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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445368/beneficial-oral-biofilms-as-smart-bioactive-interfaces
#1
Beatrice Gutt, Qun Ren, Irmgard Hauser-Gerspach, Piotr Kardas, Stefan Stübinger, Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Tuomas Waltimo
Periodontitis is a very common health problem caused by formation of pathogenic bacterial biofilm that triggers inflammation resulting in either reversible gingivitis or irreversible periodontal hard and soft tissue damages, leading to loss of teeth when left untreated. Commensal bacteria play an important role in oral health in many aspects. Mainly by colonizing oral tissues, they (i) contribute to maturation of immune response, and (ii) foreclose attachment of pathobiont and, therefore, prevent from infection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394276/lactobacillus-gasseri-crispr-cas9-characterization-in-vitro-reveals-a-flexible-mode-of-protospacer-adjacent-motif-recognition
#2
Emily M Anderson, Shawn McClelland, Elena Maksimova, Žaklina Strezoska, Megan Basila, Alexandra E Briner, Rodolphe Barrangou, Anja van Brabant Smith
While the CRISPR-Cas9 system from S. pyogenes is a powerful genome engineering tool, additional programmed nucleases would enable added flexibility in targeting space and multiplexing. Here, we characterized a CRISPR-Cas9 system from L. gasseri and found that it has modest activity in a cell-free lysate assay but no activity in mammalian cells even when altering promoter, position of tag sequences and NLS, and length of crRNA:tracrRNA. In the lysate assay we tested over 400 sequential crRNA target sequences and found that the Lga Cas9 PAM is NNGA/NDRA, different than NTAA predicted from the native bacterial host...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360768/pharmacokinetic-study-of-bioactive-flavonoids-in-the-traditional-japanese-medicine-keigairengyoto-exerting-antibacterial-effects-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#3
Takashi Matsumoto, Atsushi Kaneko, Junichi Koseki, Yosuke Matsubara, Setsuya Aiba, Kenshi Yamasaki
Recent studies have demonstrated that flavonoid glucuronides can be deconjugated to the active form aglycone by β-glucuronidase-expressing macrophages. Keigairengyoto (KRT) is a flavonoid-rich traditional Japanese medicine reported to enhance bacterial clearance through immune modulation. Our aims are to examine the pharmacokinetics of KRT flavonoids and to identify active flavonoids contributing to the adjuvant effects of KRT. KRT was evaluated at pharmacokinetic analysis to quantify absorbed flavonoids, and cutaneous infection assay induced in mice by inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358332/trypanosoma-cruzi-produces-the-specialized-proresolving-mediators-resolvin-d1-resolvin-d5-and-resolvin-e2
#4
Romain A Colas, Anthony W Ashton, Shankar Mukherjee, Jesmond Dalli, Oscar B Akide-Ndunge, Huan Huang, Mahalia S Desruisseaux, Fangxia Guan, Linda A Jelicks, Fabiane Matos Dos Santos, Jyothi Nagajyothi, Michael Zingman, Jinet Reyes, Louis M Weiss, Charles N Serhan, Herbert B Tanowitz
Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease (CD). CD is a persistent, life-long infection affecting many organs, most notably the heart where it may result in acute myocarditis and chronic cardiomyopathy. The pathological features include myocardial inflammation and fibrosis. In the Brazil-strain infected CD-1 mouse that recapitulates many of the features of human infection, we found increased plasma levels of resolvin D1 (RvD1), a specialized pro-resolving mediator of inflammation, both during the acute and chronic phases of the infection (>100 days post infection) as determined by ELISA...
