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Respiratory Fungal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467760/microrna-regulation-of-host-immune-responses-following-fungal-exposure
#1
REVIEW
Tara L Croston, Angela R Lemons, Donald H Beezhold, Brett J Green
Fungal bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the environment and human exposure can result in a variety of health effects ranging from systemic, subcutaneous, and cutaneous infections to respiratory morbidity including allergy, asthma, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Recent research has focused on the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) following fungal exposure and is overlooked, yet important, group of regulators capable of influencing fungal immune responses through a variety of cellular mechanisms. These small non-coding ribose nucleic acids function to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and have been shown to participate in multiple disease pathways including cancer, heart disease, apoptosis, as well as immune responses to microbial hazards and occupational allergens...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463005/mechanisms-of-pulmonary-escape-and-dissemination-by-cryptococcus-neoformans
#2
REVIEW
Steven T Denham, Jessica C S Brown
Cryptococcus neoformans is a common environmental saprophyte and human fungal pathogen that primarily causes disease in immunocompromised individuals. Similar to many environmentally acquired human fungal pathogens, C. neoformans initiates infection in the lungs. However, the main driver of mortality is invasive cryptococcosis leading to fungal meningitis. After C. neoformans gains a foothold in the lungs, a critical early step in invasion is transversal of the respiratory epithelium. In this review, we summarize current knowledge relating to pulmonary escape...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454844/the-epidemiology-of-febrile-illness-in-sub-saharan-africa-implications-for-diagnosis-and-management
#3
REVIEW
Michael J Maze, Quique Bassat, Nicholas A Feasey, Inácio Mandomando, Patrick Musicha, John A Crump
BACKGROUND: Fever is among the most common symptoms of people living in Africa, and clinicians are challenged by the similar clinical features of a wide spectrum of potential aetiologies. AIM: To summarise recent studies of fever aetiology in sub-Saharan Africa focusing on causes other than malaria. SOURCES: A narrative literature review by searching the MEDLINE database, and recent conference abstracts. CONTENT: Studies of multiple potential causes of fever are scarce, and for many participants the infecting organism remains unidentified, or multiple co-infecting microorganisms are identified, and establishing causation is challenging...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445211/bronchoscopic-fibered-confocal-fluorescence-microscopy-for-longitudinal-in-vivo-assessment-of-pulmonary-fungal-infections-in-free-breathing-mice
#4
Liesbeth Vanherp, Jennifer Poelmans, Amy Hillen, Kristof Govaerts, Sarah Belderbos, Tinne Buelens, Katrien Lagrou, Uwe Himmelreich, Greetje Vande Velde
Respiratory diseases, such as pulmonary infections, are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preclinical studies often require invasive techniques to evaluate the extent of infection. Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) is an emerging optical imaging technique that allows for real-time detection of fluorescently labeled cells within live animals, thereby bridging the gap between in vivo whole-body imaging methods and traditional histological examinations. Previously, the use of FCFM in preclinical lung research was limited to endpoint observations due to the invasive procedures required to access lungs...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424696/upper-respiratory-viral-infections-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-after-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-retrospective-study
#5
Erden Atilla, Didem Sahin, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Istar Dolapci, Alper Tekeli, Sinem Civriz Bozdag, Meltem Kurt Yuksel, Selami Kocak Toprak, Osman Ilhan, Onder Arslan, Muhit Ozcan, Gunhan Gurman, Pervin Topcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Community respiratory viruses (CRVs) are associated with upper respiratory viral infections (URI), pneumonia or life-threatening respiratory disease in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Our aim is to demonstrate our URI experience related to CRVs after allo-HSCT. METHODS: From January 2013 to November 2015, 39 post allo-HSCT patients with acute URI symptoms were included to the study. We evaluated CRVs by multiplex PCR from nasopharyngeal wash and throat swabs...
February 9, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386209/when-a-wound-is-the-harbinger-of-a-serious-underlying-systemic-illness
#6
Shweta Kishore, Varun Mittal, Shradha Ahuja, Vikas Majithia
A 55-year-old woman presented with progressive enlarging and painful non-healing ulcers on her bilateral lower extremities; biopsy was consistent with pyoderma gangrenosum. Workup for an underlying illness revealed a cavitary lung nodule and an ulcerating mass in the anal canal. Patient did not have any respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms. Differential diagnosis included inflammatory bowel disease, rectal carcinoma or infection such as tuberculosis, fungal process. Histopathology did not reveal any malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease or infection...
