Just Christensen, Julie Berg Schmidt, Mette Søndergaard Nielsen, Louise Tækker, Lotte Holm, Susanne Lunn, Wender L P Bredie, Christian Ritz, Jens Juul Holst, Torben Hansen, Anja Hilbert, Carel W le Roux, Oliver J Hulme, Hartwig Siebner, Tobias Morville, Lars Naver, Andrea Karen Floyd, Anders Sjödin
Despite substantial research efforts, the mechanisms proposed to explain weight loss after gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SL) do not explain the large individual variation seen after these treatments. A complex set of factors are involved in the onset and development of obesity and these may also be relevant for the understanding of why success with treatments vary considerably between individuals. This calls for explanatory models that take into account not only biological determinants but also behavioral, affective and contextual factors...
June 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Clair R Martin, Vadim Osadchiy, Amir Kalani, Emeran A Mayer
Preclinical and clinical studies have shown bidirectional interactions within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Gut microbes communicate to the central nervous system through at least 3 parallel and interacting channels involving nervous, endocrine, and immune signaling mechanisms. The brain can affect the community structure and function of the gut microbiota through the autonomic nervous system, by modulating regional gut motility, intestinal transit and secretion, and gut permeability, and potentially through the luminal secretion of hormones that directly modulate microbial gene expression...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Damian Smith, MacDara McCauley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
Soham Rej, Sarah Waters Schulte, Tarek K Rajji, Ariel G Gildengers, Dielle Miranda, Mahesh Menon, Meryl A Butters, Benoit H Mulsant
OBJECTIVES: Recent data suggests that statins have positive effects on cognition in older adults. Studies in patients with mood disorders have found contradicting positive and negative effects of statins on mood and cognition, with limited data in bipolar disorder (BD). The objective of this study was to assess the association between statin use and cognition in older adults with BD. METHODS: In a cross-sectional sample of 143 euthymic older adults with BD (age ≥ 50), statin users (n = 48) and nonusers (n = 95) were compared for cognitive outcomes: Global and cognitive domain z-scores were calculated from detailed neuropsychological batteries using normative data from healthy comparators (n = 87)...
July 19, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Melanie A Hom, Ian H Stanley, Sally Spencer-Thomas, Thomas E Joiner
OBJECTIVE: To examine experiences with suicide exposure and bereavement among women firefighters. METHODS: Women firefighters (N = 266, Mage  = 37.64y) completed self-report measures assessing their experiences with suicide exposure, history of suicidality, current psychiatric symptoms, and suicide risk. RESULTS: Three-fourths (74.4%) of participants reported knowing someone who had died by suicide; of these participants, 31.3% reported losing a fellow firefighter to suicide...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
F Markus Leweke, Juliane K Mueller, Bettina Lange, Stefan Fritze, Cristina E Topor, Dagmar Koethe, Cathrin Rohleder
The term schizophrenia describes a group of multifaceted psychiatric conditions causing significant impairment of the quality of life of affected patients. Although multiple pharmacological treatment options exist, e.g. first- or second-generation antipsychotics, these therapeutics often cause disturbing side effects, such as extrapyramidal symptoms, prolactin increase, sexual dysfunction and/or metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, cognitive impairments and negative symptoms, two factors significantly influencing the course and outcome, are not sufficiently addressed by the available antipsychotics...
July 18, 2018: CNS Drugs
Mengqi Xing, Johnson GadElkarim, Olusola Ajilore, Ouri Wolfson, Angus Forbes, K Luan Phan, Heide Klumpp, Alex Leow
The Nash embedding theorem demonstrates that any compact manifold can be isometrically embedded in a Euclidean space. Assuming the complex brain states form a high-dimensional manifold in a topological space, we propose a manifold learning framework, termed Thought Chart, to reconstruct and visualize the manifold in a low-dimensional space. Furthermore, it serves as a data-driven approach to discover the underlying dynamics when the brain is engaged in a series of emotion and cognitive regulation tasks. EEG-based temporal dynamic functional connectomes are created based on 20 psychiatrically healthy participants' EEG recordings during resting state and an emotion regulation task...
July 19, 2018: Brain Informatics
Debra A Bangasser, Samantha R Eck, Evelyn Ordoñes Sanchez
Women are more likely than men to suffer from psychiatric disorders with hyperarousal symptoms, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. In contrast, women are less likely than men to be diagnosed with schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which share attentional impairments as a feature. Stressful events exacerbate symptoms of the aforementioned disorders. Thus, researchers are examining whether sex differences in stress responses bias women and men towards different psychopathology...
June 29, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Seva G Khambadkone, Zachary A Cordner, Faith Dickerson, Emily G Severance, Emese Prandovszky, Mikhail Pletnikov, Jianchun Xiao, Ye Li, Gretha J Boersma, C Conover Talbot, Wayne W Campbell, Christian S Wright, C Evan Siple, Timothy H Moran, Kellie L Tamashiro, Robert H Yolken
Mania is a serious neuropsychiatric condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested that environmental exposures can contribute to mania pathogenesis. We measured dietary exposures in a cohort of individuals with mania and other psychiatric disorders as well as in control individuals without a psychiatric disorder. We found that a history of eating nitrated dry cured meat but not other meat or fish products was strongly and independently associated with current mania (adjusted odds ratio 3...
July 18, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
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