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Respiratory Fungal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220379/pulmonary-mucormycosis-clinical-features-and-outcomes
#1
Erica Lin, Teng Moua, Andrew H Limper
PURPOSE: Mucormycosis encompasses a group of opportunistic fungal infections caused by Zygomycetes, order Mucorales. Mucormycosis can manifest as rhino-orbito-cerebral, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and disseminated infections. Pulmonary mucormycosis is the second most common presentation. This manuscript characterizes the demographics, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, radiologic findings, therapeutic interventions, and outcome in pulmonary mucormycosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical data of 35 patients with pulmonary mucormycosis from 2000 to 2015...
February 20, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211475/biofilm-formation-of-the-black-yeast-like-fungus-exophiala-dermatitidis-and-its-susceptibility-to-antiinfective-agents
#2
Lisa Kirchhoff, Maike Olsowski, Katrin Zilmans, Silke Dittmer, Gerhard Haase, Ludwig Sedlacek, Eike Steinmann, Jan Buer, Peter-Michael Rath, Joerg Steinmann
Various fungi have the ability to colonize surfaces and to form biofilms. Fungal biofilm-associated infections are frequently refractory to targeted treatment because of resistance to antifungal drugs. One fungus that frequently colonises the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is the opportunistic black yeast-like fungus Exophiala dermatitidis. We investigated the biofilm-forming ability of E. dermatitidis and its susceptibility to various antiinfective agents and natural compounds. We tested 58 E...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188493/serious-fungal-infections-in-chile
#3
E Alvarez Duarte, D W Denning
The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185887/fatal-disseminated-rasamsonia-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-post-lung-transplantation
#4
Gina Hong, Marissa White, Noah Lechtzin, Natalie E West, Robin Avery, Heather Miller, Richard Lee, Robert J Lovari, Christian Massire, Lawrence B Blyn, Xinglun Liang, Deanna A Sutton, Jianmin Fu, Brian L Wickes, Nathan P Wiederhold, Sean X Zhang
BACKGROUND: Disseminated fungal infections are a known serious complication in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) following orthotopic lung transplantation. Aspergillus fumigatus and Scedosporium species are among the more common causes of invasive fungal infection in this population. However, it is also important for clinicians to be aware of other emerging fungal species which may require markedly different antifungal therapies. CASE SUMMARY: We describe the first laboratory-documented case of a fatal disseminated fungal infection caused by Rasamsonia aegroticola in a 21-year-old female CF patient status post-bilateral lung transplantation, which was only identified post-mortem...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171733/microsporidiosis-in-four-tortoises-testudo-hermanni-boettgeri
#5
M Eydner, J Donhauser, A Beineke, P Guenther, S Blahak
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, spore-forming fungi. A wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts can be infected; however, cases of infected turtles or tortoises have not yet been described. This is the first description of 4 cases in tortoises ( Testudo spp), which showed general signs of illness as well as intestinal and respiratory signs until death occurred or they were euthanized. Granulomatous and necrotizing inflammation was visible in the lung and liver. Fungal organisms were present in heart blood, lung, liver, and intestine...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164439/seasonal-changes-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-lung-transplant-recipients-during-the-first-post-transplant-year-the-hungarian-experience
#6
Zsuzsanna Kovats, Aniko Bohacs, Zoltan Sutto, Krisztina Vincze, Jozsef Lukacsovits, Gyorgy Losonczy, Veronika Müller
BACKGROUND: After lung transplantation (LuTX) a high level of immunosuppression is needed to prevent rejection of the graft. Together with earlier colonization by pathogens, immunosuppression makes recipients more susceptible to infections, especially during the first postoperative year. As seasonality of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) is well known in chronic lung diseases, we assessed seasonal changes of pathogen spectrum and number of infections in the first postoperative year in LuTX recipients...
February 5, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161741/serious-fungal-infections-in-pakistan
#7
K Jabeen, J Farooqi, S Mirza, D Denning, A Zafar
The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155291/mycotic-rhinitis-in-a-mutton-merino-ewe
#8
Rhoda Leask, Johan Steyl
Although nasal masses are uncommon in sheep and may have several causes, including neoplasia and bacterial, fungal and viral infections, these lesions may lead to economic losses resulting from weight loss and even death. It is therefore important to differentiate between various categories of upper respiratory tract obstructions and lower respiratory tract infections. The correct aetiological diagnosis of obstructive masses is essential for appropriate treatment and management to be given or action to be taken...
