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Autophagy and apoptosis and radiotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620258/autophagy-inhibition-enhances-radiosensitivity-of-eca%C3%A2-109-cells-via-the-mitochondrial-apoptosis-pathway
#1
Hua Tao, Pudong Qian, Jincheng Lu, Yesong Guo, Huanfeng Zhu, Feijiang Wang
Autophagy inhibition is crucial for the improvement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential therapeutic value of autophagy and its correlation with mitochondria in human esophageal carcinoma cells following treatment with ionizing radiation (IR). Autophagy in Eca‑109 cells was induced under poor nutrient conditions. The formation of autophagic vacuoles was monitored using electron microscopy. In addition, cell apoptosis after IR and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were analyzed by flow cytometry...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609505/radiosensitivity-enhancement-of-fe-3-o-4-ag-nanoparticles-on-human-glioblastoma-cells
#2
Xiaohong Zhang, Zhujun Liu, Zhichao Lou, Feng Chen, Shuquan Chang, Yuji Miao, Zhuo Zhou, Xiaodan Hu, Jundong Feng, Qi Ding, Peidang Liu, Ning Gu, Haiqian Zhang
Radiotherapy is one of the main therapeutic methods for cancers, but radiation resistance of cancer cells still remains a serious concern. Searching for radiosensitizers to overcome such resistance is therefore urgently required. The goal of this study is to evaluate and compare the radiosensitizing efficacy of Fe3 O4 -OA, Ag and Fe3 O4 @Ag nanoparticles on U251 cells. The results show that Fe3 O4 @Ag nanoparticles have the highest ability of radiosensitization among the three nanoparticles. The underlying mechanism of Fe3 O4 @Ag nanoparticles' radiosensitivity enhancement is through decrease of the cytoprotective autophagy at the early stage, and increase of the calcium-dependent apoptosis at the later stage...
April 3, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436616/synergistic-promoting-effects-of-pentoxifylline-and-simvastatin-on-the-apoptosis-of-triple-negative-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Yessica Cristina Castellanos-Esparza, Shuang Wu, Limin Huang, Catherine Buquet, Rong Shen, Berenice Sanchez-Gonzalez, Ethel Awilda García Latorre, Olivier Boyer, Remi Varin, Luis Antonio Jiménez-Zamudio, Anne Janin, Jean-Pierre Vannier, Hong Li, He Lu
Pentoxifylline (PTX), a xanthine family molecule and simvastatin (SIM), an anti-hypercholesterolemic agent, have recently been considered as sensitizers to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present in vitro study evaluated their antitumor synergistic effects on MDA‑MB‑231 breast cancer cells characterized by the triple‑negative phenotype (TNP). The anti-proliferative effects of these two agents were evaluated by MTT and clonogenic assays. Cell cycle progression was examined using propidium iodide staining...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434840/autophagy-activation-promotes-bevacizumab-resistance-in-glioblastoma-by-suppressing-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#4
He Huang, Jian Song, Zheng Liu, Li Pan, Guozheng Xu
Glioblastomas are the most common primary and malignant brain tumors. The standard therapy includes surgery and radiotherapy plus chemotherapy, with additional bevacizumab to block the angiogenesis in tumors. However, the ever-growing tolerance of glioblastomas to chemotherapeutic drugs impairs the clinical outputs of tumor treatment. The present study investigated the tolerance of glioblastomas to bevacizumab. Although bevacizumab resulted in direct anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effects on glioblastoma cells via downregulating the anti-apoptotic proteins and upregulating the pro-apoptotic proteins, tolerance was also encountered that was mainly caused by autophagy induction in tumor cells...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405977/bcl-2-antiapoptotic-family-proteins-and-chemoresistance-in-cancer
#5
Santanu Maji, Sanjay Panda, Sabindra K Samal, Omprakash Shriwas, Rachna Rath, Maurizio Pellecchia, Luni Emdad, Swadesh K Das, Paul B Fisher, Rupesh Dash
Cancer is a daunting global problem confronting the world's population. The most frequent therapeutic approaches include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more recently immunotherapy. In the case of chemotherapy, patients ultimately develop resistance to both single and multiple chemotherapeutic agents, which can culminate in metastatic disease which is a major cause of patient death from solid tumors. Chemoresistance, a primary cause of treatment failure, is attributed to multiple factors including decreased drug accumulation, reduced drug-target interactions, increased populations of cancer stem cells, enhanced autophagy activity, and reduced apoptosis in cancer cells...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374563/does-the-use-of-melatonin-overcome-drug-resistance-in-cancer-chemotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Emad Ghobadi, Milad Moloudizargari, Marjan Fallah, Mohammad Abdollahi
Our knowledge regarding the implications of melatonin in the therapy of numerous medical conditions, including cancer is constantly expanding. Melatonin can variably affect cancer pathology via targeting several key aspects of any neoplastic condition, including the very onset of carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth, differentiation, and dissemination. Numerous studies have examined the effects of melatonin in the context of various cancers reporting the enhanced efficacy of chemo/radiotherapy in combination with this compound...
