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Respiratory Fungal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038055/serum-and-brain-purine-levels-in-an-experimental-systemic-infection-of-mice-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-purinergic-immunomodulatory-effects
#1
Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Aleksandro S Da Silva, Laerte Ferreiro, Pedro H Doleski, Alexandre A Tonin, Emerson A Casali, Cesar E J Moritz, Gabriel H Schirmbeck, Valesca V Cardoso, Mariana M Flores, Rafael Fighera, Janio M Santurio
The aim of this study was to evaluate the purine levels in serum and brains of mice experimentally infected by Cryptococcus neoformans. Twenty-four mice were divided into the following groups: a control group (n = 12; Group A) and an infection group with animals that were infected (n = 12; Group B) with a 0.3-mL intraperitoneal injection containing 1.7 × 10(7)C. neoformans cells. Blood and brains were collected on days 20 (n = 6 per group) and 50 (n = 6 per group) post-infection (PI). Histopathology and lung and brain cultures were performed to confirm fungal infection and tissue injuries...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028668/the-mycobiome-in-hiv
#2
Christopher L Hager, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are a limited number of studies investigating the association between the microbiome and HIV. Although the majority of these published investigations have focused on the role of the bacterial community (bacteriome) in this setting, a handful of studies have also characterized the role of the mycobiome in HIV-infected individuals. This review will summarize the most recent reports pertaining to the role of the fungal community in HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: Differences in the composition of the oral and respiratory mycobiome in HIV-infected individuals compared with uninfected individuals have been reported...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018819/the-clinical-significance-of-filmarray-respiratory-panel-in-diagnosing-community-acquired-pneumonia
#3
Huanzhu Chen, Huilan Weng, Meirui Lin, Ping He, Yazhen Li, Qingdong Xie, Changwen Ke, Xiaoyang Jiao
AIM: FilmArray Respiratory Panel (FilmArray RP) test is an emerging diagnostic method in fast detecting multiple respiratory pathogens; the methodology and clinical significance of FilmArray RP in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) diagnosis were evaluated in this study. METHODS: Specimens from 74 patients with CAP were analyzed and compared using FilmArray RP, traditional multiple PCR assay, bacterial (or fungal) culture, and serological detection. RESULTS: FilmArray RP and multiplex PCR showed 100% coincidence rate in detecting coronaviruses 229E, OC43, HKU1, and NL63, human metapneumovirus, influenza A and B, and parainfluenza viruses (PIV1, PIV2, and PIV4)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992352/in-vivo-pathogenicity-of-trichosporon-asahii-isolates-with-different-in-vitro-enzymatic-profiles-in-an-immunocompetent-murine-model-of-systemic-trichosporonosis
#4
Alexandra M Montoya, Carolina E Luna-Rodríguez, Rogelio de J Treviño-Rangel, Miguel Becerril-García, Raquel G Ballesteros-Elizondo, Odila Saucedo-Cárdenas, Gloria M González
Trichosporon asahii is an opportunistic yeastlike fungus that colonizes the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and human skin. Although it is an important cause of disseminated infections by non-Candida species, there are a few reports related to its virulence factors and their possible role in in vivo pathogenicity. We developed a murine model of disseminated trichosporonosis in immunocompetent mice for the evaluation of the in vivo pathogenicity of 6 T. asahii isolates with different in vitro virulence factor profiles...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992055/amphotericin-b-concentrations-in-healthy-mallard-ducks-anas-platyrhynchos-following-a-single-intratracheal-dose-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-using-an-atomizer
#5
Ashley Phillips, Christine V Fiorello, Rachel M Baden, Jack H Liu, Nathaniel C Burmas, Carlos A Ruvalcaba, Roger Monroy, F Charles Mohr, Ronette Gehring, Jean-Pierre Delplanque, Karl V Clemons, David A Stevens, Lisa A Tell
Aspergillosis is a fungal infection that primarily affects the respiratory tract. Amphotericin B has broad antifungal activity and is commonly used to treat aspergillosis, a fungal pneumonia that is a common sequela in oiled waterfowl as well as other birds in wildlife rehabilitation. Pharmacokinetic parameters of nebulized amphotericin B in an avian model have been reported, but those of direct intratracheal delivery have yet to be established. The objective of this study was to evaluate if a single 3 mg/kg dose of liposomal amphotericin B delivered intratracheally using a commercial atomizer would achieve plasma and lung tissue concentrations exceeding targeted minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Aspergillus species in adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)...
