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Respiratory Fungal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211836/outbreak-of-severe-histoplasmosis-among-tunnel-workers-dominican-republic-2015
#1
P A Armstrong, J D Beard, L Bonilla, N Arboleda, M D Lindsley, S Chae, D Castillo, R Nuñez, T Chiller, M A de Perio, R Pimentel, S Vallabhaneni
Background: Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection associated with exposure to bat guano. An outbreak of an unknown severe febrile illness occurred among tunnel workers in the Dominican Republic (DR), and resulted in several deaths. We conducted an investigation to confirm etiology and recommend control measures. Methods: A case was defined as fever and ≥2 symptoms consistent with histoplasmosis in a tunnel worker, July-September, 2015. We interviewed workers and family members, reviewed medical records, tested serum and urine for Histoplasma antigen/antibody, and conducted a cohort study to identify risk factors for histoplasmosis and severe infection (intensive care)...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207709/isolation-of-the-rare-opportunistic-yeast-saprochaete-capitata-from-clinical-samples-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-southern-india-and-a-brief-review-of-the-literature
#2
Umabala Pamidimukkala, Anuradha Kancharla, Sukanya Sudhaharan, Sadashivudu Gundeti, Surendra Mandarapu, Vamsi Krishna Nagalla, Sree Bhushan Raju, Sandhya Devi Karanam
Introduction: Saprochaete capitata (Teleomorph: Magnusiomyces capitatus) is a ubiquitous yeast found in environmental sources such as soil, water, air, plants and dairy products. It is also a part of the normal microbial flora in humans. The yeast is being increasingly reported as an opportunistic pathogen, especially in patients in the haemato-oncology setting, the infection being often mistakenly diagnosed as invasive candidiasis. Aim: To review the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of six patients admitted in our hospital over a period of 10 years (from January 2007 to December 2016), from whom Saprochaete capitata was isolated...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202739/the-lung-microbiome-in-patients-with-pneumocystosis
#3
J Kehrmann, B Veckollari, D Schmidt, O Schildgen, V Schildgen, N Wagner, M Zeschnigk, L Klein-Hitpass, O Witzke, J Buer, J Steinmann
BACKROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic fungal infection that is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we analysed the microbiome of the lower respiratory tract from critically ill intensive care unit patients with and without pneumocystosis. METHODS: Broncho-alveolar fluids from 65 intubated and mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients (34 PCP+ and 31 PCP- patients) were collected...
December 4, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196066/cough-due-to-tuberculosis-and-other-chronic-infections-chest-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#4
Stephen K Field, Patricio Escalante, Dina A Fisher, Belinda Ireland, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Cough is common in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and other chronic respiratory infections. Identifying features that predict whether pulmonary TB is the cause would help target appropriate individuals for rapid and cost-effective screening, potentially limiting disease progression, and preventing transmission to others. METHODS: A systematic literature search for individual studies to answer 8 Key questions (KQ) was conducted according to established Chest Organization methods using the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1/1/1984 to April 2014...
November 28, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187715/-a-silkworm-infection-model-to-evaluate-antifungal-drugs-for-cryptococcosis
#5
Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Masaki Ishii, Kiminori Shimizu, Susumu Kawamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
The development of effective drugs against fungal diseases involves performing infection experiments in animals to evaluate candidate therapeutic compounds. Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that causes deep mycosis, resulting in respiratory illness and meningitis. Here we describe a silkworm system established to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs against infection by Cryptococcus neoformans and the advantages of this system over other animal models. The silkworm assay system has two major advantages: 1) silkworms are less expensive to rear and their use is less problematic than that of mammals in terms of animal welfare, and 2) in vivo screenings for identifying candidate drugs can be easily performed using a large number of silkworms...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181727/hospital-acquired-infection-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-case-control-study-in-a-southern-chinese-population
#6
Zhongping Zhan, Minxi Lao, Fan Su, Dongying Chen, Liuqin Liang, Xiuyan Yang
The objective of this study is to investigate the current situation of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) in lupus patients from a southern Chinese population. A case-control study was performed. Data from Jan. 2007 to Jan. 2017 were collected. Each lupus patient with HAI was compared with two control individuals without infection selected from the same period of time. Three hundred and sixty episodes of HAI were analyzed. The average Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score at admission was 13...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153538/oral-paracoccidioidomycosis-in-a-single-center-retrospective-analysis-from-a-brazilian-southeastern-population
#7
Laís Moreira Dutra, Thiago Humberto Mendonça Silva, Aloísio Falqueto, Paulo Mendes Peçanha, Lucia Renata Meireles Souza, Sarah Santos Gonçalves, Tânia Regina Grão Velloso
BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most prevalent endemic systemic fungal infection in Latin America. In Brazil, it stands out as the eighth-highest cause of mortality among chronic or recurrent infections and has the highest mortality rate among systemic mycoses. Oral mucosal lesions may be the first visible physical manifestation of the disease. This study traced the epidemiological and clinical profiles of patients with oral lesions treated at the University Hospital Cassiano Antonio Moraes, Federal University of Espirito Santo...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149266/association-between-prior-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-risk-of-community-acquired-infections-a-systematic-review
#8
Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White
Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128021/respiratory-fungal-infections-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
REVIEW
Oveimar De La Cruz, Fernanda P Silveira
Respiratory fungal infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) and solid organ (SOT) transplant recipients, and are caused primarily by molds. Aspergillus is the most common pathogen. The net state of immunosuppression plays a major role in the risk of respiratory fungal infections after transplantation. Clinical presentation can be atypical and diagnosis can be delayed due to low sensitivity of diagnostic methods or inability to obtain adequate specimens. Fungal infections in HSCT and SOT carry a higher risk of dissemination...
