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Respiratory Fungal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101187/severe-pneumonia-due-to-infection-with-candida-krusei-in-a-case-of-suspected-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Mingming Tan, Junwei Wang, Peiyang Hu, Bin Wang, Wanghua Xu, Jiao Chen
Candida krusei (C. krusei) pneumonia is a rare infection that is frequently associated with a poor outcome. The present study reports an unusual case of C. krusei pneumonia that was initially suspected to be a Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) case. A 64-year-old Saudi Arabian male patient was admitted to our hospital with complaints of cough and dyspnea that persisted for 6 days. The patient presented fever (oral temperature, 38.5°C) and slight tachypnea (25 respirations/min). A chest computerized tomography demonstrated unclear lung fields, diffuse pathological changes in the two lungs and multiple lymphadenectasis in the retrocaval and para-aortic arch area...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087464/mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-regulate-fungal-protease-induced-inflammatory-responses
#2
Yun Hee Kim, Seung-Hyo Lee
Epidemiological studies have shown that fungal infections are a main cause of respiratory tract diseases, such as asthma, bronchopneumonia, intoxication, and invasive fungal disease. Fungi such as Aspergillus and Candida species have become increasingly important pathogens as the global climate changes. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the toxicological potential of Aspergillus protease in the lower respiratory tract. Exposure of Aspergillus protease to A549 cells induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 mRNAs and increased production of interleukin (IL)-8 and MCP-1 protein through enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and activator protein (AP)-1...
January 10, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045065/high-diversity-of-airborne-fungi-in-the-hospital-environment-as-revealed-by-meta-sequencing-based-microbiome-analysis
#3
Xunliang Tong, Hongtao Xu, Lihui Zou, Meng Cai, Xuefeng Xu, Zuotao Zhao, Fei Xiao, Yanming Li
Invasive fungal infections acquired in the hospital have progressively emerged as an important cause of life-threatening infection. In particular, airborne fungi in hospitals are considered critical pathogens of hospital-associated infections. To identify the causative airborne microorganisms, high-volume air samplers were utilized for collection, and species identification was performed using a culture-based method and DNA sequencing analysis with the Illumina MiSeq and HiSeq 2000 sequencing systems. Few bacteria were grown after cultivation in blood agar...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998866/-nosocomial-septicemia-in-the-early-stage-after-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children-with-major-%C3%AE-thalassemia
#4
Yan-Jun Xu, Chun-Fu Li, Yue-Lin He, Xiao-Qin Feng, Fu-Yu Pei, Xue-Dong Wu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics of nosocomial septicemia in the early stage after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children with major β-thalassemia. METHODS: The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed of 55 consecutive children with major β-thalassemia who developed septicemia early after HSCT between January, 2011 and June, 2016. RESULTS: Among the total of 416 consecutive children with major β-thalassemia undergoing allogeneic HSCT, the incidence of nosocomial infection early after transplantation was 77...
December 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996940/allergic-fungal-airway-disease
#5
REVIEW
E M Rick, K Woolnough, C H Pashley, A J Wardlaw
Fungi are ubiquitous and form their own kingdom. Up to 80 genera of fungi have been linked to type I allergic disease, and yet, commercial reagents to test for sensitization are available for relatively few species. In terms of asthma, it is important to distinguish between species unable to grow at body temperature and those that can (thermotolerant) and thereby have the potential to colonize the respiratory tract. The former, which include the commonly studied Alternaria and Cladosporium genera, can act as aeroallergens whose clinical effects are predictably related to exposure levels...
2016: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930337/genetic-immunological-and-clinical-features-of-patients-with-bacterial-and-fungal-infections-due-to-inherited-il-17ra-deficiency
#6
Romain Lévy, Satoshi Okada, Vivien Béziat, Kunihiko Moriya, Caini Liu, Louis Yi Ann Chai, Mélanie Migaud, Fabian Hauck, Amein Al Ali, Cyril Cyrus, Chittibabu Vatte, Turkan Patiroglu, Ekrem Unal, Marie Ferneiny, Nobuyuki Hyakuna, Serdar Nepesov, Matias Oleastro, Aydan Ikinciogullari, Figen Dogu, Takaki Asano, Osamu Ohara, Ling Yun, Erika Della Mina, Didier Bronnimann, Yuval Itan, Florian Gothe, Jacinta Bustamante, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Natalia Tahuil, Caner Aytekin, Aicha Salhi, Saleh Al Muhsen, Masao Kobayashi, Julie Toubiana, Laurent Abel, Xiaoxia Li, Yildiz Camcioglu, Fatih Celmeli, Christoph Klein, Suzan A AlKhater, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is defined as recurrent or persistent infection of the skin, nails, and/or mucosae with commensal Candida species. The first genetic etiology of isolated CMC-autosomal recessive (AR) IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) deficiency-was reported in 2011, in a single patient. We report here 21 patients with complete AR IL-17RA deficiency, including this first patient. Each patient is homozygous for 1 of 12 different IL-17RA alleles, 8 of which create a premature stop codon upstream from the transmembrane domain and have been predicted and/or shown to prevent expression of the receptor on the surface of circulating leukocytes and dermal fibroblasts...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925857/analysis-of-the-intestinal-microbial-community-and-inferred-functional-capacities-during-the-host-response-to-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#7
Derrick R Samuelson, Tysheena P Charles, Nicholas M de la Rua, Christopher M Taylor, Eugene E Blanchard, Meng Luo, Judd E Shellito, David A Welsh
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with HIV/AIDS. In this study, we evaluated the intestinal microbial communities associated with the development of experimental Pneumocystis pneumonia, as there is growing evidence that the intestinal microbiota is critical for host defense against fungal pathogens. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were infected with live Pneumocystis murina (P. murina) via intratracheal inoculation and sacrificed 7 and 14 days postinfection for microbiota analysis...
