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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542462/a-human-monocytic-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-fluorescent-reporter-cell-line-for-detection-of-microbial-contaminants-in-biological-samples
#1
Claire Battin, Annika Hennig, Patrick Mayrhofer, Renate Kunert, Gerhard J Zlabinger, Peter Steinberger, Wolfgang Paster
Sensing of pathogens by innate immune cells is essential for the initiation of appropriate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are highly sensitive for various structurally and evolutionary conserved molecules derived from microbes have a prominent role in this process. TLR engagement results in the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, which induces the expression of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. The exquisite sensitivity of TLR signalling can be exploited for the detection of bacteria and microbial contaminants in tissue cultures and in protein preparations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532454/proteomic-profiling-of-peripheral-blood-neutrophils-identifies-two-inflammatory-phenotypes-in-stable-copd-patients
#2
Adèle Lo Tam Loi, Susan Hoonhorst, Corneli van Aalst, Jeroen Langereis, Vera Kamp, Simone Sluis-Eising, Nick Ten Hacken, Jan-Willem Lammers, Leo Koenderman
BACKGROUND: COPD is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease of the airways and it is well accepted that the GOLD classification does not fully represent the complex clinical manifestations of COPD and this classification therefore is not well suited for phenotyping of individual patients with COPD. Besides the chronic inflammation in the lung compartment, there is also a systemic inflammation present in COPD patients. This systemic inflammation is associated with elevated levels of cytokines in the peripheral blood, but the precise composition is unknown...
May 22, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530395/rapid-detection-of-prosthetic-joint-infection-based-on-magnetically-assisted-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-ma-sers
#3
Ariana Fargasova, Anna Balzerova, Robert Prucek, Miroslava Htoutou Sedláková, Katerina Bogdanova, Jiri Gallo, Milan Kolar, Vaclav Ranc, Radek Zboril
Accurate and rapid diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is vital for rational and effective therapeutic management of this condition. Several diagnostic strategies have been developed for discriminating between infected and non-infected cases. However, none of them can reliably diagnose the whole spectrum of clinical presentations of PJI. Here we report a new method for PJI detection based on magnetically assisted surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MA-SERS) using streptavidin-modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNP@Strep) whose surface is functionalized with suitable biotinylated antibodies and then coated with silver nanoparticles by self-assembly...
May 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527491/development-of-live-attenuated-bacterial-vaccines-targeting-escherichia-coli-heat-labile-and-heat-stable-enterotoxins
#4
Chengru Zhu, Prashanth Setty, Edgar C Boedeker
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), defined by the production of heat labile (LT) and/or heat stable (ST) toxins, are major causes of diarrhea in animals, children in developing countries and to travelers. No broadly protective ETEC vaccine is available, largely because of the difficulty in inducing immunity to the small ST molecule. To take advantage of the demonstration (Liu et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2013, 2010) that genetically produced fusions of mutant ST with LT subunits can induce effective immunity against both toxins, we engineered a live attenuated vaccine vector strain of E...
April 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526791/pseudomonas-chlororaphis-produces-two-distinct-r-tailocins-that-contribute-to-bacterial-competition-in-biofilms-and-on-roots
#5
Robert J Dorosky, Jun Myoung Yu, Leland S Pierson, Elizabeth A Pierson
R-type tailocins are high molecular weight bacteriocins that resemble bacteriophage tails and are encoded within the genomes of many Pseudomonas species. In this study, analysis of the P. chlororaphis 30-84 R-tailocin gene cluster revealed that it encodes the structural components to produce two R-tailocins of different ancestral origin. Two distinct R-tailocin populations differing in length were observed in UV induced lysates of P. chlororaphis 30-84 via transmission electron microscopy. Mutants defective in the production of one or both R-tailocins demonstrated that the killing spectrum of each tailocin is limited to Pseudomonas species...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522991/brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-and-b-pilosicoli-proteins-recognized-by-sera-of-challenged-pigs
#6
Vanessa Casas, Arantza Rodríguez-Asiain, Roberto Pinto-Llorente, Santiago Vadillo, Montserrat Carrascal, Joaquin Abian
The spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli are pig intestinal pathogens that are the causative agents of swine dysentery (SD) and porcine intestinal spirochaetosis (PIS), respectively. Although some inactivated bacterin and recombinant vaccines have been explored as prophylactic treatments against these species, no effective vaccine is yet available. Immunoproteomics approaches hold the potential for the identification of new, suitable candidates for subunit vaccines against SD and PIS. These strategies take into account the gene products actually expressed and present in the cells, and thus susceptible of being targets of immune recognition...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494359/impacts-of-solids-retention-time-on-trace-organic-compound-attenuation-and-bacterial-resistance-to-trimethoprim-and-sulfamethoxazole
#7
Majid Neyestani, Eric Dickenson, Jean McLain, Eduardo Robleto, Channah Rock, Daniel Gerrity
Bacteria can grow in the presence of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole by expressing antibiotic resistance genes or by acquiring thymine or thymidine from environmental reservoirs to facilitate DNA synthesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether activated sludge serves as a reservoir for thymine or thymidine, potentially impacting the quantification of antibiotic resistant bacteria. This study also assessed the impacts of varying solids retention time (SRT) on trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole removal during wastewater treatment and single and multi-drug resistance...