August 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956543/disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-aids-patients-an-urban-disease-experience-in-a-metropolis-in-the-middle-east-of-brasil
#6
Bianca da Silva Ferreira, Joâo Alves de Araújo Filho, Nayara Matos Pereira, Lucas de Miranda Godoy, Bruna Borges Lamounier, Elizon Dias Nunes, Lucas Espíndola Rosa
Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease commonly observed as an opportunistic disease in AIDS patients. It is a neglected disease in many countries, particularly Latin America, including Brazil. It is related with environmental factors, even in urban areas, where the incidence has increased. Implementing a descriptive ecological study, we performed a retrospective chart review for data collected between January 2003 and July 2014 for AIDS patients with histoplasmosis who lived in Goiania. The selected cases were georeferenced to analyse the incidence of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients in the metropolitan area of Goiania...
September 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948369/acute-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure-in-immunocompromised-patients-the-efraim-multinational-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Elie Azoulay, Peter Pickkers, Marcio Soares, Anders Perner, Jordi Rello, Philippe R Bauer, Andry van de Louw, Pleun Hemelaar, Virginie Lemiale, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Ignacio Martin Loeches, Tine Sylvest Meyhoff, Jorge Salluh, Peter Schellongowski, Katerina Rusinova, Nicolas Terzi, Sangeeta Mehta, Massimo Antonelli, Achille Kouatchet, Andreas Barratt-Due, Miia Valkonen, Precious Pearl Landburg, Fabrice Bruneel, Ramin Brandt Bukan, Frédéric Pène, Victoria Metaxa, Anne Sophie Moreau, Virginie Souppart, Gaston Burghi, Christophe Girault, Ulysses V A Silva, Luca Montini, François Barbier, Lene B Nielsen, Benjamin Gaborit, Djamel Mokart, Sylvie Chevret
BACKGROUND: In immunocompromised patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ARF), initial management aims primarily to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). METHODS: To assess the impact of initial management on IMV and mortality rates, we performed a multinational observational prospective cohort study in 16 countries (68 centers). RESULTS: A total of 1611 patients were enrolled (hematological malignancies 51.9%, solid tumors 35...
September 25, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945471/host-pathogen-interactions-and-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction
#8
John Belperio, Scott M Palmer, S Sam Weigt
Lung transplantation is now considered to be a therapeutic option for patients with advanced-stage lung diseases. Unfortunately, due to post-transplant complications, both infectious and noninfectious, it is only a treatment and not a cure. Infections (e.g., bacterial, viral, and fungal) in the immunosuppressed lung transplant recipient are a common cause of mortality post transplant. Infections have more recently been explored as factors contributing to the risk of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD)...
September 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936955/-analysis-of-characteristics-of-bacteria-in-respiratory-tract-infection-in-2013-2016-in-heibei-3a-hospital-a-single-center-report-of-7-497-patients
#9
Lili Hou, Lili Liu, Ping Dang, Guannan Kang, Qinfeng Zhang, Dongling Li
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes and characteristics of respiratory tract bacteria in Hebei 3A Hospital, and to provide new rationale for clinical diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A single-center retrospective analysis was conducted. 7 497 patients with respiratory tract infection admitted to Hebei Chest Hospital from January 2013 to December 2016 were enrolled. Deep sputum was collected, and the bacterial cultures and susceptibility analysis was conducted in sputum and upper respiratory secretions were collected by fiberoptic bronchoscopy...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934824/acid-fastness-of-histoplasma-in-surgical-pathology-practice
#10
Madhu Rajeshwari, Immaculata Xess, Mehar Chand Sharma, Deepali Jain
BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis (HP) is diagnosed by visualizing intracellular microorganisms in biopsy and/or culture. Periodic-acid Schiff (PAS) and Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) staining methods are routinely used for identification. The acid-fast property of Histoplasma was identified decades ago, but acid-fast staining has not been practiced in current surgical pathology. Awareness of the acid-fast property of Histoplasma, which is due to mycolic acid in the cell wall, is important in distinguishing Histoplasma from other infective microorganisms...
