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Respiratory Fungal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670781/-candida-krusei-empyema-thoracis-a-community-acquired-infection-requiring-a-high-index-of-suspicion
#1
Hazim Bukamur, Waseem Ahmed, Yazan Numan, Ibrahim Shahoub, Fuad Zeid
Empyema thoracis is a serious condition characterized by the accumulation of purulent fluid in the pleural cavity, typically following a pneumonia, subdiaphragmatic abscess, or esophageal rupture. Fungal empyema thoracis is a rare form of this condition with especially high mortality, in which the most frequently isolated fungus is Candida spp. This article presents a 74-year-old female with Candida krusei pneumonia and a complicated hospital course, initially presenting with nausea, vomiting, and dysphagia...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665838/fungal-infections-in-adult-patients-on-extracorporeal-life-support
#2
Yiorgos Alexandros Cavayas, Hakeem Yusuff, Richard Porter
BACKGROUND: Patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are often among the most severely ill in the intensive care unit. They are often receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics; they have multiple entry points for pathogens; and their immune system is impaired by blood circuit interaction. These factors are thought to predispose them to fungal infections. We thus aimed to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors, and prognosis of fungal infections in adults on ECMO. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry, which compiles data on ECMO use from hundreds of international centers...
April 17, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659738/disseminated-infection-of-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-associated-with-osteolysis-of-hip-periprosthetic-tissue
#3
Marta Kicia, Maria Wesolowska, Zaneta Kopacz, Martin Kvác, Bohumil Sak, Magdalena Sokulska, Kamil Cebulski, Andrzej B Hendrich, Andrzej Pozowski
Background: Among patients with hip joint endoprosthesis, periprosthetic osteolysis is the most common complication following primary arthroplasty, and subsequent implant loosening is the leading cause of arthroplasty revision. Causes of stability loss, though not always evident, can be mechanical, allergic, or infectious (bacterial and fungal agents) in nature. Microsporidia, widespread opportunistic fungal pathogens that infect most human tissues, are a potential infectious cause of stability loss...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655492/isolated-acute-appendicitis-caused-by-aspergillus-in-a-patient-who-underwent-lung-transplantation-a-case-report
#4
H S Kim, H J Yeo, D H Shin, W H Cho, D Kim
Invasive aspergillosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who have undergone lung transplantation. Aspergillus infections usually involve the respiratory tract, with vascular invasion and subsequent dissemination. However, acute appendicitis associated with localized aspergillosis is rare, especially among patients who have undergone prophylaxis with voriconazole. We present a case of primary Aspergillus appendicitis diagnosed by histologic examination in a patient who underwent lung transplantation...
April 11, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644247/quantification-of-torque-teno-virus-and-epstein-barr-virus-is-of-limited-value-for-predicting-the-net-state-of-immunosuppression-after-lung-transplantation
#5
Rickard Nordén, Jesper Magnusson, Anna Lundin, Ka-Wei Tang, Staffan Nilsson, Magnus Lindh, Lars-Magnus Andersson, Gerdt C Riise, Johan Westin
Background: Major hurdles for survival after lung transplantation are rejections and infectious complications. Adequate methods for monitoring immune suppression status are lacking. Here, we evaluated quantification of torque teno virus (TTV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as biomarkers for defining the net state of immunosuppression in lung-transplanted patients. Methods: This prospective single-center study included 98 patients followed for 2 years after transplantation...
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627936/invasive-fungal-infections-associated-with-prior-respiratory-viral-infections-in-immunocompromised-hosts
#6
Saira Ajmal, Maryam Mahmood, Omar Abu Saleh, Jenifer Larson, M Rizwan Sohail
BACKGROUND: Increased risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after influenza infection has been reported; however data are limited. PURPOSE: To describe Invasive fungal infections (IFI) associated with preceding respiratory viral infection at a large referral center. METHODS: We reviewed all IFI cases among patients with positive influenza and/or RSV nasopharyngeal/lower respiratory tract PCR from October 2015 to December 2016. Cases of pulmonary IFI were classified as possible, probable, and definite based on EORTC-MSG definitions...
April 7, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624703/epidemiology-outcome-and-risk-factors-for-infectious-complications-in-myelofibrosis-patients-receiving-ruxolitinib-a-multicenter-study-on-446-patients
#7
Nicola Polverelli, Giuseppe A Palumbo, Gianni Binotto, Elisabetta Abruzzese, Giulia Benevolo, Micaela Bergamaschi, Alessia Tieghi, Massimiliano Bonifacio, Massimo Breccia, Lucia Catani, Mario Tiribelli, Mariella D'Adda, Nicola Sgherza, Alessandro Isidori, Francesco Cavazzini, Bruno Martino, Roberto Latagliata, Monica Crugnola, Florian Heidel, Costanza Bosi, Adalberto Ibatici, Francesco Soci, Domenico Penna, Luigi Scaffidi, Franco Aversa, Roberto M Lemoli, Umberto Vitolo, Antonio Cuneo, Domenico Russo, Michele Cavo, Nicola Vianelli, Francesca Palandri
Infections represent one of the major concerns regarding the utilization of ruxolitinib (RUX) in patients with myelofibrosis. With the aim to investigate epidemiology, outcome and risk factors for infections in RUX-exposed patients, we collected clinical and laboratory data of 446 myelofibrosis patients treated with RUX between June 2011 and November 2016 in 23 European Hematology Centers. After a median RUX exposure of 23.5 months (range, 1-56), 123 patients (28%) experienced 161 infectious events (grades 3-4 32%, fatal 9%), for an incidence rate of 17 cases per 100 pts/y...