March 1, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354495/genetic-determinants-for-chemo-and-radiotherapy-resistance-in-bladder-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Andrea Mari, David D'Andrea, Mohammad Abufaraj, Beat Foerster, Shoji Kimura, Shahrokh F Shariat
Bladder cancer (BCa) is burdened by high rates of chemo- and radio-resistance. We reviewed and summarized the current evidence regarding the genetic determinants of resistance in patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (RT) for BCa. Genetic heterogeneity may preexist to treatment arising with tumorigenesis or increasing progressively during the treatment. Several biological pathways seem to be involved in the cellular response to treatment. These pathways comprehend mechanisms leading to modify the intracellular concentration of the drug, mechanisms leading to increase the repair of DNA damage caused by the treatment, mechanisms leading to increase cell survival, despite DNA damage, acting on the signaling pathways affecting apoptosis, mechanisms promoting autophagy...
December 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105282/escitalopram-oxalate-induces-apoptosis-in-u-87mg-cells-and-autophagy-in-gbm8401-cells
#8
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Li-Jeng Chen, Tsai-Ching Hsu, Bor-Show Tzang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is recognized as a most aggressive brain cancer with the worst prognosis and survival time. Owing to the anatomic location of gliomas, surgically removing the tumour is very difficult and avoiding damage to vital brain regions during radiotherapy is impossible. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for malignant glioma must urgently be improved. Recent studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have cytotoxic effect on certain cancers. Considering as a more superior SSRI, escitalopram oxalate exhibits favourable tolerability and causes generally mild and temporary adverse events...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073720/malat1-modulates-the-autophagy-of-retinoblastoma-cell-through-mir-124-mediated-stx17-regulation
#9
Jun Huang, Yuting Yang, Fang Fang, Ke Liu
The retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignant tumor in infants and children; it is one of the deadliest forms of cancer due to its limited sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In several cancers, chemoresistance is associated with autophagy induction. Non-coding RNAs, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to regulate physiological activities of the cells, including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, as well as autophagy. MALAT1, a well-established lncRNA acts as an oncogene, promotes cancer proliferation, and metastasis via the stimulation of autophagy...
