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Respiratory Fungal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870863/characteristics-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-association-with-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-mixed-biofilm
#1
Elise Melloul, Stéphanie Luiggi, Leslie Anaïs, Pascal Arné, Jean-Marc Costa, Vincent Fihman, Benoit Briard, Eric Dannaoui, Jacques Guillot, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Anne Beauvais, Françoise Botterel
BACKGROUND: Biofilms are communal structures of microorganisms that have long been associated with a variety of persistent infections poorly responding to conventional antibiotic or antifungal therapy. Aspergillus fumigatus fungus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteria are examples of the microorganisms that can coexist to form a biofilm especially in the respiratory tract of immunocompromised patients or cystic fibrosis patients. The aim of the present study was to develop and assess an in vitro model of a mixed biofilm associating S...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869441/immunology-update-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#2
S Paul Starr
There are 264 primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), most of which are rare. They are caused by complement deficiencies, defects in phagocyte function, impaired T-cell function, and/or impaired B-cell function with antibody deficiencies. Most patients with PIDs will present, at varying ages, with frequent infections. These infections can be common respiratory tract infections such as otitis media or pneumonia, or they can be unusual bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections. Neonatal screening for severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, one of the most common and serious PIDs, is now performed in most US states, but many PIDs manifest and are detected after birth...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863269/mortality-length-of-stay-bloodstream-and-respiratory-viral-infections-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#3
Kam Lun Hon, Man Ping Luk, Wing Ming Fung, Cho Ying Li, Hiu Lee Yeung, Pui Kwun Liu, Shun Li, Kathy Yin Ching Tsang, Chi Kong Li, Paul Kay Sheung Chan, Kam Lau Cheung, Ting Fan Leung, Pei Lin Koh
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether diagnostic categories and presence of infections were associated with increased mortality or length of stay (LOS) in patients admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: A retrospective study of all PICU admissions between October 2002 and April 2016 was performed. Oncologic vs nononcologic, trauma/injuries vs nontraumatic, infectious (gram-positive, gram-negative, fungal bloodstream infections, common respiratory viruses) vs noninfectious diagnoses were evaluated for survival and LOS...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852812/a-retrospective-study-of-the-prevalence-of-calcium-oxalate-crystals-in-veterinary-aspergillus-cases
#4
Courtney L Payne, Michael J Dark, Julia A Conway, Lisa L Farina
Fungi in the genus Aspergillus are some of the most common fungal pathogens in veterinary species, primarily affecting the respiratory tract. In both human and veterinary cases, calcium oxalate crystals have been documented in sites of Aspergillus infection. Cases in multiple species (16 birds, 15 horses, 5 dogs, 1 ox, and 1 dolphin) were identified that had either positive cultures for Aspergillus sp., or had conidiophores present that could be identified as belonging to the genus Aspergillus Histologic slides were examined to confirm the presence of oxalate crystals and how often they were identified on the original report...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820674/the-microbiome-metabolome-crosstalk-in-the-pathogenesis-of-respiratory-fungal-diseases
#5
Samuel M Gonçalves, Katrien Lagrou, Cláudio Duarte-Oliveira, Johan A Maertens, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho
Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus are responsible for several superficial and invasive infections and allergic syndromes. The risk of infection and its clinical outcome vary significantly even among patients with similar predisposing clinical factors and pathogen exposure. There is increasing evidence that the individual microbiome supervises the outcome of the host-fungus interaction by influencing mechanisms of immune regulation, inflammation, metabolism, and other physiological processes. Microbiome-mediated mechanisms of resistance allow therefore the control of fungal colonization, preventing the onset of overt disease, particularly in patients with underlying immune dysfunction...
November 7, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819031/prognosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-case-control-study
#6
Anne-Claire Desbois, Sylvain Poiree, Renaud Snanoudj, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Rebecca Sberro-Soussan, Fanny Lanternier, Christophe Legendre, Olivier Lortholary, Anne Scemla
BACKGROUND: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major cause of invasive fungal infection in kidney transplant recipients (KTR), and it has a high mortality rate. However, its impact on patients and graft survival has not been well defined in the current era of voriconazole first-line therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively collected all cases of KTR-associated IA occurring at Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris, from 2003 to 2013. These cases were compared with a group of controls (1:3) who were matched by age, year of kidney transplantation, and sex...