April 6, 2018: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620631/pediatric-hyperimmunoglobulin-e-syndrome-a-case-series-of-4-children-in-china
#8
Huifeng Fan, Li Huang, Diyuan Yang, Yunting Lin, Gen Lu, Yaping Xie, Jialu Yu, Dongwei Zhang
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndromes (HIES) are rare primary immunodeficiency diseases characterized by markedly elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E, recurrent pneumonia, and chronic eczema. To date, information about pediatric HIES is limited. We aimed to evaluate the spectrum of clinical and immunological features in pediatric patients with HIES in China.We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 4 pediatric patients with HIES followed at the Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from May 2013 to September 2017...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572369/rhinofacialentomophthoromycosis
#9
Shalini Menon, Kailesh Pujary, Ranjini Kudva, Balakrishnan Ramaswamy
Entomopthoromycosis is a rare subcutaneous fungal infection caused by onidiobolus coronatus affecting mainly the upper respiratory mucosa in immunocompetent people.The manifestations of this disease masquerades other clinical entities.Hence, high index of suspicion is required for prompt diagnosis.Histopathological examination and culture are the gold standard diagnostic tools, however no standard treatment protocols ha been mentioned in literature.We present a case of rhinofacial entomopthoromycosis in a yearold ma with a leftsided rhinofacial swelling to highlight the presence of this unusual fungal infection and its treatment...
March 22, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562712/estimation-of-the-burden-of-serious-human-fungal-infections-in-malaysia
#10
Rukumani Devi Velayuthan, Chandramathi Samudi, Harvinder Kaur Lakhbeer Singh, Kee Peng Ng, Esaki M Shankar, David W Denning
Fungal infections (mycoses) are likely to occur more frequently as ever-increasingly sophisticated healthcare systems create greater risk factors. There is a paucity of systematic data on the incidence and prevalence of human fungal infections in Malaysia. We conducted a comprehensive study to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Malaysia. Our study showed that recurrent vaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) was the most common of all cases with a diagnosis of candidiasis ( n = 501,138). Oesophageal candidiasis ( n = 5850) was most predominant among individuals with HIV infection...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559142/first-detection-of-cryptosporidium-parvum-in-falcons-falconiformes-diagnosis-molecular-sequencing-therapeutic-trial-and-epidemiological-assessment-of-a-possible-emerging-disease-in-captive-falcons
#11
Panagiotis Azmanis, Antonio di Somma, Lucia Pappalardo, Christu-Das Silvanose, Berit Bangoura
Cryptosporidiosis in raptors and falcons is well-known to be caused by Cryptosporidium baileyi and associated mainly with respiratory pathology. This report presents the diagnosis of an atypical cryptosporidiosis event caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, that to the authors' knowledge, is a case observed for the first time in falcons. Two falcons (Gyrfalcon x Peregrine hybrids) were presented for annual check without any clinical signs. Hematology, biochemistry, fecal and crop parasitology, radiographic and endoscopic examinations were performed...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554296/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-respiratory-tract-fungal-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-uk-survey-of-current-practice
#12
M Boyle, J E Moore, J L Whitehouse, D Bilton, D G Downey
Aspergillus fumigatus is commonly found in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is the most recognized associated clinical condition. However, accurate diagnosis remains challenging, and there is a paucity of clinical trials to guide clinical management of fungal disease. The aim of this survey was to assess the variability in current practice across the UK in diagnosis and management of fungal lung disease in CF patients. A 21 question anonymous online survey was sent to 94 paediatric and adult CF consultants in the UK...
March 15, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550627/microbiologic-diagnostic-workup-of-acute-respiratory-failure-with-pulmonary-infiltrates-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-findings-in-the-era-of-molecular-and-biomarker-based-assays
#13
Philipp Wohlfarth, Amin T Turki, Joerg Steinmann, Melanie Fiedler, Nina K Steckel, Dietrich W Beelen, Tobias Liebregts
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients frequently develop acute respiratory failure (ARF) with pulmonary infiltrates. Molecular- and biomarker-based assays enhance pathogen detection, but data on their yield in this population are scarce. This was a retrospective single-center study of 156 consecutive HSCT recipients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between May 2013 and July 2017. Findings from a microbiologic diagnostic workup using currently available methods on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples from 66 patients (age, 58 years [range, 45 to 64]; HSCT to ICU, 176 days [range, 85 to 407]) with ARF and pulmonary infiltrates were analyzed...