May 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029445/microrna-200c-increases-radiosensitivity-of-human-cancer-cells-with-activated-egfr-associated-signaling
#10
Taeryool Koo, Bong Jun Cho, Dan Hyo Kim, Ji Min Park, Eun Jung Choi, Hans H Kim, David J Lee, In Ah Kim
MicroRNA-200c (miR-200c) recently was found to have tumor-suppressive properties by inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in several cancers. miR-200c also interacts with various cellular signaling molecules and regulates many important signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of miR-200c and its mechanism in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Malignant glioma (U251, T98G), breast cancer (MDA-MB-468), and lung carcinoma (A549) cells were transfected with control pre-microRNA, pre-miR-200c, or anti-miR-200c...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915410/aiegens-for-biological-process-monitoring-and-disease-theranostics
#11
REVIEW
Xinggui Gu, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Ben Zhong Tang
Biological processes are of great significance for the normal physiological functions of living organisms and closely related to the health. Monitoring of biological processes and diagnosis of diseases based on fluorescent techniques would provide comprehensive insight into mechanism of life and pathogenesis of diseases, precisely guiding therapeutic effect in theranostics. It largely relied on fluorophores with the properties of excellent photostability, large Stokes shift, high signal-to-noise ratio and free of aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect...
November 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900507/targeting-micrornas-in-prostate-cancer-radiotherapy
#12
REVIEW
Jie Ni, Joseph Bucci, Lei Chang, David Malouf, Peter Graham, Yong Li
Radiotherapy is one of the most important treatment options for localized early-stage or advanced-stage prostate cancer (CaP). Radioresistance (relapse after radiotherapy) is a major challenge for the current radiotherapy. There is great interest in investigating mechanisms of radioresistance and developing novel treatment strategies to overcome radioresistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, participating in numerous physiological and pathological processes including cancer invasion, progression, metastasis and therapeutic resistance...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891980/sinomenine-hydrochloride-inhibits-human-glioblastoma-cell-growth-through-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-autophagy-lysosome-pathway-activation-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#13
Yumao Jiang, Yue Jiao, Zhiguo Wang, Tao Li, Yang Liu, Yujuan Li, Xiaoliang Zhao, Danqiao Wang
Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor, and it is one of the causes of cancer fatality in both adult and pediatric populations. Patients with glioblastoma require chemotherapy after surgical resection and radiotherapy. Therefore, chemotherapy constitutes a viable approach for the eradication of glioblastoma cells. In this study, the anti-tumor activity of sinomenine hydrochloride (SH) was evaluated in U87 and SF767 cells in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that SH potently inhibited U87 and SF767 cell viability and did not cause caspase-dependent cell death, as demonstrated by the absence of significant early apoptosis and caspase-3 cleavage...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839163/investigation-of-copper-cysteamine-nanoparticles-as-a-new-type-of-radiosensitiers-for-colorectal-carcinoma-treatment
#14
Zhipeng Liu, Li Xiong, Guoqing Ouyang, Lun Ma, Sunil Sahi, Kunpeng Wang, Liangwu Lin, He Huang, Xiongying Miao, Wei Chen, Yu Wen
Copper Cysteamine (Cu-Cy) is a new photosensitizer and a novel radiosensitizer that can be activated by light, X-ray and microwave to produce singlet oxygen for cancer treatment. However, the killing mechanism of Cu-Cy nanoparticles on cancer cells is not clear yet and Cu-Cy nanoparticles as novel radiosensitizers have never been tested on colorectal cancers. Here, for the first time, we investigate the treatment efficiency of Cu-Cy nanoparticles on SW620 colorectal cells and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the effects...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837152/lysosomotropism-depends-on-glucose-a-chloroquine-resistance-mechanism
#15
Laura E Gallagher, Ohood A Radhi, Mahmud O Abdullah, Anthony G McCluskey, Marie Boyd, Edmond Y W Chan
There has been long-standing interest in targeting pro-survival autophagy as a combinational cancer therapeutic strategy. Clinical trials are in progress testing chloroquine (CQ) or its derivatives in combination with chemo- or radiotherapy for solid and haematological cancers. Although CQ has shown efficacy in preclinical models, its mechanism of action remains equivocal. Here, we tested how effectively CQ sensitises metastatic breast cancer cells to further stress conditions such as ionising irradiation, doxorubicin, PI3K-Akt inhibition and serum withdrawal...
