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Autophagy and apoptosis and radiotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915410/aiegens-for-biological-process-monitoring-and-disease-theranostics
#1
REVIEW
Xinggui Gu, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Ben Zhong Tang
Biological processes are of great significance for the normal physiological functions of living organisms and closely related to the health. Monitoring of biological processes and diagnosis of diseases based on fluorescent techniques would provide comprehensive insight into mechanism of life and pathogenesis of diseases, precisely guiding therapeutic effect in theranostics. It largely relied on fluorophores with the properties of excellent photostability, large Stokes shift, high signal-to-noise ratio and free of aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect...
November 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900507/targeting-micrornas-in-prostate-cancer-radiotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Jie Ni, Joseph Bucci, Lei Chang, David Malouf, Peter Graham, Yong Li
Radiotherapy is one of the most important treatment options for localized early-stage or advanced-stage prostate cancer (CaP). Radioresistance (relapse after radiotherapy) is a major challenge for the current radiotherapy. There is great interest in investigating mechanisms of radioresistance and developing novel treatment strategies to overcome radioresistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, participating in numerous physiological and pathological processes including cancer invasion, progression, metastasis and therapeutic resistance...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891980/sinomenine-hydrochloride-inhibits-human-glioblastoma-cell-growth-through-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-autophagy-lysosome-pathway-activation-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#3
Yumao Jiang, Yue Jiao, Zhiguo Wang, Tao Li, Yang Liu, Yujuan Li, Xiaoliang Zhao, Danqiao Wang
Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor, and it is one of the causes of cancer fatality in both adult and pediatric populations. Patients with glioblastoma require chemotherapy after surgical resection and radiotherapy. Therefore, chemotherapy constitutes a viable approach for the eradication of glioblastoma cells. In this study, the anti-tumor activity of sinomenine hydrochloride (SH) was evaluated in U87 and SF767 cells in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that SH potently inhibited U87 and SF767 cell viability and did not cause caspase-dependent cell death, as demonstrated by the absence of significant early apoptosis and caspase-3 cleavage...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839163/investigation-of-copper-cysteamine-nanoparticles-as-a-new-type-of-radiosensitiers-for-colorectal-carcinoma-treatment
#4
Zhipeng Liu, Li Xiong, Guoqing Ouyang, Lun Ma, Sunil Sahi, Kunpeng Wang, Liangwu Lin, He Huang, Xiongying Miao, Wei Chen, Yu Wen
Copper Cysteamine (Cu-Cy) is a new photosensitizer and a novel radiosensitizer that can be activated by light, X-ray and microwave to produce singlet oxygen for cancer treatment. However, the killing mechanism of Cu-Cy nanoparticles on cancer cells is not clear yet and Cu-Cy nanoparticles as novel radiosensitizers have never been tested on colorectal cancers. Here, for the first time, we investigate the treatment efficiency of Cu-Cy nanoparticles on SW620 colorectal cells and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the effects...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837152/lysosomotropism-depends-on-glucose-a-chloroquine-resistance-mechanism
#5
Laura E Gallagher, Ohood A Radhi, Mahmud O Abdullah, Anthony G McCluskey, Marie Boyd, Edmond Y W Chan
There has been long-standing interest in targeting pro-survival autophagy as a combinational cancer therapeutic strategy. Clinical trials are in progress testing chloroquine (CQ) or its derivatives in combination with chemo- or radiotherapy for solid and haematological cancers. Although CQ has shown efficacy in preclinical models, its mechanism of action remains equivocal. Here, we tested how effectively CQ sensitises metastatic breast cancer cells to further stress conditions such as ionising irradiation, doxorubicin, PI3K-Akt inhibition and serum withdrawal...