April 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493685/selective-detection-of-shiga-like-toxin-1-from-complex-samples-using-pigeon-ovalbumin-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-as-affinity-probes
#8
Chun-Hsien Li, Yi-Ling Bai, Karuppuchamy Selvaprakash, Kwok-Kong Tony Mong, Yu-Chie Chen
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen. This bacterial strain can generate Shiga-like toxins (SLTs), which can cause serious sickness and even death. Thus, it is important to develop effective and sensitive methods that can be used to rapidly identify the presence of SLTs from complex samples. Pigeon egg white (PEW) contains abundant glycoproteins, including pigeon ovalbumin (POA) (∼60%). POA possesses Gal-α(1→4)-Gal-β(1→4)-GlcNAc termini, which can recognize the B subunits in SLT type 1 (SLT-1B)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485474/graphene-and-carbon-nanotubes-activate-different-cell-surface-receptors-on-macrophages-before-and-after-deactivation-of-endotoxins
#9
Mohamed H Lahiani, Kuppan Gokulan, Katherine Williams, Mariya V Khodakovskaya, Sangeeta Khare
Nanomaterial synthesis and handling in a non-sterile environment can result in the final product becoming contaminated with bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides (LPB). During toxicological testing, the effects caused by endotoxin-contaminated nanomaterials can be misinterpreted in the end-point analysis (such as cytotoxicity and immune responses) and could result in erroneous conclusions. The objective of this study was twofold: (i) to test different carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) [pristine graphene and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)] for the presence of endotoxin and develop strategies for depyrogenation, and (ii) to compare the immune response exhibited by macrophages after exposure to native CBNs versus depyrogenated CBNs...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474108/the-immunotherapeutic-role-of-bacterial-lysates-in-a-mouse-model-of-asthma
#10
Chentao Liu, Rong Huang, Rujie Yao, Aimei Yang
INTRODUCTION: Asthma is the most common chronic lower respiratory disease in childhood throughout the world. Recurrent respiratory tract infections in young children, especially viral infections, are the major cause of acute asthmatic exacerbations and contribute to development of asthma. Bacterial extracts have been used to improve the immune defenses of the respiratory tract. However, seldom studies have examined the effect of bacterial lysates on childhood asthma. In this study, we examined whether bacterial lysates (OM-85) will improve symptoms of asthmatic mice via modulation of the immune response...
May 4, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414448/substrate-profiling-and-high-resolution-co-complex-crystal-structure-of-a-secreted-c11-protease-conserved-across-commensal-bacteria
#11
Emily J Roncase, Clara Moon, Sandip Chatterjee, Gonzalo E González-Páez, Charles S Craik, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Dennis W Wolan
Cysteine proteases are among the most abundant hydrolytic enzymes produced by bacteria, and this diverse family of proteins have significant biological roles in bacterial viability and environmental interactions. Members of the clostripain-like (C11) family of cysteine proteases from commensal gut bacterial strains have recently been shown to mediate immune responses by inducing neutrophil phagocytosis and activating bacterial pathogenic toxins. Development of substrates, inhibitors, and probes that target C11 proteases from enteric bacteria will help to establish the role of these proteins at the interface of the host and microbiome in health and disease...
April 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408270/transcriptional-organization-of-pneumococcal-psrp-secy2a2-and-impact-of-gtfa-and-gtfb-deletion-on-psrp-associated-virulence-properties
#12
Anel Lizcano, Ramya Akula Suresh Babu, Anukul T Shenoy, Alison Maren Saville, Nikhil Kumar, Adonis D'Mello, Cecilia A Hinojosa, Ryan P Gilley, Jesus Segovia, Timothy J Mitchell, Hervé Tettelin, Carlos J Orihuela
Pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP) is a glycoprotein that mediates Streptococcus pneumoniae attachment to lung cells and promotes biofilm formation. Herein, we investigated the transcriptional organization of psrP-secY2A2, the 37-kbp pathogenicity island encoding PsrP and its accessory genes. PCR amplification of cDNA and RNA-seq analysis found psrP-secY2A2 to be minimally composed of three operons: psrP-glyA, glyB, and glyC-asp5. Transcription of all three operons was greatest during biofilm growth and immunoblot analyses confirmed increased PsrP production by biofilm pneumococci...