August 24, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816044/action-of-gold-nanospikes-based-nanoradiosensitizers-cellular-internalization-radiotherapy-and-autophagy
#16
Ningning Ma, Peidang Liu, Nongyue He, Ning Gu, Fu-Gen Wu, Zhan Chen
A major challenge to achieve effective X-ray radiation therapy is to use a relatively low and safe radiation dose. Various radiosensitizers, which can significantly enhance the radiotherapeutic performance, have been developed. Gold-based nanomaterials, as a new type of nanoparticle-based radiosensitizers, have been extensively used in researches involving cancer radiotherapy. However, the cancer therapeutic effect using the gold nanoparticle-based radiotherapy is usually not significant because of the low cellular uptake efficiency and the autophagy-inducing ability of these gold nanomaterials...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674216/microrna-200c-increases-radiosensitivity-of-human-cancer-cells-with-activated-egfr-associated-signaling
#17
Taeryool Koo, Bong Jun Cho, Dan Hyo Kim, Ji Min Park, Eun Jung Choi, Hans H Kim, David J Lee, In Ah Kim
MicroRNA-200c (miR-200c) recently was found to have tumor-suppressive properties by inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in several cancers. miR-200c also interacts with various cellular signaling molecules and regulates many important signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of miR-200c and its mechanism in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Malignant glioma (U251, T98G), breast cancer (MDA-MB-468), and lung carcinoma (A549) cells were transfected with control pre-microRNA, pre-miR-200c, or anti-miR-200c...
July 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656285/lkb1-promotes-radioresistance-in-esophageal-cancer-cells-exposed-to-radiation-by-suppression-of-apoptosis-and-activation-of-autophagy-via-the-ampk-pathway
#18
Qing He, Jing Li, Feng Dong, Chuanshu Cai, Xi Zou
Liver kinase B (LKB) 1 acts as a tumor suppressor in a broad spectrum of human cancers, and is important in chemoradiotherapy treatment of various tumor types. However, the potential function of LKB1 in esophageal cancer radiotherapy remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of LKB1 in radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer in vivo and in vitro, and to explore its molecular mechanism. Eca‑109 cells transfected with LKB1 overexpression plasmid were xenografted into nude mice and subjected to irradiation and it was observed that the tumor volume was significantly increased in LKB1‑overexpressed tumors compared with that of the control tumors...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615716/lipid-vesicles-containing-transferrin-receptor-binding-peptide-tfr-t12-and-octa-arginine-conjugate-stearyl-r8-efficiently-treat-brain-glioma-along-with-glioma-stem-cells
#19
Li-Min Mu, Ying-Zi Bu, Lei Liu, Hong-Jun Xie, Rui-Jun Ju, Jia-Shuan Wu, Fan Zeng, Yao Zhao, Jing-Ying Zhang, Wan-Liang Lu
Surgery and radiotherapy cannot fully remove brain glioma; thus, chemotherapy continues to play an important role in treatment of this illness. However, because of the restriction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the regeneration of glioma stem cells, post-chemotherapy relapse usually occurs. Here, we report a potential solution to these issues that involves a type of novel multifunctional vinblastine liposomes equipped with transferrin receptor binding peptide TfR-T12 and octa-arginine conjugate stearyl-R8...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531942/target-signalling-pathways-of-natural-plant-derived-radioprotective-agents-from-treatment-to-potential-candidates-a-reverse-thought-on-anti-tumour-drugs
#20
REVIEW
Ke-Li Yun, Zhen Yu Wang
Radiation damage can occur in nuclear power plant workers when physical protections fail, which results in nuclear leakage through the protective layers. Alternatively, workers may be unable to use physical protection in time (in the case of a sudden nuclear weapons attack). In addition, patients who receive local radiotherapy and are not allowed to adopt local physical protection may experience radiation damage. Thus, protection against chemical radiation has become indispensable. In view of the side effects caused by synthetic radioprotective agents (such as amisfostine), searching for radioprotective agents from plant sources is an alternative strategy...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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