January 22, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338886/overweight-and-obesity-status-in-pregnant-women-are-related-to-intestinal-microbiota-and-serum-metabolic-and-inflammatory-profiles
#5
Noora Houttu, Kati Mokkala, Kirsi Laitinen
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity may predispose women to clinical complications during their pregnancy. We hypothesize that a higher degree of overweight status is related to a range of aberrations in biomarkers already in early pregnancy. Our objective was to investigate whether intestinal microbiota, serum metabolic and inflammatory profiles differ in relation to the degree of overweight status in pregnant women. METHODS: This study investigated 52 overweight and 47 obese pregnant women in early pregnancy...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323531/an-efficient-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-approach-for-the-simultaneous-analysis-of-deoxynivalenol-and-its-bacterial-metabolites-3-keto-don-and-3-epi-don
#6
Kaijie Tang, Huaizhi Liu, Xiu-Zhen Li, Yousef I Hassan, Suqin Shao, Ting Zhou
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the major toxic secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi in cereal grains. Among the many promising strategies of DON detoxification are the microbial and enzymatic ones, which transform DON to nontoxic DON metabolites. Thus, proper analytical methods are needed for those DON metabolites. In this study, a robust gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of DON and two of its bacterial metabolites, 3-keto-DON and 3- epi-DON...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317507/identification-of-euglena-gracilis-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-phosphorylase-and-establishment-of-a-new-glycoside-hydrolase-gh-family-gh149
#7
Sakonwan Kuhaudomlarp, Nicola J Patron, Bernard Henrissat, Martin Rejzek, Gerhard Saalbach, Robert A Field
Glycoside phosphorylases (EC 2.4.x.x) carry out the reversible phosphorolysis of glucan polymers, producing the corresponding sugar 1-phosphate and a shortened glycan chain. β-1,3-Glucan phosphorylase activities have been reported in the photosynthetic Euglenozoan Euglena gracilis, but the cognate protein sequences have not been identified to date. Continuing our efforts to understand the glycobiology of E. gracilis, we identified a candidate phosphorylase sequence, designated EgP1, by proteomic analysis of an enriched cellular protein lysate...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314863/bacterial-derived-neutrophilic-inflammation-drives-lung-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-copd
#8
Bradley W Richmond, Rui-Hong Du, Wei Han, John T Benjamin, Riet van der Meer, Linda Gleaves, Marshall Guo, Austin McKissack, Yongqin Zhang, Dong-Sheng Cheng, Vasiliy V Polosukhin, Timothy S Blackwell
Loss of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is common in the small airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Using mice that lack SIgA in the airways due to genetic deficiency of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR-/- mice), we investigated the role of neutrophils in driving the fibrotic small airway wall remodeling and emphysema that develops spontaneously in these mice. By flow cytometry, we found an increase in the percentage of neutrophils among CD45+ cells in the lungs, as well as an increase in total neutrophils, in pIgR-/- mice compared to wild-type (WT) controls...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311283/the-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-iron-regulated-surface-protein-hbpa-is-involved-in-the-utilization-of-the-hemoglobin-haptoglobin-complex-as-an-iron-source
#9
Lindsey R Lyman, Eric D Peng, Michael P Schmitt
Corynebacterium diphtheriae utilizes various heme-containing proteins, including hemoglobin (Hb) and the hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex (Hb-Hp), as iron sources during growth in iron-depleted environments. The ability to utilize Hb-Hp as an iron source requires the surface anchored proteins HtaA and either ChtA or ChtC. The ability to bind hemin, Hb and Hb-Hp by each of these C. diphtheriae proteins requires the previously characterized Conserved Region (CR) domain. In this study, we identified an Hb-Hp binding protein, HbpA (38...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306437/covalent-probes-for-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-from-glycosidases-to-glycosyltransferases
#10
Yong Xu, Najib Uddin, Gerd K Wagner
Covalent probes for glycosidases and glycosyltransferases are of great interest as tool compounds for chemical biology. For glycosidases, a sizable number of such probes have been developed from covalent glycosidase inhibitors. We review selected recent examples and highlight different design strategies, including probes based on photoaffinity labels and mechanism-based inhibitors, as well as their applications in biology and for activity-based protein profiling. In contrast to glycosidases, only a limited number of covalent probes have been reported to date for glycosyltransferases...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304774/assessment-of-the-association-between-increasing-membrane-pore-size-and-endotoxin-permeability-using-a-novel-experimental-dialysis-simulation-set-up
#11
Eva Schepers, Griet Glorieux, Sunny Eloot, Michael Hulko, Adriana Boschetti-de-Fierro, Werner Beck, Bernd Krause, Wim Van Biesen
BACKGROUND: Membranes with increasing pore size are introduced to enhance removal of large uremic toxins with regular hemodialysis. These membranes might theoretically have higher permeability for bacterial degradation products. In this paper, permeability for bacterial degradation products of membranes of comparable composition with different pore size was investigated with a new in vitro set-up that represents clinical flow and pressure conditions. METHODS: Dialysis was simulated with an AK200 machine using a low-flux, high-flux, medium cut-off (MCO) or high cut-off (HCO) device (n = 6/type)...