August 2016: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814896/pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-systemic-autoimmune-rheumatic-disease-a-case-control-study
#7
Susan Tadros, Andrew J Teichtahl, Sabina Ciciriello, Ian P Wicks
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is an opportunistic fungal infection that affects the immunocompromised. Patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease are increasingly recognised as an at-risk clinical population with a high mortality. This case-control study examined differences in the characteristics and peripheral blood parameters between patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease who developed PJP and gender, age and disease-matched controls...
September 28, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811563/systemic-fungal-infections-in-donors-for-corneal-transplantation
#8
Sheila Pabon, Thomas D Lindquist, Thomas D Miller, Bennie H Jeng
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of postkeratoplasty fungal infection when corneal tissue from donors with a recent medical history of oral thrush or respiratory, urine, wound, sputum, bronchial, tracheal, or throat culture positive for fungus is identified before recovery and after decontamination of the corneal tissue with 5% povidone-iodine flush to the donors' eyes during recovery. METHODS: This is a prospective analysis of corneas from 42 donors with a documented medical history of fungus or positive fungal culture, which were recovered between January 2010 and November 2010...
November 2, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802882/respiratory-symptoms-and-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-feno-among-students-in-penang-malaysia-in-relation-to-signs-of-dampness-at-school-and-fungal-dna-in-school-dust
#9
Dan Norbäck, Jamal Hisham Hashim, Zailina Hashim, Gui-Hong Cai, Vinoshini Sooria, Syazwan Aizat Ismail, Gunilla Wieslander
Few health studies exist on dampness and mould in schools in the tropics. We studied associations between fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), respiratory symptoms and airway infections among students and dampness and fungal DNA in schools in Malaysia. A total of 368 randomly selected students from 32 classrooms in 8 secondary schools in Penang, Malaysia, participated (58% participation rate). Information on current respiratory symptoms and the home environment was collected by a standardised questionnaire...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799071/evaluation-of-coldzyme%C3%A2-mouth-spray-on-prevention-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-a-boy-with-primary-immunodeficiency-a-case-report
#10
Mats Clarsund, Ulf Blom, Ann Gardulf
BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiencies include a variety of disorders that render patients more susceptible to infections. If left untreated, these infections may be fatal. Patients with primary antibody deficiencies are therefore given prophylactic immunoglobulin G replacement therapy. ColdZyme® Mouth Spray is a medical device intended to reduce the probability of catching a cold and/or can help shorten the duration of a cold, if used at an early stage of the infection, by forming a thin protective barrier on the pharyngeal mucous membrane...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797370/the-clinical-value-of-biomarkers-in-respiratory-complications-in-hematopoietic-sct
#11
C M Lucena, M Rovira, A Gabarrús, X Filella, C Martínez, R Domingo, A Torres, C Agustí
To determine the role of biomarkers in the clinical management of respiratory complications (RC) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients, we have prospectively evaluated a cohort of 175 patients followed-up for 1 year after HSCT. To avoid misinterpretation, we have excluded both unidentified respiratory infections (RI) and mixed RI. A total of 64 RC were included. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and proadrenomedullin (proADM) were measured at diagnosis and on day 3 and 7...
October 31, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790435/mycological-profile-of-sputum-of-hiv-positive-patients-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-and-its-correlation-with-cd4-t-lymphocyte-count
#12
Jyotsna Chandwani, Nitya Vyas, Saroj Hooja, Babita Sharma, Rakesh Maheshwari
INTRODUCTION: Fungal respiratory infections are important cause of mortality and morbidity among HIV positive individuals. They account for up to 70% of illness in Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome cases (AIDS). The range of illness varies from asymptomatic mucosal candidiasis to overwhelming disseminated infections. In these patients dissemination of fungus leads to very serious outcomes hence, it is important to have the knowledge of prevailing profile of fungus causing infections, so that it can be treated at the onset...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786297/identification-of-different-respiratory-viruses-after-a-cell-culture-step-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms
#13
Adriana Calderaro, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Isabella Rodighiero, Mirko Buttrini, Sara Montecchini, Rosita Vasile Simone, Maria Cristina Medici, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
In this study matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), a reliable identification method for the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections, is presented as an innovative tool to investigate the protein profile of cell cultures infected by the most common viruses causing respiratory tract infections in humans. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to the identification of influenza A and B viruses, adenovirus C species, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, echovirus, cytomegalovirus and metapneumovirus...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775836/allergy-in-severe-asthma
#14
Stefano R Del Giacco, Arzu Bakirtas, Elizabeth Bel, Adnan Custovic, Zuzana Diamant, Eckard Hamelmann, Enrico Heffler, Ömer Kalayci, Sejal Saglani, Svetlana Sergejeva, Sven Seys, Angela Simpson, Leif Bjermer
It is well recognized that atopic sensitisation is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term "Severe Asthma" encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming "uncontrolled", or whose disease remains "uncontrolled" despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations...