September 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912507/fast-track-development-of-an-in-vitro-3d-lung-immune-cell-model-to-study-aspergillus-infections
#11
P Chandorkar, W Posch, V Zaderer, M Blatzer, M Steger, C G Ammann, U Binder, M Hermann, P Hörtnagl, C Lass-Flörl, D Wilflingseder
To study interactions of airborne pathogens, e.g. Aspergillus (A.) fumigatus with upper and lower respiratory tract epithelial and immune cells, we set up a perfused 3D human bronchial and small airway epithelial cell system. Culturing of normal human bronchial or small airway epithelial (NHBE, SAE) cells under air liquid interphase (ALI) and perfusion resulted in a significantly accelerated development of the lung epithelia associated with higher ciliogenesis, cilia movement, mucus-production and improved barrier function compared to growth under static conditions...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899468/-pathogen-distribution-and-bacterial-resistance-in-children-with-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia
#12
Yun-Yun Lu, Rong Luo, Zhou Fu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of pathogens and bacterial resistance in children with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: A total of 522 children with severe CAP who were hospitalized in 2016 were enrolled as study subjects. According to their age, they were divided into infant group (402 infants aged 28 days to 1 year), young children group (73 children aged 1 to 3 years), preschool children group (35 children aged 3 to 6 years), and school-aged children group (12 children aged ≥6 years)...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860348/assessment-of-sepsis-3-criteria-and-quick-sofa-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-bacterial-infections
#13
Salvatore Piano, Michele Bartoletti, Marta Tonon, Maurizio Baldassarre, Giada Chies, Antonietta Romano, Pierluigi Viale, Elia Vettore, Marco Domenicali, Marialuisa Stanco, Chiara Pilutti, Anna Chiara Frigo, Alessandra Brocca, Mauro Bernardi, Paolo Caraceni, Paolo Angeli
INTRODUCTION: Patients with cirrhosis have a high risk of sepsis, which confers a poor prognosis. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria have several limitations in cirrhosis. Recently, new criteria for sepsis (Sepsis-3) have been suggested in the general population (increase of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) ≥2 points from baseline). Outside the intensive care unit (ICU), the quick SOFA (qSOFA (at least two among alteration in mental status, systolic blood pressure ≤100 mm Hg or respiratory rate ≥22/min)) was suggested to screen for sepsis...
August 31, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857979/coccidioidomycosis-involving-lungs-and-skin-a-mimicker-of-metastatic-disease
#14
Barbara Saenz-Ibarra, Victor G Prieto, Carlos A Torres-Cabala, Auris Huen, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Michael T Tetzlaff, Jonathan L Curry, Doina Ivan, Phyu P Aung
Coccidioidomycosis is the major systemic mycoses, considered to be 1 of the most infectious fungal diseases. In symptomatic patients, the most common manifestation is pulmonary disease, but many other organs can be affected. Disseminated disease occurs in 1%-5% of all patients affected by coccidioidomycosis and can affect any organ, with the skin, central nervous system, and musculoskeletal system being reported as the most prevalent. Here, we report a 42-year-old male farmer from the west Texas who presented with an approximately 2-month history of progressive shortness of breath and dyspnea on exertion, weight loss, and night sweats...