January 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101187/severe-pneumonia-due-to-infection-with-candida-krusei-in-a-case-of-suspected-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Mingming Tan, Junwei Wang, Peiyang Hu, Bin Wang, Wanghua Xu, Jiao Chen
Candida krusei (C. krusei) pneumonia is a rare infection that is frequently associated with a poor outcome. The present study reports an unusual case of C. krusei pneumonia that was initially suspected to be a Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) case. A 64-year-old Saudi Arabian male patient was admitted to our hospital with complaints of cough and dyspnea that persisted for 6 days. The patient presented fever (oral temperature, 38.5°C) and slight tachypnea (25 respirations/min). A chest computerized tomography demonstrated unclear lung fields, diffuse pathological changes in the two lungs and multiple lymphadenectasis in the retrocaval and para-aortic arch area...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087464/mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-regulate-fungal-protease-induced-inflammatory-responses
#10
Yun Hee Kim, Seung-Hyo Lee
Epidemiological studies have shown that fungal infections are a main cause of respiratory tract diseases, such as asthma, bronchopneumonia, intoxication, and invasive fungal disease. Fungi such as Aspergillus and Candida species have become increasingly important pathogens as the global climate changes. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the toxicological potential of Aspergillus protease in the lower respiratory tract. Exposure of Aspergillus protease to A549 cells induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 mRNAs and increased production of interleukin (IL)-8 and MCP-1 protein through enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and activator protein (AP)-1...
January 10, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045065/high-diversity-of-airborne-fungi-in-the-hospital-environment-as-revealed-by-meta-sequencing-based-microbiome-analysis
#11
Xunliang Tong, Hongtao Xu, Lihui Zou, Meng Cai, Xuefeng Xu, Zuotao Zhao, Fei Xiao, Yanming Li
Invasive fungal infections acquired in the hospital have progressively emerged as an important cause of life-threatening infection. In particular, airborne fungi in hospitals are considered critical pathogens of hospital-associated infections. To identify the causative airborne microorganisms, high-volume air samplers were utilized for collection, and species identification was performed using a culture-based method and DNA sequencing analysis with the Illumina MiSeq and HiSeq 2000 sequencing systems. Few bacteria were grown after cultivation in blood agar...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998866/-nosocomial-septicemia-in-the-early-stage-after-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children-with-major-%C3%AE-thalassemia
#12
Yan-Jun Xu, Chun-Fu Li, Yue-Lin He, Xiao-Qin Feng, Fu-Yu Pei, Xue-Dong Wu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics of nosocomial septicemia in the early stage after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children with major β-thalassemia. METHODS: The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed of 55 consecutive children with major β-thalassemia who developed septicemia early after HSCT between January, 2011 and June, 2016. RESULTS: Among the total of 416 consecutive children with major β-thalassemia undergoing allogeneic HSCT, the incidence of nosocomial infection early after transplantation was 77...
December 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996940/allergic-fungal-airway-disease
#13
REVIEW
E M Rick, K Woolnough, C H Pashley, A J Wardlaw
Fungi are ubiquitous and form their own kingdom. Up to 80 genera of fungi have been linked to type I allergic disease, and yet, commercial reagents to test for sensitization are available for relatively few species. In terms of asthma, it is important to distinguish between species unable to grow at body temperature and those that can (thermotolerant) and thereby have the potential to colonize the respiratory tract. The former, which include the commonly studied Alternaria and Cladosporium genera, can act as aeroallergens whose clinical effects are predictably related to exposure levels...
2016: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930337/genetic-immunological-and-clinical-features-of-patients-with-bacterial-and-fungal-infections-due-to-inherited-il-17ra-deficiency
#14
Romain Lévy, Satoshi Okada, Vivien Béziat, Kunihiko Moriya, Caini Liu, Louis Yi Ann Chai, Mélanie Migaud, Fabian Hauck, Amein Al Ali, Cyril Cyrus, Chittibabu Vatte, Turkan Patiroglu, Ekrem Unal, Marie Ferneiny, Nobuyuki Hyakuna, Serdar Nepesov, Matias Oleastro, Aydan Ikinciogullari, Figen Dogu, Takaki Asano, Osamu Ohara, Ling Yun, Erika Della Mina, Didier Bronnimann, Yuval Itan, Florian Gothe, Jacinta Bustamante, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Natalia Tahuil, Caner Aytekin, Aicha Salhi, Saleh Al Muhsen, Masao Kobayashi, Julie Toubiana, Laurent Abel, Xiaoxia Li, Yildiz Camcioglu, Fatih Celmeli, Christoph Klein, Suzan A AlKhater, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is defined as recurrent or persistent infection of the skin, nails, and/or mucosae with commensal Candida species. The first genetic etiology of isolated CMC-autosomal recessive (AR) IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) deficiency-was reported in 2011, in a single patient. We report here 21 patients with complete AR IL-17RA deficiency, including this first patient. Each patient is homozygous for 1 of 12 different IL-17RA alleles, 8 of which create a premature stop codon upstream from the transmembrane domain and have been predicted and/or shown to prevent expression of the receptor on the surface of circulating leukocytes and dermal fibroblasts...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925857/analysis-of-the-intestinal-microbial-community-and-inferred-functional-capacities-during-the-host-response-to-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#15
Derrick R Samuelson, Tysheena P Charles, Nicholas M de la Rua, Christopher M Taylor, Eugene E Blanchard, Meng Luo, Judd E Shellito, David A Welsh
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with HIV/AIDS. In this study, we evaluated the intestinal microbial communities associated with the development of experimental Pneumocystis pneumonia, as there is growing evidence that the intestinal microbiota is critical for host defense against fungal pathogens. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were infected with live Pneumocystis murina (P. murina) via intratracheal inoculation and sacrificed 7 and 14 days postinfection for microbiota analysis...