October 24, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765533/a-novel-comprehensive-set-of-fungal-real-time-pcr-assays-fupcr-for-the-detection-of-fungi-in-immunocompromised-haematological-patients-a-pilot-study
#15
Sebastian Rahn, Anna Schuck, Mustafa Kondakci, Rainer Haas, Nicole Neuhausen, Klaus Pfeffer, Birgit Henrich
Fungal infections are recognized in an increasing number of patients with immunological deficits and are associated with high rates of mortality (Brown et al., 2012a). In this pilot-study, a rapid Real time PCR (fuPCR) was designed for the detection and differentiation of fungal pathogens in clinical specimens of haematological patients. The fuPCR, targeting the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of rDNA region, is comprised of seven multiplex reactions, which were shown to be specific and sensitive for a comprehensive spectrum of clinically relevant fungal species...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749571/fatal-systemic-adenoviral-infection-superimposed-on-pulmonary-mucormycosis-in-a-child-with-acute-leukemia-a-case-report
#16
Yu Mi Seo, Seok Hwang-Bo, Seong Koo Kim, Seung Beom Han, Nack-Gyun Chung, Jin Han Kang
BACKGROUND: Although adenovirus (ADV) infection usually causes self-limiting respiratory disorders in immune competent children; severe and systemic ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy for leukemia has been continuously reported. Nevertheless, there has been no consensus on risk factors and treatment strategies for severe ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy. CASE SUMMARY: We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with a fatal systemic ADV infection...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742281/cryptococcosis-in-renal-transplant-recipients-a-single-center-experience
#17
S Marques, R Carmo, I Ferreira, M Bustorff, S Sampaio, M Pestana
BACKGROUND: In solid organ transplant patients, 8% of invasive fungal infections are attributed to Cryptococcus. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcome of kidney transplant recipients (TR) infected with Cryptococcus. CASE SERIES: Between 2007 and 2014, a total of 500 kidney transplantations were performed at São João Hospital, in Porto, Portugal. Six infections by C. neoformans were reported, an incidence of 1...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741127/anti-tnf%C3%AE-therapy-for-chronic-inflammatory-disease-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-clinical-outcomes
#18
Cyril Garrouste, Dany Anglicheau, Nassim Kamar, Claire Bachelier, Joseph Rivalan, Bruno Pereira, Sophie Caillard, Julien Aniort, Philippe Gatault, Martin Soubrier, Johnny Sayegh, Charlotte Colosio, Anthony Buisson, Eric Thervet, Nicolas Bouvier, Anne Elisabeth Heng
Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) therapy has improved the prognosis of many chronic inflammatory diseases. It appears to be well-tolerated by liver-transplant patients. However, their use and their safety in kidney-transplant patients have yet to be determined.In this retrospective study, we identified 16 adult kidney-transplant patients aged 46.5 years (34-51.8) who received anti-TNFα therapy from 7 kidney transplantation centers. The indications for this treatment included: chronic inflammatory bowel disease (n = 8), inflammatory arthritis (n = 5), AA amyloidosis (n = 1), psoriasis (n = 1), and microscopic polyangiitis (n = 1)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713192/-infectious-diseases-after-lung-transplantation
#19
Yasushi Matsuda, Hideki Mitomo, Tetsu Sado, Masafumi Noda, Miki Akiba, Yoshinori Okada
Lung transplantation is getting to be a common treatment for the end-stage respiratory failure. Therefore we might encounter the various issues associated with infection under immunosuppression. At 1st, virus infections occur by Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis B and C virus and John Cunningham virus. The 2nd, bacterial infections exacerbate graft condition by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia cepacia and coagulase negative staphylococci. The 3rd, fungal infections are induced by Aspergillus, Candida and Cryptococcus...
October 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704024/invasive-aspergillosis-associated-with-severe-influenza-infections
#20
Nancy F Crum-Cianflone
Background.  Invasive aspergillosis may occur in the setting of severe influenza infections due to viral-induced respiratory epithelium disruption and impaired immune effects, but data are limited. Methods.  A retrospective study was conducted among severe influenza cases requiring medical intensive care unit (ICU) admission at an academic center during the 2015-2016 season. Data collected included respiratory cultures, medical conditions and immunosuppressants, laboratory and radiographic data, and outcomes...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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