April 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391960/rapid-detection-of-urinary-tract-infections-via-bacterial-nuclease-activity
#13
Katie S Flenker, Elliot L Burghardt, Nirmal Dutta, William J Burns, Julia M Grover, Elizabeth J Kenkel, Tyler M Weaver, James Mills, Hyeon Kim, Lingyan Huang, Richard Owczarzy, Catherine A Musselman, Mark A Behlke, Bradley Ford, James O McNamara
Rapid and accurate bacterial detection methods are needed for clinical diagnostic, water, and food testing applications. The wide diversity of bacterial nucleases provides a rich source of enzymes that could be exploited as signal amplifying biomarkers to enable rapid, selective detection of bacterial species. With the exception of the use of micrococcal nuclease activity to detect Staphylococcus aureus, rapid methods that detect bacterial pathogens via their nuclease activities have not been developed. Here, we identify endonuclease I as a robust biomarker for E...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358875/protein-aggregation-with-poly-vinyl-alcohol-surfactant-reduces-double-emulsion-encapsulated-mammalian-cell-free-expression
#14
Kenneth K Y Ho, Jin Woo Lee, Grégory Durand, Sagardip Majumder, Allen P Liu
Development of artificial cell models requires encapsulation of biomolecules within membrane-bound compartments. There have been limited studies of using mammalian cell-free expression (CFE) system as the 'cytosol' of artificial cells. We exploit glass capillary droplet microfluidics for the encapsulation of mammalian CFE within double emulsion templated vesicles. The complexity of the physicochemical properties of HeLa cell-free lysate poses a challenge compared with encapsulating simple buffer solutions. In particular, we discovered the formation of aggregates in double emulsion templated vesicles encapsulating mammalian HeLa CFE, but not with bacterial CFE...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345912/fluorogenic-templated-reaction-cascades-for-rna-detection
#15
Willem A Velema, Eric T Kool
Nucleic acids detection is essential to the study of biological processes and to diagnosis of pathological states. Although PCR is highly effective in vitro, methods that can function without prior sample preparation, thermal cycling, or enzymes are of interest due to their simplicity. Most current non-PCR detection methods rely on linear signal amplification, which hinders the detection of small amounts of genetic material. To address this limitation, we tested a new strategy for attaining higher-order signal amplification, in which a target sequence templates a chemical ligation, and the product of this reaction is in turn detected with a second templated reaction...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333952/adjuvant-treatment-with-the-bacterial-lysate-om-85-improves-management-of-atopic-dermatitis-a-randomized-study
#16
Christine Bodemer, Gerard Guillet, Frederic Cambazard, Franck Boralevi, Stefania Ballarini, Christian Milliet, Paola Bertuccio, Carlo La Vecchia, Jean-François Bach, Yves de Prost
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors play a major role on atopic dermatitis (AD) which shows a constant rise in prevalence in western countries over the last decades. The Hygiene Hypothesis suggesting an inverse relationship between incidence of infections and the increase in atopic diseases in these countries, is one of the working hypothesis proposed to explain this trend. OBJECTIVE: This study tested the efficacy and safety of oral administration of the bacterial lysate OM-85 (Broncho-Vaxom®, Broncho-Munal®, Ommunal®, Paxoral®, Vaxoral®), in the treatment of established AD in children...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318451/bacterial-lysate-for-the-prevention-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-recurrence-in-children
#17
J Chen, Y Zhou, J Nie, Y Wang, L Zhang, Q Shi, H Tan, W Kong
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common nasal disorder in children that is prone to recurrence. This study investigated the prevention of chronic rhinosinusitis recurrence with bacteria lysate in children. METHODS: Bacteria lysate was administered 10 days per month for 3 months to children with chronic rhinosinusitis, who had just entered a remission phase. Visual analogue score, nasal symptoms scores, rhinitis attack frequency and antibiotic use were assessed at three months and one year...
June 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315252/profiling-of-protease-cleavage-sites-by-proteome-derived-peptide-libraries-and-quantitative-proteomics
#18
Chia-Yi Chen, Bettina Mayer, Oliver Schilling
Biochemical profiling of active site specificity is a crucial step to characterize proteases, which play key roles in health and disease. Here, we present a protocol using proteome-derived peptide libraries in combination with quantitative proteomics to simultaneously identify cleavage motifs N- and C-terminal to the scissile peptide bond. First, bacterial or eukaryotic cell lysate is used to generate peptide libraries. Without further chemical modification, peptide libraries are then split into control and treated (incubate with active protease) aliquots...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298196/microbial-detoxification-of-eleven-food-and-feed-contaminating-trichothecene-mycotoxins
#19
Rafiq Ahad, Ting Zhou, Dion Lepp, K Peter Pauls
BACKGROUND: Contamination of agricultural commodities with multiple trichothecene mycotoxins, produced by toxigenic Fusarium species, is a food safety issue, which greatly affects grain production and marketing worldwide. Importantly, exposure to multiple trichothecenes may increase toxicity in animals due to their synergistic and/or additive effects. To address the problem this study aimed to achieve a novel biological trait capable of detoxifying various food and feed contaminating trichothecenes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and wide range of temperatures...
March 15, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284007/erratum-to-protein-protein-interaction-analysis-in-crude-bacterial-lysates-using-combinational-method-of-19-f-site-specific-incorporation-and-19-f-nmr
#20
Dong Li, Yanan Zhang, Yao He, Chengwei Zhang, Jiefei Wang, Ying Xiong, Longhua Zhang, Yangzhong Liu, Pan Shi, Changlin Tian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Protein & Cell
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