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126309/a-cpanet-consensus-statement-on-research-priorities-for-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-a-neglected-fungal-infection-that-requires-attention
#10
Cendrine Godet, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Holger Flick, Christophe Hennequin, Rihards Mikilps-Mikgelbs, Oxana Munteanu, Iain Page, Danila Seidel, Helmut J F Salzer
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a severe fungal infection with a high morbidity and mortality, and is usually seen in immunocompetent patients with respiratory disorders. Clinical presentation is nonspecific and often overlaps with the symptoms and the radiological pattern caused by the underlying disease. Clinical management of CPA is further hampered by limited information about the epidemiology, disease dynamics, sensitivity and specificity of different mycological tests, mechanisms of antifungal resistance, efficient treatment and management strategies...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111605/influenza-and-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-an-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipient-co-infection-or-superinfection
#11
Jacob Burke, Ayman O Soubani
Influenza infection and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients are well characterized, however no dual infections have been reported in this patient population and little evidence of mechanisms of interaction between the two infections exists. We present a 53-year-old male allogeneic HSCT patient on immunosuppressive therapy for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease initially diagnosed with influenza A H3, and later PJP. Despite the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, the patient was successfully treated with appropriate antimicrobial therapy and aggressive supportive care...
November 7, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075960/a-case-of-fungus-ball-type-maxillary-sinusitis-due-to-penicillium-roqueforti
#12
T Radulesco, A Varoquaux, S Ranque, P Dessi, J Michel, C Cassagne
The Penicillium genera, encompassing about 225 different species of fungi, are naturally present in the environment. These genera are poorly linked to human disease, except for Penicillium marneffei causing septicemia in immunocompromised hosts. Thus, Penicillium species recovered from respiratory tract samples are often considered as inhaled contaminants in the clinical laboratory. However, we report here a case of fungal maxillary sinusitis due to Penicillium roqueforti diagnosed in a 40-year-old female, a teacher, complaining of moderate pain for months in the maxillary sinus and chronic posterior rhinorrhea...
October 26, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069388/the-secreted-polyketide-boydone-a-is-responsible-for-the-anti-staphylococcus-aureus-activity-of-scedosporium-boydii
#13
Cindy Staerck, Anne Landreau, Gaëtan Herbette, Catherine Roullier, Samuel Bertrand, Benjamin Siegler, Gérald Larcher, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Maxime J J Fleury
Usually living as a soil saprophyte, the filamentous fungus Scedosporium boydii may also cause various infections in human. Particularly, it is one of the major causative agents of fungal colonization of the airways in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). To compete with other microorganisms in the environment, fungi have evolved sophisticated strategies, including the production of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity which may also help them to establish successfully within the respiratory tract of receptive hosts...
October 24, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064471/nasopharyngeal-metagenomic-deep-sequencing-data-lancaster-uk-2014-2015
#14
Kate V Atkinson, Lisa A Bishop, Glenn Rhodes, Nicolas Salez, Neil R McEwan, Matthew J Hegarty, Julie Robey, Nicola Harding, Simon Wetherell, Robert M Lauder, Roger W Pickup, Mark Wilkinson, Derek Gatherer
Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from volunteers attending a general medical practice and a general hospital in Lancaster, UK, and at Lancaster University, in the winter of 2014-2015. 51 swabs were selected based on high RNA yield and allocated to deep sequencing pools as follows: patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; asthmatics; adults with no respiratory symptoms; adults with feverish respiratory symptoms; adults with respiratory symptoms and presence of antibodies against influenza C; paediatric patients with respiratory symptoms (2 pools); adults with influenza C infection (2 pools), giving a total of 9 pools...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038055/serum-and-brain-purine-levels-in-an-experimental-systemic-infection-of-mice-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-purinergic-immunomodulatory-effects
#15
Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Aleksandro S Da Silva, Laerte Ferreiro, Pedro H Doleski, Alexandre A Tonin, Emerson A Casali, Cesar E J Moritz, Gabriel H Schirmbeck, Valesca V Cardoso, Mariana M Flores, Rafael Fighera, Janio M Santurio
The aim of this study was to evaluate the purine levels in serum and brains of mice experimentally infected by Cryptococcus neoformans. Twenty-four mice were divided into the following groups: a control group (n = 12; Group A) and an infection group with animals that were infected (n = 12; Group B) with a 0.3-mL intraperitoneal injection containing 1.7 × 10(7)C. neoformans cells. Blood and brains were collected on days 20 (n = 6 per group) and 50 (n = 6 per group) post-infection (PI). Histopathology and lung and brain cultures were performed to confirm fungal infection and tissue injuries...