January 5, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298838/lysine-succinylation-contributes-to-aflatoxin-production-and-pathogenicity-in-aspergillus-flavus
#12
Silin Ren, Mingkun Yang, Yuewei Yue, Feng Ge, Yu Li, Xiaodong Guo, Jia Zhang, Feng Zhang, Xinyi Nie, Shihua Wang
Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) is a ubiquitous saprophytic and pathogenic fungus that produces the aflatoxin carcinogen, and A. flavus can have tremendous economic and health impacts worldwide. Increasing evidence demonstrates that lysine succinylation plays an important regulatory role in metabolic processes in both bacterial and human cells. However, little is known about the extent and function of lysine succinylation in A. flavus Here, we performed a global succinylome analysis of A. flavus using high accuracy nano-LC-MS/MS in combination with the enrichment of succinylated peptides from digested cell lysates and subsequent peptide identification...
January 3, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295898/preparation-of-plasmid-dna-by-alkaline-lysis-with-sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-maxipreps
#13
Michael R Green, Joseph Sambrook
In recent years, with the advent of polymerase chain reaction and the development of highly efficient methods of cloning and DNA sequencing, the need to prepare large quantities of plasmid vectors and recombinants has greatly diminished. In consequence, this protocol, at one time in common use, has been largely replaced by faster and easier column-based purification methods. In this protocol, plasmid DNA is purified from the cleared bacterial lysate by centrifugation to equilibrium in CsCl gradients containing ethidium bromide...
January 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287247/aptamer-facilitated-purification-of-functional-proteins
#14
Stanislav S Beloborodov, Jiayin Bao, Svetlana M Krylova, Agnesa Shala-Lawrence, Philip E Johnson, Sergey N Krylov
DNA aptamers are attractive capture probes for affinity chromatography since, in contrast to antibodies, they can be chemically synthesized and, in contrast to tag-specific capture probes (such as Nickel-NTA or Glutathione), they can be used for purification of proteins free of genetic modifications (such as His or GST tags). Despite these attractive features of aptamers as capture probes, there are only a few reports on aptamer-based protein purification and none of them includes a test of the purified protein's activity, thus, leaving discouraging doubts about method's ability to purify proteins in their active state...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276506/escherichia-coli-o157-h7-converts-plant-derived-choline-to-glycine-betaine-for-osmoprotection-during-pre-and-post-harvest-colonization-of-injured-lettuce-leaves
#15
Russell A Scott, Roger Thilmony, Leslie A Harden, Yaguang Zhou, Maria T Brandl
Plant injury is inherent to the production and processing of fruit and vegetables. The opportunistic colonization of damaged plant tissue by human enteric pathogens may contribute to the occurrence of outbreaks of foodborne illness linked to produce. Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) responds to physicochemical stresses in cut lettuce and lettuce lysates by upregulation of several stress response pathways. We investigated the tolerance of EcO157 to osmotic stress imposed by the leakage of osmolytes from injured lettuce leaf tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258194/synergy-between-ursolic-and-oleanolic-acids-from-vitellaria-paradoxa-leaf-extract-and-%C3%AE-lactams-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-and-underlying-mechanisms
#16
Lucy Catteau, Nathalie T Reichmann, Joshua Olson, Mariana G Pinho, Victor Nizet, Françoise Van Bambeke, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq
Combining antibiotics with resistance reversing agents is a key strategy to overcome bacterial resistance. Upon screening antimicrobial activities of plants used in traditional medicine, we found that a leaf dichloromethane extract from the shea butter tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) had antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with further evidence of synergy when combined with β-lactams. Using HPLC-MS, we identified ursolic (UA) and oleanolic acids (OA) in leaves and twigs of this species, and quantified them by HPLC-UV as the major constituents in leaf extracts (21% and 6% respectively)...