January 31, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372563/cladosporium-cladosporioides-complex-infection-in-a-mixed-breed-dog
#7
Matteo Spano, Zuliani Davide, Peano Andrea, Bertazzolo Walter
A 3-year-old female mixed-breed dog was referred with a 2-day history of serious dyspnea, coughing, lethargy, anorexia, and a low-grade right anterior lameness. At presentation, the dog had an increased respiratory rate, dull heart and lung sounds, and cyanotic mucous membranes. It was hyperthermic and slightly dehydrated. Laboratory findings showed mild neutrophilia with a left shift, while serum biochemistry variables were in the normal range. However, urinalysis revealed mild proteinuria and rare erythrocytes and leukocytes on sediment examination...
January 25, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371569/cryptococcus-epithelial-interactions
#8
REVIEW
Leanne M Taylor-Smith
The fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, causes devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. Infections with this fungus tend to be predominantly in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV. Infections initiate with inhalation of cryptococcal cells and entry of the pathogen into the lungs. The bronchial epithelial cells of the upper airway and the alveolar epithelial cells of the lower airway are likely to be the first host cells that Cryptococcus engage with. Thus the interaction of cryptococci and the respiratory epithelia will be the focus of this review...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349726/fungal-respiratory-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis-cf-recent-progress-and-future-research-agenda
#9
EDITORIAL
Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Françoise Symoens, Carsten Schwarz, Vishnu Chaturvedi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324504/aspergillus-and-other-respiratory-fungal-infections-in-the-icu-diagnosis-and-management
#10
José-Artur Paiva, Paulo Mergulhão, José Manuel Pereira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Filamentous fungi respiratory infections, namely because of Aspergillus, Mucorales, Fusarium, or Scedosporium, show rising incidence and occur more in populations which are not classically immunosuppressed. This and their persistent dismal prognosis are the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Both an early diagnosis, rooted on a high level of suspicion and based on clinical picture, radiology, cultural microbiological exams, fungal biomarkers, PCR and biopsy, and an early therapy, including immunorecovery, whenever possible, good antifungal selection, and surgery for source control, are paramount to maximize the outcome in these diseases...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302800/analysis-of-fungi-in-aerosols-dispersed-by-high-speed-pens-in-dental-clinics-from-teresina-piaui-brazil
#11
Aline Maria Alves Vilarinho Oliveira, Rômulo Maia de Alencar, Jhonatas Cley Santos Porto, Isla Rita Brito Fontenele Ramos, Iraci Salmito Noleto, Tanit Clementino Santos, Mitra Mobin
This quantitative and qualitative study aimed to evaluate the level of fungal contamination in aerosols dispersed by high rotation pens in dental clinics from Teresina, Piaui, Brazil. The data were collected during the attendance at two dental clinics. Petri dishes containing Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol were opened for 15 min in the following places: in front of the chair, on the partitions to the right and left of the chair, and in the neighboring workbench. The plates were incubated at room temperature to allow the fungal growth and subsequent species identification...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300314/fungi-in-bronchiectasis-a-concise-review
#12
REVIEW
Luis Máiz, Rosa Nieto, Rafael Cantón, Elia Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Miguel Ángel Martinez-García
Although the spectrum of fungal pathology has been studied extensively in immunosuppressed patients, little is known about the epidemiology, risk factors, and management of fungal infections in chronic pulmonary diseases like bronchiectasis. In bronchiectasis patients, deteriorated mucociliary clearance-generally due to prior colonization by bacterial pathogens-and thick mucosity propitiate, the persistence of fungal spores in the respiratory tract. The most prevalent fungi in these patients are Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus; these are almost always isolated with bacterial pathogens like Haemophillus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, making very difficult to define their clinical significance...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285049/innate-immune-evasion-strategies-against-cryptococcal-meningitis-caused-by-cryptococcus-neoformans
#13
Cheng-Liang Yang, Jun Wang, Li-Li Zou
As an infectious fungus that affects the respiratory tract, Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) commonly causes asymptomatic pulmonary infection. C. neoformans may target the brain instead of the lungs and cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the early phase of infection; however, this is dependent on successful evasion of the host innate immune system. During the initial stage of fungal infection, a complex network of innate immune factors are activated. C. neoformans utilizes a number of strategies to overcome the anti-fungal mechanisms of the host innate immune system and cross the BBB...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234587/pulmonary-papillary-adenocarcinoma-with-aspergillus-versicolor-infection-in-a-dog
#14
Rathiymaler Maniam, Gayathri Thevi Selvarajah, Mazlina Mazlan, Leslie Thian Lung Than
Papillary adenocarcinoma of the lungs is the most common primary lung adenocarcinoma, with the feature of papillary-like structure formation by cells. A dog was presented with the primary complaint of vomiting, hyporexia and increased respiratory effort. Thoracic radiography revealed increased soft tissue radiopacity of the right cranial lung lobe suggestive of possible consolidation or collapsed lung lobe, with generalised miliary nodular pattern throughout the other lung fields. The dog was euthanized humanely and necropsy was performed...