August 24, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816044/action-of-gold-nanospikes-based-nanoradiosensitizers-cellular-internalization-radiotherapy-and-autophagy
#6
Ningning Ma, Peidang Liu, Nongyue He, Ning Gu, Fu-Gen Wu, Zhan Chen
A major challenge to achieve effective X-ray radiation therapy is to use a relatively low and safe radiation dose. Various radiosensitizers, which can significantly enhance the radiotherapeutic performance, have been developed. Gold-based nanomaterials, as a new type of nanoparticle-based radiosensitizers, have been extensively used in researches involving cancer radiotherapy. However, the cancer therapeutic effect using the gold nanoparticle-based radiotherapy is usually not significant because of the low cellular uptake efficiency and the autophagy-inducing ability of these gold nanomaterials...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674216/microrna-200c-increases-radiosensitivity-of-human-cancer-cells-with-activated-egfr-associated-signaling
#7
Taeryool Koo, Bong Jun Cho, Dan Hyo Kim, Ji Min Park, Eun Jung Choi, Hans H Kim, David J Lee, In Ah Kim
MicroRNA-200c (miR-200c) recently was found to have tumor-suppressive properties by inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in several cancers. miR-200c also interacts with various cellular signaling molecules and regulates many important signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of miR-200c and its mechanism in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Malignant glioma (U251, T98G), breast cancer (MDA-MB-468), and lung carcinoma (A549) cells were transfected with control pre-microRNA, pre-miR-200c, or anti-miR-200c...
July 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656285/lkb1-promotes-radioresistance-in-esophageal-cancer-cells-exposed-to-radiation-by-suppression-of-apoptosis-and-activation-of-autophagy-via-the-ampk-pathway
#8
Qing He, Jing Li, Feng Dong, Chuanshu Cai, Xi Zou
Liver kinase B (LKB) 1 acts as a tumor suppressor in a broad spectrum of human cancers, and is important in chemoradiotherapy treatment of various tumor types. However, the potential function of LKB1 in esophageal cancer radiotherapy remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of LKB1 in radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer in vivo and in vitro, and to explore its molecular mechanism. Eca‑109 cells transfected with LKB1 overexpression plasmid were xenografted into nude mice and subjected to irradiation and it was observed that the tumor volume was significantly increased in LKB1‑overexpressed tumors compared with that of the control tumors...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615716/lipid-vesicles-containing-transferrin-receptor-binding-peptide-tfr-t12-and-octa-arginine-conjugate-stearyl-r8-efficiently-treat-brain-glioma-along-with-glioma-stem-cells
#9
Li-Min Mu, Ying-Zi Bu, Lei Liu, Hong-Jun Xie, Rui-Jun Ju, Jia-Shuan Wu, Fan Zeng, Yao Zhao, Jing-Ying Zhang, Wan-Liang Lu
Surgery and radiotherapy cannot fully remove brain glioma; thus, chemotherapy continues to play an important role in treatment of this illness. However, because of the restriction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the regeneration of glioma stem cells, post-chemotherapy relapse usually occurs. Here, we report a potential solution to these issues that involves a type of novel multifunctional vinblastine liposomes equipped with transferrin receptor binding peptide TfR-T12 and octa-arginine conjugate stearyl-R8...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531942/target-signalling-pathways-of-natural-plant-derived-radioprotective-agents-from-treatment-to-potential-candidates-a-reverse-thought-on-anti-tumour-drugs
#10
REVIEW
Ke-Li Yun, Zhen Yu Wang
Radiation damage can occur in nuclear power plant workers when physical protections fail, which results in nuclear leakage through the protective layers. Alternatively, workers may be unable to use physical protection in time (in the case of a sudden nuclear weapons attack). In addition, patients who receive local radiotherapy and are not allowed to adopt local physical protection may experience radiation damage. Thus, protection against chemical radiation has become indispensable. In view of the side effects caused by synthetic radioprotective agents (such as amisfostine), searching for radioprotective agents from plant sources is an alternative strategy...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464474/photobiomodulation-leads-to-enhanced-radiosensitivity-through-induction-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-cervical-cancer-cells