December 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237725/abin-1-negatively-regulates-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-function
#17
Peilan Zhou, Jiebing Jiang, Hui Yan, Yulei Li, Junru Zhao, Xiao Wang, Ruibin Su, Zehui Gong
The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) is a Gi/o protein-coupled receptor that mediates analgesic, euphoric, and reward effects. Using a bacterial two-hybrid screen, we reported that the carboxyl tail of the rat MOR associates with A20-binding inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB (ABIN-1) (Zhou et al., 2015). This interaction was confirmed by direct protein - protein binding and co-immunoprecipitation of MOR and ABIN-1 proteins in cell lysates. Saturation binding studies showed that ABIN-1 had no effect on MOR binding...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234030/escherichia-coli-outer-membrane-vesicles-can-contribute-to-sepsis-induced-cardiac-dysfunction
#18
Kristina Svennerholm, Kyong-Su Park, Johannes Wikström, Cecilia Lässer, Rossella Crescitelli, Ganesh V Shelke, Su Chul Jang, Shintaro Suzuki, Elga Bandeira, Charlotta S Olofsson, Jan Lötvall
Sepsis induced cardiac dysfunction (SIC) is a severe complication to sepsis which significantly worsens patient outcomes. It is known that bacteria have the capacity to release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which are nano-sized bilayered vesicles composed of lipids and proteins, that can induce a fatal inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to determine whether OMVs from a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain can induce cardiac dysfunction, and to elucidate any mechanisms involved. OMVs induced irregular Ca2+ oscillations with a decreased frequency in cardiomyocytes through recordings of intracellular Ca2+ dynamics...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230212/a-novel-function-for-the-streptococcus-pneumoniae-aminopeptidase-n-inhibition-of-t-cell-effector-function-through-regulation-of-tcr-signaling
#19
Lance K Blevins, Derek Parsonage, Melissa B Oliver, Elizabeth Domzalski, W Edward Swords, Martha A Alexander-Miller
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) causes a variety of disease states including fatal bacterial pneumonia. Our previous finding that introduction of Spn into an animal with ongoing influenza virus infection resulted in a CD8+ T cell population with reduced effector function gave rise to the possibility of direct regulation by pneumococcal components. Here, we show that treatment of effector T cells with lysate derived from Spn resulted in inhibition of IFNγ and tumor necrosis factor α production as well as of cytolytic granule release...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223488/oral-administration-of-plga-encapsulated-cpg-odn-and-campylobacter-jejuni-lysate-reduces-cecal-colonization-by-campylobacter-jejuni-in-chickens
#20
Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz, Douglas C Hodgins, Tamiru Negash Alkie, Wanderely Quinteiro-Filho, Alexander Yitbarek, Jake Astill, Shayan Sharif
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in humans. It is considered a commensal organism of the chicken gut and infected chickens serve as a reservoir and shed bacteria throughout their lifespan. Contaminated poultry products are considered the major source of infection in humans. Therefore, to reduce the risk of human campylobacteriosis, it is essential to reduce the bacterial load in poultry products. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of soluble and PLGA-encapsulated oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG motifs (E-CpG ODN) as well as C...
December 6, 2017: Vaccine
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