August 24, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819878/aspergillus-bronchitis-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#15
Claudia Brandt, Jobst Roehmel, Volker Rickerts, Volker Melichar, Nadja Niemann, Carsten Schwarz
Aspergillus fumigatus frequently colonizes the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and may cause various severe infections, such as bronchitis. Serological data, sputum dependent markers and longitudinal data of treated cases of Aspergillus bronchitis were evaluated for further description of this infection. This study, which comprises three substudies, aimed to analyze epidemiological data of Aspergillus in CF and the entity of Aspergillus bronchitis. In a first step, data of the German Cystic Fibrosis Registry were used to evaluate the frequency of Aspergillus colonization in patients with CF (n = 2599)...
August 17, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795634/silencing-of-rbohf2-causes-leaf-age-dependent-accelerated-senescence-salicylic-acid-accumulation-and-powdery-mildew-resistance-in-barley
#16
Denise Pereira Torres, Reinhard K Proels, Harald Schempp, Ralph Hückelhoven
Plant RBOH (RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGS)-type NADPH oxidases produce superoxide radical anions and have a function in developmental processes and in response to environmental challenges. Barley RBOHF2 has diverse reported functions in interaction with the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Here, we analyzed, in detail, plant leaf level- and age-specific susceptibility of stably RBOHF2-silenced barley plants. This revealed enhanced susceptibility to fungal penetration of young RBOHF2-silenced leaf tissue but strongly reduced susceptibility of older leaves when compared with controls...
November 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791214/cavitary-lung-lesions-melioidosis-and-pulmonary-embolism-causing-necrotizing-pneumonia
#17
N Mohammad, W S Wan Ghazali
Cavitary lung lesions of various etiologies may be encountered in patients with respiratory symptoms associated with fever. Non-malignant cavitary lesions may mimic malignant lung lesions on most of radiographic modalities including chest radiographs or thoracic computed tomography (CT). Primary lung malignancy can be detected in as high as one-fifths of CT thorax as cavitary lesions and the remaining aetiologies may be due to bacterial, parasitic, and invasive fungal infections, as well as Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), sarcoidosis, septic thrombo-embolism, and lung metastasis from extra-pulmonary primaries...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774699/pulmonary-and-sinus-fungal-diseases-in-non-immunocompromised-patients
#18
REVIEW
David W Denning, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
The human respiratory tract is exposed daily to airborne fungi, fungal enzymes, and secondary metabolites. The endemic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and occasionally Aspergillus fumigatus, are primary pulmonary pathogens of otherwise healthy people. Such infections resolve in most people, and only a few infections lead to disease. However, many fungi are directly allergenic by colonising the respiratory tract or indirectly through contact with cell wall constituents and proteases, causing or exacerbating allergic disease...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774694/improvement-of-fungal-disease-identification-and-management-combined-health-systems-and-public-health-approaches
#19
REVIEW
Donald C Cole, Nelesh P Govender, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Jahit Sacarlal, David W Denning
More than 1·6 million people are estimated to die of fungal diseases each year, and about a billion people have cutaneous fungal infections. Fungal disease diagnosis requires a high level of clinical suspicion and specialised laboratory testing, in addition to culture, histopathology, and imaging expertise. Physicians with varied specialist training might see patients with fungal disease, yet it might remain unrecognised. Antifungal treatment is more complex than treatment for bacterial or most viral infections, and drug interactions are particularly problematic...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762125/progress-in-definition-prevention-and-treatment-of-fungal-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#20
REVIEW
Carsten Schwarz, Dominik Hartl, Olaf Eickmeier, Andreas Hector, Christian Benden, Isabelle Durieu, Amparo Sole, Silvia Gartner, Carlos E Milla, Peter James Barry
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic lethal multi-system condition; however, most of the morbidity and mortality is dependent on the status of the respiratory system. Progressive respiratory decline is mediated by chronic infection and inflammation, punctuated by important acute events known as pulmonary exacerbations which can lead to accelerated decline. The main bacterial species causing infections include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. In addition to bacteria, fungi are detected in a significant number of patients...
July 31, 2017: Mycopathologia
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