October 2016: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870863/characteristics-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-association-with-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-mixed-biofilm
#16
Elise Melloul, Stéphanie Luiggi, Leslie Anaïs, Pascal Arné, Jean-Marc Costa, Vincent Fihman, Benoit Briard, Eric Dannaoui, Jacques Guillot, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Anne Beauvais, Françoise Botterel
BACKGROUND: Biofilms are communal structures of microorganisms that have long been associated with a variety of persistent infections poorly responding to conventional antibiotic or antifungal therapy. Aspergillus fumigatus fungus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteria are examples of the microorganisms that can coexist to form a biofilm especially in the respiratory tract of immunocompromised patients or cystic fibrosis patients. The aim of the present study was to develop and assess an in vitro model of a mixed biofilm associating S...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869441/immunology-update-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#17
S Paul Starr
There are 264 primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), most of which are rare. They are caused by complement deficiencies, defects in phagocyte function, impaired T-cell function, and/or impaired B-cell function with antibody deficiencies. Most patients with PIDs will present, at varying ages, with frequent infections. These infections can be common respiratory tract infections such as otitis media or pneumonia, or they can be unusual bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections. Neonatal screening for severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, one of the most common and serious PIDs, is now performed in most US states, but many PIDs manifest and are detected after birth...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863269/mortality-length-of-stay-bloodstream-and-respiratory-viral-infections-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#18
Kam Lun Hon, Man Ping Luk, Wing Ming Fung, Cho Ying Li, Hiu Lee Yeung, Pui Kwun Liu, Shun Li, Kathy Yin Ching Tsang, Chi Kong Li, Paul Kay Sheung Chan, Kam Lau Cheung, Ting Fan Leung, Pei Lin Koh
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether diagnostic categories and presence of infections were associated with increased mortality or length of stay (LOS) in patients admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: A retrospective study of all PICU admissions between October 2002 and April 2016 was performed. Oncologic vs nononcologic, trauma/injuries vs nontraumatic, infectious (gram-positive, gram-negative, fungal bloodstream infections, common respiratory viruses) vs noninfectious diagnoses were evaluated for survival and LOS...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852812/a-retrospective-study-of-the-prevalence-of-calcium-oxalate-crystals-in-veterinary-aspergillus-cases
#19
Courtney L Payne, Michael J Dark, Julia A Conway, Lisa L Farina
Fungi in the genus Aspergillus are some of the most common fungal pathogens in veterinary species, primarily affecting the respiratory tract. In both human and veterinary cases, calcium oxalate crystals have been documented in sites of Aspergillus infection. Cases in multiple species (16 birds, 15 horses, 5 dogs, 1 ox, and 1 dolphin) were identified that had either positive cultures for Aspergillus sp., or had conidiophores present that could be identified as belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Histologic slides were examined to confirm the presence of oxalate crystals and how often they were identified on the original report...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820674/the-microbiome-metabolome-crosstalk-in-the-pathogenesis-of-respiratory-fungal-diseases
#20
Samuel M Gonçalves, Katrien Lagrou, Cláudio Duarte-Oliveira, Johan A Maertens, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho
Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus are responsible for several superficial and invasive infections and allergic syndromes. The risk of infection and its clinical outcome vary significantly even among patients with similar predisposing clinical factors and pathogen exposure. There is increasing evidence that the individual microbiome supervises the outcome of the host-fungus interaction by influencing mechanisms of immune regulation, inflammation, metabolism, and other physiological processes. Microbiome-mediated mechanisms of resistance allow therefore the control of fungal colonization, preventing the onset of overt disease, particularly in patients with underlying immune dysfunction...
November 7, 2016: Virulence
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