#11
Gholamreza Esmaeeli Djavid, Bahareh Bigdeli, Bahram Goliaei, Alireza Nikoofar, Michael R Hamblin
The radiomodulatory effect of photobiomodulation (PBM) has recently been studied in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate cellular mechanisms involved in the X-ray radiosensitivity of HeLa cells pre-exposed to PBM. HeLa cells were irradiated with 685 nm laser at different energy densities prior to X-ray ionizing radiation. After irradiation, clonogenic cell survival, cell death due to apoptosis and autophagy were determined. Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and, cell cycle distribution after PBM were measured...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428710/cma-down-regulates-p53-expression-through-degradation-of-hmgb1-protein-to-inhibit-irradiation-triggered-apoptosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Jing-Hua Wu, Jia-Pei Guo, Jun Shi, Hui Wang, Lei-Lei Li, Bin Guo, Dian-Xing Liu, Qing Cao, Zhi-Yong Yuan
AIM: To investigate the mechanism of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA)-induced resistance to irradiation-triggered apoptosis through regulation of the p53 protein in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Firstly, we detected expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein 2a (Lamp-2a), which is the key protein of CMA, by western blot in HepG2 and SMMC7721 cells after irradiation. We further used shRNA Lamp-2a HCC cells to verify the radioresistance induced by CMA...
April 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415741/enhancement-of-radiosensitivity-by-the-novel-anticancer-quinolone-derivative-vosaroxin-in-preclinical-glioblastoma-models
#13
Giovanni Luca Gravina, Andrea Mancini, Claudia Mattei, Flora Vitale, Francesco Marampon, Alessandro Colapietro, Giulia Rossi, Luca Ventura, Antonella Vetuschi, Ernesto Di Cesare, Judith A Fox, Claudio Festuccia
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor. The activity of vosaroxin, a first-in-class anticancer quinolone derivative that intercalates DNA and inhibits topoisomerase II, was investigated in GBM preclinical models as a single agent and combined with radiotherapy (RT). RESULTS: Vosaroxin showed antitumor activity in clonogenic survival assays, with IC50 of 10-100 nM, and demonstrated radiosensitization. Combined treatments exhibited significantly higher γH2Ax levels compared with controls...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415717/the-imidazoacridinone-c-1311-induces-p53-dependent-senescence-or-p53-independent-apoptosis-and-sensitizes-cancer-cells-to-radiation
#14
Anna Skwarska, Shaliny Ramachandran, Grzegorz Dobrynin, Katarzyna B Leszczynska, Ester M Hammond
C-1311 is a small molecule, which has shown promise in a number of pre-clinical and clinical studies. However, the biological response to C-1311 exposure is complicated and has been reported to involve a number of cell fates. Here, we investigated the molecular signaling which determines the response to C-1311 in both cancer and non-cancer cell lines. For the first time we demonstrate that the tumor suppressor, p53 plays a key role in cell fate determination after C-1311 treatment. In the presence of wild-type p53, cells exposed to C-1311 entered senescence...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342984/hdac4-and-hdac6-sustain-dna-double-strand-break-repair-and-stem-like-phenotype-by-promoting-radioresistance-in-glioblastoma-cells
#15
Francesco Marampon, Francesca Megiorni, Simona Camero, Clara Crescioli, Heather P McDowell, Roberta Sferra, Antonella Vetuschi, Simona Pompili, Luca Ventura, Francesca De Felice, Vincenzo Tombolini, Carlo Dominici, Roberto Maggio, Claudio Festuccia, Giovanni Luca Gravina
The role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 4 and 6 in glioblastoma (GBM) radioresistance was investigated. We found that tumor samples from 31 GBM patients, who underwent temozolomide and radiotherapy combined treatment, showed HDAC4 and HDAC6 expression in 93.5% and 96.7% of cases, respectively. Retrospective clinical data analysis demonstrated that high-intensity HDAC4 and/or HDAC6 immunostaining was predictive of poor clinical outcome. In vitro experiments revealed that short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of HDAC4 or HDAC6 radiosensitized U87MG and U251MG GBM cell lines by promoting DNA double-strand break (DSBs) accumulation and by affecting DSBs repair molecular machinery...