December 7, 2016: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870863/characteristics-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-association-with-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-mixed-biofilm
#8
Elise Melloul, Stéphanie Luiggi, Leslie Anaïs, Pascal Arné, Jean-Marc Costa, Vincent Fihman, Benoit Briard, Eric Dannaoui, Jacques Guillot, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Anne Beauvais, Françoise Botterel
BACKGROUND: Biofilms are communal structures of microorganisms that have long been associated with a variety of persistent infections poorly responding to conventional antibiotic or antifungal therapy. Aspergillus fumigatus fungus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteria are examples of the microorganisms that can coexist to form a biofilm especially in the respiratory tract of immunocompromised patients or cystic fibrosis patients. The aim of the present study was to develop and assess an in vitro model of a mixed biofilm associating S...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869441/immunology-update-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#9
S Paul Starr
There are 264 primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), most of which are rare. They are caused by complement deficiencies, defects in phagocyte function, impaired T-cell function, and/or impaired B-cell function with antibody deficiencies. Most patients with PIDs will present, at varying ages, with frequent infections. These infections can be common respiratory tract infections such as otitis media or pneumonia, or they can be unusual bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections. Neonatal screening for severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, one of the most common and serious PIDs, is now performed in most US states, but many PIDs manifest and are detected after birth...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863269/mortality-length-of-stay-bloodstream-and-respiratory-viral-infections-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#10
Kam Lun Hon, Man Ping Luk, Wing Ming Fung, Cho Ying Li, Hiu Lee Yeung, Pui Kwun Liu, Shun Li, Kathy Yin Ching Tsang, Chi Kong Li, Paul Kay Sheung Chan, Kam Lau Cheung, Ting Fan Leung, Pei Lin Koh
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether diagnostic categories and presence of infections were associated with increased mortality or length of stay (LOS) in patients admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: A retrospective study of all PICU admissions between October 2002 and April 2016 was performed. Oncologic vs nononcologic, trauma/injuries vs nontraumatic, infectious (gram-positive, gram-negative, fungal bloodstream infections, common respiratory viruses) vs noninfectious diagnoses were evaluated for survival and LOS...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852812/a-retrospective-study-of-the-prevalence-of-calcium-oxalate-crystals-in-veterinary-aspergillus-cases
#11
Courtney L Payne, Michael J Dark, Julia A Conway, Lisa L Farina
Fungi in the genus Aspergillus are some of the most common fungal pathogens in veterinary species, primarily affecting the respiratory tract. In both human and veterinary cases, calcium oxalate crystals have been documented in sites of Aspergillus infection. Cases in multiple species (16 birds, 15 horses, 5 dogs, 1 ox, and 1 dolphin) were identified that had either positive cultures for Aspergillus sp., or had conidiophores present that could be identified as belonging to the genus Aspergillus Histologic slides were examined to confirm the presence of oxalate crystals and how often they were identified on the original report...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820674/the-microbiome-metabolome-crosstalk-in-the-pathogenesis-of-respiratory-fungal-diseases
#12
Samuel M Gonçalves, Katrien Lagrou, Cláudio Duarte-Oliveira, Johan A Maertens, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho
Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus are responsible for several superficial and invasive infections and allergic syndromes. The risk of infection and its clinical outcome vary significantly even among patients with similar predisposing clinical factors and pathogen exposure. There is increasing evidence that the individual microbiome supervises the outcome of the host-fungus interaction by influencing mechanisms of immune regulation, inflammation, metabolism, and other physiological processes. Microbiome-mediated mechanisms of resistance allow therefore the control of fungal colonization, preventing the onset of overt disease, particularly in patients with underlying immune dysfunction...
