Read by QxMD icon Read

Respiratory Fungal infection

Sebastian Rahn, Anna Schuck, Mustafa Kondakci, Rainer Haas, Nicole Neuhausen, Klaus Pfeffer, Birgit Henrich
Fungal infections are recognized in an increasing number of patients with immunological deficits and are associated with high rates of mortality (Brown et al., 2012a). In this pilot-study, a rapid Real time PCR (fuPCR) was designed for the detection and differentiation of fungal pathogens in clinical specimens of haematological patients. The fuPCR, targeting the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of rDNA region, is comprised of seven multiplex reactions, which were shown to be specific and sensitive for a comprehensive spectrum of clinically relevant fungal species...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Yu Mi Seo, Seok Hwang-Bo, Seong Koo Kim, Seung Beom Han, Nack-Gyun Chung, Jin Han Kang
BACKGROUND: Although adenovirus (ADV) infection usually causes self-limiting respiratory disorders in immune competent children; severe and systemic ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy for leukemia has been continuously reported. Nevertheless, there has been no consensus on risk factors and treatment strategies for severe ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy. CASE SUMMARY: We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with a fatal systemic ADV infection...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
S Marques, R Carmo, I Ferreira, M Bustorff, S Sampaio, M Pestana
BACKGROUND: In solid organ transplant patients, 8% of invasive fungal infections are attributed to Cryptococcus. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcome of kidney transplant recipients (TR) infected with Cryptococcus. CASE SERIES: Between 2007 and 2014, a total of 500 kidney transplantations were performed at São João Hospital, in Porto, Portugal. Six infections by C. neoformans were reported, an incidence of 1...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Cyril Garrouste, Dany Anglicheau, Nassim Kamar, Claire Bachelier, Joseph Rivalan, Bruno Pereira, Sophie Caillard, Julien Aniort, Philippe Gatault, Martin Soubrier, Johnny Sayegh, Charlotte Colosio, Anthony Buisson, Eric Thervet, Nicolas Bouvier, Anne Elisabeth Heng
Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) therapy has improved the prognosis of many chronic inflammatory diseases. It appears to be well-tolerated by liver-transplant patients. However, their use and their safety in kidney-transplant patients have yet to be determined.In this retrospective study, we identified 16 adult kidney-transplant patients aged 46.5 years (34-51.8) who received anti-TNFα therapy from 7 kidney transplantation centers. The indications for this treatment included: chronic inflammatory bowel disease (n = 8), inflammatory arthritis (n = 5), AA amyloidosis (n = 1), psoriasis (n = 1), and microscopic polyangiitis (n = 1)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yasushi Matsuda, Hideki Mitomo, Tetsu Sado, Masafumi Noda, Miki Akiba, Yoshinori Okada
Lung transplantation is getting to be a common treatment for the end-stage respiratory failure. Therefore we might encounter the various issues associated with infection under immunosuppression. At 1st, virus infections occur by Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis B and C virus and John Cunningham virus. The 2nd, bacterial infections exacerbate graft condition by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia cepacia and coagulase negative staphylococci. The 3rd, fungal infections are induced by Aspergillus, Candida and Cryptococcus...