July 1, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260023/silencing-bmi1-radiosensitizes-human-breast-cancer-cells-by-inducing-dna-damage-and-autophagy
#16
James Griffith, Daniel Andrade, Meghna Mehta, William Berry, Doris M Benbrook, Natarajan Aravindan, Terence S Herman, Rajagopal Ramesh, Anupama Munshi
Overexpression of BMI1 in human cancer cells, a member of the polycomb group of repressive complexes, correlates with advanced stage of disease, aggressive clinico-pathological behavior, poor prognosis, and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Studies have shown that experimental reduction of BMI1 protein level in tumor cells results in inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and/or senescence, and increased susceptibility to cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. Although a role for BMI1 in cancer progression and its importance as a molecular target for cancer therapy has been established, information on the impact of silencing BMI1 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and its consequence on radiotherapy have not been well studied...
April 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070729/inhibiting-autophagy-with-chloroquine-enhances-the-anti-tumor-effect-of-high-let-carbon-ions-via-er-stress-related-apoptosis
#17
Xiaogang Zheng, Xiaodong Jin, Feifei Li, Xiongxiong Liu, Yan Liu, Fei Ye, Ping Li, Ting Zhao, Qiang Li
Energetic carbon ions (CI) offer great advantages over conventional radiations such as X- or γ-rays in cancer radiotherapy. High linear energy transfer (LET) CI can induce both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in tumor cells under certain circumstances. The molecular connection between ER stress and autophagy in tumor exposed to high-LET radiation and how these two pathways influence the therapeutic effect against tumor remain poorly understood. In this work, we studied the impact of autophagy and apoptosis induced by ER stress following high-LET CI radiation on the radiosensitivity of S180 cells both in vitro and in vivo...
February 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026821/the-role-of-survivin-in-the-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-gynaecological-cancers
#18
REVIEW
Marta Denel-Bobrowska, Agnieszka Marczak
Survivin is a member of the family of apoptosis inhibitors. It regulates several essential cellular processes, i.e. it inhibits apoptosis and promotes cell proliferation, DNA repair and autophagy. Survivin is responsible for development of the cell's resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Overexpression of survivin generally correlates with poor prognosis. Its presence has been detected in most types of human tumours. Currently much attention is paid to the possibilities of using this protein as a diagnostic marker of cancer or a prognostic factor...
December 8, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900564/effects-of-rnai-mediated-tusc3-silencing-on-radiation-induced-autophagy-and-radiation-sensitivity-of-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-cell-line-a549-under-hypoxic-condition
#19
Ya-Guang Li, Nai-Xin Liang, Ying-Zhi Qin, Dong-Jie Ma, Chang-Jin Huang, Lei Liu, Shan-Qing Li
This study examined the effects of RNAi-mediated TUSC3 silencing on radiation-induced autophagy and radiation sensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 under hypoxic condition. Different CoCl2 concentrations were used to treat A549 cells and establish a CoCl2-induced hypoxic model of A549 cells. MTT and clone formation assays were used to determine the effects of different concentrations of CoCl2 on the growth and proliferation of A549 cells treated by different doses of X-ray irradiation. The siRNA-expressing vector was transfected by liposomes and for silencing of TUSC3...
November 30, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729773/andrographolide-promotes-vincristine-induced-sk-nep-1-tumor-cell-death-via-pi3k-akt-p53-signaling-pathway
#20
Mingsheng Zhang, Enda Xue, Wei Shao
BACKGROUND: Nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor [WT]) is the most common malignant renal cancer in children. Although the outcome of WT has significantly improved as a result of the combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy; in some cases WT results in severe complications. Thus, novel strategies that would decrease treatment burden are required. The aim of the current study was to investigate the synergistic antitumor effect of andrographolide (AND) in combination with vincristine (VCR) on WT cells...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
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