November 7, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819031/prognosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-case-control-study
#13
Anne-Claire Desbois, Sylvain Poiree, Renaud Snanoudj, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Rebecca Sberro-Soussan, Fanny Lanternier, Christophe Legendre, Olivier Lortholary, Anne Scemla
BACKGROUND: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major cause of invasive fungal infection in kidney transplant recipients (KTR), and it has a high mortality rate. However, its impact on patients and graft survival has not been well defined in the current era of voriconazole first-line therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively collected all cases of KTR-associated IA occurring at Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris, from 2003 to 2013. These cases were compared with a group of controls (1:3) who were matched by age, year of kidney transplantation, and sex...
August 2016: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814896/pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-systemic-autoimmune-rheumatic-disease-a-case-control-study
#14
Susan Tadros, Andrew J Teichtahl, Sabina Ciciriello, Ian P Wicks
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is an opportunistic fungal infection that affects the immunocompromised. Patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease are increasingly recognised as an at-risk clinical population with a high mortality. This case-control study examined differences in the characteristics and peripheral blood parameters between patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease who developed PJP and gender, age and disease-matched controls...
September 28, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811563/systemic-fungal-infections-in-donors-for-corneal-transplantation
#15
Sheila Pabon, Thomas D Lindquist, Thomas D Miller, Bennie H Jeng
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of postkeratoplasty fungal infection when corneal tissue from donors with a recent medical history of oral thrush or respiratory, urine, wound, sputum, bronchial, tracheal, or throat culture positive for fungus is identified before recovery and after decontamination of the corneal tissue with 5% povidone-iodine flush to the donors' eyes during recovery. METHODS: This is a prospective analysis of corneas from 42 donors with a documented medical history of fungus or positive fungal culture, which were recovered between January 2010 and November 2010...
January 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802882/respiratory-symptoms-and-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-feno-among-students-in-penang-malaysia-in-relation-to-signs-of-dampness-at-school-and-fungal-dna-in-school-dust
#16
Dan Norbäck, Jamal Hisham Hashim, Zailina Hashim, Gui-Hong Cai, Vinoshini Sooria, Syazwan Aizat Ismail, Gunilla Wieslander
Few health studies exist on dampness and mould in schools in the tropics. We studied associations between fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), respiratory symptoms and airway infections among students and dampness and fungal DNA in schools in Malaysia. A total of 368 randomly selected students from 32 classrooms in 8 secondary schools in Penang, Malaysia, participated (58% participation rate). Information on current respiratory symptoms and the home environment was collected by a standardised questionnaire...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799071/evaluation-of-coldzyme%C3%A2-mouth-spray-on-prevention-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-a-boy-with-primary-immunodeficiency-a-case-report
#17
Mats Clarsund, Ulf Blom, Ann Gardulf
BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiencies include a variety of disorders that render patients more susceptible to infections. If left untreated, these infections may be fatal. Patients with primary antibody deficiencies are therefore given prophylactic immunoglobulin G replacement therapy. ColdZyme® Mouth Spray is a medical device intended to reduce the probability of catching a cold and/or can help shorten the duration of a cold, if used at an early stage of the infection, by forming a thin protective barrier on the pharyngeal mucous membrane...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797370/the-clinical-value-of-biomarkers-in-respiratory-complications-in-hematopoietic-sct
#18
C M Lucena, M Rovira, A Gabarrús, X Filella, C Martínez, R Domingo, A Torres, C Agustí
To determine the role of biomarkers in the clinical management of respiratory complications (RC) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients, we have prospectively evaluated a cohort of 175 patients followed-up for 1 year after HSCT. To avoid misinterpretation, we have excluded both unidentified respiratory infections (RI) and mixed RI. A total of 64 RC were included. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and proadrenomedullin (proADM) were measured at diagnosis and on day 3 and 7...
October 31, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790435/mycological-profile-of-sputum-of-hiv-positive-patients-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-and-its-correlation-with-cd4-t-lymphocyte-count
#19
Jyotsna Chandwani, Nitya Vyas, Saroj Hooja, Babita Sharma, Rakesh Maheshwari
INTRODUCTION: Fungal respiratory infections are important cause of mortality and morbidity among HIV positive individuals. They account for up to 70% of illness in Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome cases (AIDS). The range of illness varies from asymptomatic mucosal candidiasis to overwhelming disseminated infections. In these patients dissemination of fungus leads to very serious outcomes hence, it is important to have the knowledge of prevailing profile of fungus causing infections, so that it can be treated at the onset...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786297/identification-of-different-respiratory-viruses-after-a-cell-culture-step-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms
#20
Adriana Calderaro, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Isabella Rodighiero, Mirko Buttrini, Sara Montecchini, Rosita Vasile Simone, Maria Cristina Medici, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
In this study matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), a reliable identification method for the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections, is presented as an innovative tool to investigate the protein profile of cell cultures infected by the most common viruses causing respiratory tract infections in humans. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to the identification of influenza A and B viruses, adenovirus C species, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, echovirus, cytomegalovirus and metapneumovirus...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
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