October 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Nancy F Crum-Cianflone
Background.  Invasive aspergillosis may occur in the setting of severe influenza infections due to viral-induced respiratory epithelium disruption and impaired immune effects, but data are limited. Methods.  A retrospective study was conducted among severe influenza cases requiring medical intensive care unit (ICU) admission at an academic center during the 2015-2016 season. Data collected included respiratory cultures, medical conditions and immunosuppressants, laboratory and radiographic data, and outcomes...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
John F Fisher, Paula A Valencia-Rey, William B Davis
Background.  There are no prospective data regarding the management of pulmonary cryptococcosis in the immunocompetent patient. Clinical guidelines recommend oral fluconazole for patients with mild to moderate symptoms and amphotericin B plus flucytosine followed by fluconazole for severe disease. It is unclear whether patients who have histological evidence of Cryptococcus neoformans but negative cultures will even respond to drug treatment. We evaluated and managed a patient whose presentation and course raised important questions regarding the significance of negative cultures, antifungal choices, duration of therapy, and resolution of clinical, serologic, and radiographic findings...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Nicola Polverelli, Massimo Breccia, Giulia Benevolo, Bruno Martino, Alessia Tieghi, Roberto Latagliata, Elena Sabattini, Mara Riminucci, Laura Godio, Lucia Catani, Maura Nicolosi, Margherita Perricone, Daria Sollazzo, Gioia Colafigli, Anna Campana, Francesco Merli, Umberto Vitolo, Giuliana Alimena, Giovanni Martinelli, Russell E Lewis, Nicola Vianelli, Michele Cavo, Francesca Palandri
Although infectious complications represent a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with myelofibrosis (MF), little is known about their incidence, outcome and risk factors. We retrospectively evaluated a cohort of 507 MF patients, diagnosed between 1980 and 2014 in five Italian hematology centers, to define the epidemiology of infections and describe the impact of ruxolitinib (RUX) treatment. Overall, 112 patients (22%) experienced 160 infectious events (grade 3-4, 45%) for an incidence rate of 3...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Alina Tanase, Anca Colita, Gabriel Ianosi, Daniela Neagoe, Daciana Elena Branisteanu, Daniela Calina, Anca Oana Docea, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Simona Laura Ianosi
Fusarium infection is a severe fungal infection caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium. It most commonly occurs in immunocompromised patients with malignant hematological comorbidities or secondary to hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The classical route of contamination is through inhalation but infection may also occur through contiguity with a skin lesion. This report describes the case of a 24-year-old woman who developed graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) at 220 days after receiving an allogeneic stem cell transplant from a sibling donor for Hodgkin disease...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xian M O'Brien, Jonathan S Reichner
Neutrophils are motile and responsive to tissue injury and infection. As neutrophils emigrate from the bloodstream and migrate toward a site of affliction, they encounter the tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) and thereby engage integrins. Our laboratory studies the neutrophilic response to the fungal pathogen Candida albicans either in the filamentous state of the microbe or to the purified pathogen-associated molecular pattern, β-glucan. We have gained an appreciation for the role of integrins in regulating the neutrophil anti-Candida response and how the presence or absence of ECM can drive experimental outcome...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Juan David Puerta-Arias, Paula Andrea Pino-Tamayo, Julián Camilo Arango, Ángel González
Chronic stages of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) are characterized by granulomatous lesions which promote the development of pulmonary fibrosis leading to the loss of respiratory function in 50% of patients; in addition, it has been observed that neutrophils predominate during these chronic stages of P. brasiliensis infection. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of the neutrophil during the chronic stages of experimental pulmonary PCM and during the fibrosis development and tissue repair using a monoclonal specific to this phagocytic cell...
2016: PloS One
Venkataramana Kandi, Ritu Vaish, Padmavali Palange, Mohan Rao Bhoomagiri
Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. It is a dimorphic fungus which lives as a saprophyte in the environment and occasionally infects immunosuppressed people. H capsulatum is a ubiquitous fungus present throughout the globe and is more common in the temperate world. Human infection with H capsulatum occurs through respiratory route by inhalation of spores present in the air as droplet nuclei. Pulmonary histoplasmosis is difficult to diagnose, more so in the regions where tuberculosis is endemic, and many infected patients remain asymptomatic...
August 26, 2016: Curēus
Kristie D Goughenour, Chad A Rappleye
Dimorphic fungi cause several endemic mycoses which range from subclinical respiratory infections to life-threatening systemic disease. Pathogenic-phase cells of Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Paracoccidioides and Coccidioides escape elimination by the innate immune response with control ultimately requiring activation of cell-mediated immunity. Clinical management of disease relies primarily on antifungal compounds; however, dimorphic fungal pathogens create a number of challenges for antifungal drug therapy. In addition to the drug toxicity issues known for current antifungals, barriers to efficient drug treatment of dimorphic fungal infections include natural resistance to the echinocandins, residence of fungal cells within immune cells, the requirement for systemic delivery of drugs, prolonged treatment times, potential for latent infections, and lack of optimized standardized methodology for in vitro testing of drug susceptibilities...