March 14, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543719/interactions-of-cryptococcus-with-dendritic-cells
#14
REVIEW
Karen L Wozniak
The fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii can cause life-threatening infections in immune compromised and immune competent hosts. These pathogens enter the host via inhalation, and respiratory tract innate immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the first host cells they encounter. The interactions between Cryptococcus and innate immune cells play a critical role in the progression of disease in the host. This review will focus specifically on the interactions between Cryptococcus and dendritic cells (DCs), including recognition/processing by DCs, effects of immune mediators on DC recruitment and activity, and the potential for DC vaccination against cryptococcosis...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538733/developing-collaborative-works-for-faster-progress-on-fungal-respiratory-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#15
Carsten Schwarz, Patrick Vandeputte, Amandine Rougeron, Sandrine Giraud, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Ludovic Duvaux, Amandine Gastebois, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Maria Teresa Martín-Gomez, Estrella Martin Mazuelos, Amparo Sole, Josep Cano, Javier Pemán, Guillermo Quindos, Françoise Botterel, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Sharon Chen, Laurence Delhaès, Loïc Favennec, Stéphane Ranque, Ludwig Sedlacek, Joerg Steinmann, Jose Vazquez, Craig Williams, Wieland Meyer, Solène Le Gal, Gilles Nevez, Maxime Fleury, Nicolas Papon, Françoise Symoens, Jean-Philippe Bouchara
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the major genetic inherited disease in Caucasian populations. The respiratory tract of CF patients displays a sticky viscous mucus, which allows for the entrapment of airborne bacteria and fungal spores and provides a suitable environment for growth of microorganisms, including numerous yeast and filamentous fungal species. As a consequence, respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this clinical context. Although bacteria remain the most common agents of these infections, fungal respiratory infections have emerged as an important cause of disease...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528022/radiologically-occult-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-a-patient-with-liver-transplant
#16
Dorina Esendagli, Irem Serifoglu, Serife Savas Bozbas, Merih Tepeoglu, Sule Akcay, Mehmet Haberal
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is an infection seen in patients receiving intensive immunosuppressive regimens, such as transplant recipients. Some risk factors that increase the incidence of infection have been determined, and patients defined as having high risk are recommended to take antifungal prophylaxis and be monitored closely. Here, we present a liver transplant patient with mild respiratory symptoms and a normal chest radiography on day 26 posttransplant. However, he had acute renal failure and underwent hemodialysis, which are both defined to increase significantly the risk of aspergillosis...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519625/disseminated-histoplasmosis-diagnosed-in-the-bone-marrow-of-an-hiv-infected-patient-first-case-imported-in-tunisia
#17
N Fakhfakh, R Abdelmlak, S Aissa, A Kallel, Y Boudawara, S Bel Hadj, N Ben Romdhane, H Touiri Ben Aissa, K Kallel
Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by a dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. We report a first case of disseminated histoplasmosis in a 34-year-old woman, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), originating from Ivory Coast and living in Tunisia for 4 years. She was complaining from fever, chronic diarrhoea and pancytopenia. The Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum was identified by direct microscopic examination of the bone marrow. She was treated by Amphotericin B, relayed by itraconazole...
March 5, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518828/-clinical-characteristics-of-human-recombination-activating-gene-1-mutations-in-8-immunodeficiency-patients-with-diverse-phenotypes
#18
G Yu, W J Wang, D R Liu, Z F Tao, X Y Hui, J Hou, J Q Sun, X C Wang
Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of 8 immunodeficiency cases caused by human recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1) mutations, and to explore the relationship among genotypes, clinical manifestations and immunophenotypes. Methods: Clinical data were collected and analyzed from patients with RAG1 mutations who visited the Department of Clinical Immunology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University between October 2013 and June 2017. The data included clinical manifestations, immunophenotypes and genotypes...
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515987/clinical-and-pathological-correlation-in-pediatric-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#19
Nattachai Anantasit, Noramon Nuntacharruksa, Pimpin Incharoen, Aroonwan Preutthipan
Introduction: Invasive' pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has been one of the major causes of mortality in immunocompromised patients. The gold standard method for a diagnosis of IPA is histopathological examination of the lung tissue; however, post-procedural bleeding limits the feasibility of lung biopsy. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) defined IPA...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511432/vitamin-d-enhances-resistance-to-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-mice-via-inhibition-of-excessive-autophagy
#20
Jingjing Dai, Yong Liang, Honglin Li, Wubi Zhou, Bing Wang, Aijia Gong, Rongbo Zhang
The role of vitamin D in the regulation of lung immune defense and inflammatory response has attracted more and more attention. Vitamin D deficiency is closely related to respiratory tract infections. However, few studies have elucidated the mechanism of vitamin D deficiency on host pulmonary resistance to Aspergillus fumigatus ( A. fumigatus ). In this paper, the role of autophagy and Treg regulation in the treatment of rat models of A. fumigatus infection with vitamin D was investigated. We intratracheally injected the A...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
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