March 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230201/differential-metabolism-of-a-two-carbon-substrate-by-members-of-the-paracoccidioides-genus
#15
Lilian C Baeza, Fabiana R da Mata, Laurine L Pigosso, Maristela Pereira, Gustavo H M F de Souza, Alexandre S G Coelho, Célia M de Almeida Soares
The genus Paracoccidioides comprises known fungal pathogens of humans and can be isolated from different infection sites. Metabolic peculiarities in different members of the Paracoccidioides led us to perform proteomic studies in the presence of the two-carbon molecule acetate, which predominates in the nutrient-poor environment of the phagosome. To investigate the expression rates of proteins of different members of Paracoccidioides, including one isolate of P. lutzii (Pb01) and three isolates of P. brasiliensis (Pb03, Pb339, and PbEPM83), using sodium acetate as a carbon source, proteins were quantified using label-free and data-independent liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211836/outbreak-of-severe-histoplasmosis-among-tunnel-workers-dominican-republic-2015
#16
P A Armstrong, J D Beard, L Bonilla, N Arboleda, M D Lindsley, S Chae, D Castillo, R Nuñez, T Chiller, M A de Perio, R Pimentel, S Vallabhaneni
Background: Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection associated with exposure to bat guano. An outbreak of an unknown severe febrile illness occurred among tunnel workers in the Dominican Republic (DR), and resulted in several deaths. We conducted an investigation to confirm etiology and recommend control measures. Methods: A case was defined as fever and ≥2 symptoms consistent with histoplasmosis in a tunnel worker, July-September, 2015. We interviewed workers and family members, reviewed medical records, tested serum and urine for Histoplasma antigen/antibody, and conducted a cohort study to identify risk factors for histoplasmosis and severe infection (intensive care)...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207709/isolation-of-the-rare-opportunistic-yeast-saprochaete-capitata-from-clinical-samples-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-southern-india-and-a-brief-review-of-the-literature
#17
Umabala Pamidimukkala, Anuradha Kancharla, Sukanya Sudhaharan, Sadashivudu Gundeti, Surendra Mandarapu, Vamsi Krishna Nagalla, Sree Bhushan Raju, Sandhya Devi Karanam
Introduction: Saprochaete capitata (Teleomorph: Magnusiomyces capitatus) is a ubiquitous yeast found in environmental sources such as soil, water, air, plants and dairy products. It is also a part of the normal microbial flora in humans. The yeast is being increasingly reported as an opportunistic pathogen, especially in patients in the haemato-oncology setting, the infection being often mistakenly diagnosed as invasive candidiasis. Aim: To review the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of six patients admitted in our hospital over a period of 10 years (from January 2007 to December 2016), from whom Saprochaete capitata was isolated...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202739/the-lung-microbiome-in-patients-with-pneumocystosis
#18
J Kehrmann, B Veckollari, D Schmidt, O Schildgen, V Schildgen, N Wagner, M Zeschnigk, L Klein-Hitpass, O Witzke, J Buer, J Steinmann
BACKROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic fungal infection that is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we analysed the microbiome of the lower respiratory tract from critically ill intensive care unit patients with and without pneumocystosis. METHODS: Broncho-alveolar fluids from 65 intubated and mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients (34 PCP+ and 31 PCP- patients) were collected...
December 4, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196066/cough-due-to-tb-and-other-chronic-infections-chest-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#19
Stephen K Field, Patricio Escalante, Dina A Fisher, Belinda Ireland, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Cough is common in pulmonary TB and other chronic respiratory infections. Identifying features that predict whether pulmonary TB is the cause would help target appropriate individuals for rapid and cost-effective screening, potentially limiting disease progression and preventing transmission to others. METHODS: A systematic literature search for individual studies to answer eight key questions (KQs) was conducted according to established Chest Organization methods by using the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 1, 1984, to April 2014...
February 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187715/-a-silkworm-infection-model-to-evaluate-antifungal-drugs-for-cryptococcosis
#20
Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Masaki Ishii, Kiminori Shimizu, Susumu Kawamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
The development of effective drugs against fungal diseases involves performing infection experiments in animals to evaluate candidate therapeutic compounds. Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that causes deep mycosis, resulting in respiratory illness and meningitis. Here we describe a silkworm system established to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs against infection by Cryptococcus neoformans and the advantages of this system over other animal models. The silkworm assay system has two major advantages: 1) silkworms are less expensive to rear and their use is less problematic than that of mammals in terms of animal welfare, and 2) in vivo screenings for identifying candidate drugs can be easily performed using a large number of silkworms...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
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