September 19, 2016: Virulence
Young Bae Choi, Eun Sang Yi, Ji-Man Kang, Ji Won Lee, Keon Hee Yoo, Yae-Jean Kim, Ki Woong Sung, Hong Hoe Koo
We retrospectively analyzed infectious complications during tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) in children and adolescents with high-risk or recurrent solid tumors. A total of 324 patients underwent their first HDCT/auto-SCT between October 2004 and September 2014, and 283 of them proceeded to their second HDCT/auto-SCT (a total of 607 HDCT/auto-SCTs). During the early transplant period of 607 HDCT/auto-SCTs (from the beginning of HDCT to day 30 post-transplant), bacteremia, urinary tract infection (UTI), respiratory virus infection, and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation occurred in 7...
2016: PloS One
F Frenzen, C Röder, B Wollschläger, E Großer, K Krohe, B Schmidt
UNLABELLED: A patient presented himself with pungent, breath-dependent right chest pain and dyspnea at rest in our emergency department. The physical examination and the ECG revealed no relevant findings. The laboratory results showed an increased CRP, leukocytosis, elevated D-dimers and a respiratory partial insufficiency. In the thoracic CT angiography unclear pulmonary nodules (PN) were seen. The bronchoscopy was macroscopically normal. In the BAL yeasts and a high proportion of immune senescence cells (CD57+) were identified...
September 2016: Pneumologie
I García-Cadenas, I Rivera, R Martino, A Esquirol, P Barba, S Novelli, G Orti, J Briones, S Brunet, D Valcarcel, J Sierra
This study aimed to characterize the incidence, etiology and outcome of infectious episodes in patients with steroid refractory acute GvHD (SR-GvHD). The cohort included 127 adults treated with inolimomab (77%) or etanercept (23%) owing to acute 2-4 SR-GvHD, with a response rate of 43% on day +30 and a 4-year survival of 15%. The 1-year cumulative incidences of bacterial, CMV and invasive fungal infection were 74%, 65% and 14%, respectively. A high rate (37%) of enterococcal infections was observed. Twenty patients (15...
September 5, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Lucía Martínez-Hernández, Diana Vilar-Compte, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia Volkow-Fernández
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) in patients with hematological malignancies (HM) has an attributable mortality over 90%. There are few studies that report the incidence of nosocomial infections in patients with HM. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and clinical course of NP in a cohort of patients with hematologic malignancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Single-center study of patients with leukemia, lymphoma or multiple myeloma diagnosed with NP, hospitalized between January 2011 and December 2012...
July 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
Guang-Shing Cheng, Zach J Stednick, David K Madtes, Michael Boeckh, George B McDonald, Steven A Pergam
Historically, diagnosis of enigmatic pulmonary disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) required lung biopsy, but recent advancements in diagnosis and therapy for respiratory infections have changed how clinicians approach pulmonary abnormalities. We examined temporal trends in the use of lung biopsy after HCT. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent their first allogeneic HCT at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center between the years 1993 to 1997, 2003 to 2007, and 2013 to 2015 and subsequently underwent surgical lung biopsy for any reason...
August 31, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
J L Whitney, M B Krockenberger, M J Day, J A Beatty, N K Dhand, V R Barrs
Leucocyte populations in the sinonasal mucosa of cats with and without upper respiratory tract aspergillosis were compared using immunohistochemistry and computer-aided morphometry. Inflammation was identified in the nasal mucosa of all affected cats, comprising predominantly of lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the lamina propria associated with epithelial proliferation and degeneration. There was intense and diffuse expression of class II antigens of the major histocompatibility complex, associated with sites of hyphal invasion with hyperplasia and ulceration of the epithelium adjacent to fungal elements...
August 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
J L Hine, S de Lusignan, D Burleigh, S Pathirannehelage, A McGovern, P Gatenby, S Jones, D Jiang, J Williams, A J Elliot, G E Smith, J Brownrigg, R Hinchcliffe, N Munro
AIM: To investigate the impact of glycaemic control on infection incidence in people with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We compared infection rates during 2014 in people with Type 2 diabetes and people without diabetes in a large primary care cohort in the UK (the Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre database). We performed multilevel logistic regression to investigate the impact of Type 2 diabetes on presentation with infection, and the effect of glycaemic control on presentation with upper respiratory tract infections, bronchitis, influenza-like illness, pneumonia, intestinal infectious diseases, herpes simplex, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, and genital and perineal infections...
August 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"