October 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028668/the-mycobiome-in-hiv
#16
Christopher L Hager, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are a limited number of studies investigating the association between the microbiome and HIV. Although the majority of these published investigations have focused on the role of the bacterial community (bacteriome) in this setting, a handful of studies have also characterized the role of the mycobiome in HIV-infected individuals. This review will summarize the most recent reports pertaining to the role of the fungal community in HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: Differences in the composition of the oral and respiratory mycobiome in HIV-infected individuals compared with uninfected individuals have been reported...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018819/the-clinical-significance-of-filmarray-respiratory-panel-in-diagnosing-community-acquired-pneumonia
#17
Huanzhu Chen, Huilan Weng, Meirui Lin, Ping He, Yazhen Li, Qingdong Xie, Changwen Ke, Xiaoyang Jiao
AIM: FilmArray Respiratory Panel (FilmArray RP) test is an emerging diagnostic method in fast detecting multiple respiratory pathogens; the methodology and clinical significance of FilmArray RP in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) diagnosis were evaluated in this study. METHODS: Specimens from 74 patients with CAP were analyzed and compared using FilmArray RP, traditional multiple PCR assay, bacterial (or fungal) culture, and serological detection. RESULTS: FilmArray RP and multiplex PCR showed 100% coincidence rate in detecting coronaviruses 229E, OC43, HKU1, and NL63, human metapneumovirus, influenza A and B, and parainfluenza viruses (PIV1, PIV2, and PIV4)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992352/in-vivo-pathogenicity-of-trichosporon-asahii-isolates-with-different-in-vitro-enzymatic-profiles-in-an-immunocompetent-murine-model-of-systemic-trichosporonosis
#18
Alexandra M Montoya, Carolina E Luna-Rodríguez, Rogelio de J Treviño-Rangel, Miguel Becerril-García, Raquel G Ballesteros-Elizondo, Odila Saucedo-Cárdenas, Gloria M González
Trichosporon asahii is an opportunistic yeastlike fungus that colonizes the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and human skin. Although it is an important cause of disseminated infections by non-Candida species, there are a few reports related to its virulence factors and their possible role in in vivo pathogenicity. We developed a murine model of disseminated trichosporonosis in immunocompetent mice for the evaluation of the in vivo pathogenicity of 6 T. asahii isolates with different in vitro virulence factor profiles...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992055/amphotericin-b-concentrations-in-healthy-mallard-ducks-anas-platyrhynchos-following-a-single-intratracheal-dose-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-using-an-atomizer
#19
Ashley Phillips, Christine V Fiorello, Rachel M Baden, Jack H Liu, Nathaniel C Burmas, Carlos A Ruvalcaba, Roger Monroy, F Charles Mohr, Ronette Gehring, Jean-Pierre Delplanque, Karl V Clemons, David A Stevens, Lisa A Tell
Aspergillosis is a fungal infection that primarily affects the respiratory tract. Amphotericin B has broad antifungal activity and is commonly used to treat aspergillosis, a fungal pneumonia that is a common sequela in oiled waterfowl as well as other birds in wildlife rehabilitation. Pharmacokinetic parameters of nebulized amphotericin B in an avian model have been reported, but those of direct intratracheal delivery have yet to be established. The objective of this study was to evaluate if a single 3 mg/kg dose of liposomal amphotericin B delivered intratracheally using a commercial atomizer would achieve plasma and lung tissue concentrations exceeding targeted minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Aspergillus species in adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)...
August 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956543/disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-aids-patients-an-urban-disease-experience-in-a-metropolis-in-the-middle-east-of-brasil
#20
Bianca da Silva Ferreira, Joâo Alves de Araújo Filho, Nayara Matos Pereira, Lucas de Miranda Godoy, Bruna Borges Lamounier, Elizon Dias Nunes, Lucas Espíndola Rosa
Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease commonly observed as an opportunistic disease in AIDS patients. It is a neglected disease in many countries, particularly Latin America, including Brazil. It is related with environmental factors, even in urban areas, where the incidence has increased. Implementing a descriptive ecological study, we performed a retrospective chart review for data collected between January 2003 and July 2014 for AIDS patients with histoplasmosis who lived in Goiania. The selected cases were georeferenced to analyse the incidence of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients in the metropolitan area of Goiania...
September 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
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