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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775273/the-role-of-clpp-protease-in-bacterial-pathogenesis-and-human-diseases
#1
Vaibhav Bhandari, Keith S Wong, Jin Lin Zhou, Mark F Mabanglo, Robert A Batey, Walid A Houry
In prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic organelles, the ClpP protease plays an important role in proteostasis. The disruption of ClpP function has been shown to influence the infectivity and virulence of a number of bacterial pathogens. More recently, ClpP has been found to be involved in various forms of carcinomas and in Perrault syndrome, which is an inherited condition characterized by hearing loss in males and females and by ovarian abnormalities in females. Hence, targeting ClpP is a potentially viable, attractive option for the treatment of different ailments...
May 18, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774216/autophagic-regulation-of-lipid-homeostasis-in-cardiometabolic-syndrome
#2
Mingjie Yang, Yingmei Zhang, Jun Ren
As an important protein quality control process, autophagy is essential for the degradation and removal of long-lived or injured cellular components and organelles. Autophagy is known to participate in a number of pathophysiological processes including cardiometabolic syndrome. Recent findings have shown compelling evidence for the intricate interplay between autophagy and lipid metabolism. Autophagy serves as a major regulator of lipid homeostasis while lipid can also influence autophagosome formation and autophagic signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774041/report-on-the-current-inventory-of-the-toolbox-for-plant-cell-wall-analysis-proteinaceous-and-small-molecular-probes
#3
REVIEW
Maja G Rydahl, Aleksander R Hansen, Stjepan K Kračun, Jozef Mravec
Plant cell walls are highly complex structures composed of diverse classes of polysaccharides, proteoglycans, and polyphenolics, which have numerous roles throughout the life of a plant. Significant research efforts aim to understand the biology of this cellular organelle and to facilitate cell-wall-based industrial applications. To accomplish this, researchers need to be provided with a variety of sensitive and specific detection methods for separate cell wall components, and their various molecular characteristics in vitro as well as in situ ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773809/super-resolution-imaging-reveals-the-sub-diffraction-phenotype-of-zellweger-syndrome-ghosts-and-wild-type-peroxisomes
#4
Kareem Soliman, Fabian Göttfert, Hendrik Rosewich, Sven Thoms, Jutta Gärtner
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous cell organelles involved in many metabolic and signaling functions. Their assembly requires peroxins, encoded by PEX genes. Mutations in PEX genes are the cause of Zellweger Syndrome spectrum (ZSS), a heterogeneous group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBD). The size and morphological features of peroxisomes are below the diffraction limit of light, which makes them attractive for super-resolution imaging. We applied Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy to study the morphology of human peroxisomes and peroxisomal protein localization in human controls and ZSS patients...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773766/impact-of-the-ser326cys-polymorphism-of-the-ogg1-gene-on-the-level-of-oxidative-dna-damage-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#5
Jacek Kabzinski, Anna Walczak, Adam Dziki, Michał Mik, Ireneusz Majsterek
As a result of reactive oxygen species operation, cell damage occurs in both cellular organelles and molecules, including DNA. Oxidative damage within the genetic material can lead to accumulation of mutations and consequently to cancer transformation. OGG1 glycosylase, a component of the Base Excision Repair (BER) system, is one of the enzymes that prevents excessive accumulation of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxG), the most common compound formed by oxidative DNA damage. In case of structural changes of OGG1 resulting from polymorphic variants, we can observe a significant increase in the concentration of 8-oxG...
April 30, 2018: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773177/participation-of-selenoproteins-localized-in-the-er-in-the-processes-occurring-in-this-organelle-and-in-the-regulation-of-carcinogenesis-associated-processes
#6
REVIEW
Elena Gennadyevna Varlamova
The functions performed by the ER are diverse: synthesis of steroid hormones, synthesis of proteins for the plasma membrane, lysosomes, as well as proteins meant for exocytosis, protein folding, formation of disulfide bonds, N-linked glycosylation, etc. Selenoproteins localized in this organelle are definitely involved in the processes occurring in it, and the most common of them include participation in protein degradation, regulation of ER stress and redox metabolism. ER stress has been registered in many types of cancer cells...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772748/drug-delivery-strategies-for-antivirals-against-hepatitis-b-virus
#7
REVIEW
Latavia Singh, Sunaina Indermun, Mershen Govender, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C du Toit, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses a significant health challenge due to associated morbidity and mortality from cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer that eventually results in the breakdown of liver functionality. Nanotechnology has the potential to play a pivotal role in reducing viral load levels and drug-resistant HBV through drug targeting, thus reducing the rate of evolution of the disease. Apart from tissue targeting, intracellular delivery of a wide range of drugs is necessary to exert a therapeutic action in the affected organelles...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772718/ectromelia-virus-affects-mitochondrial-network-morphology-distribution-and-physiology-in-murine-fibroblasts-and-macrophage-cell-line
#8
Karolina P Gregorczyk, Zbigniew Wyżewski, Joanna Szczepanowska, Felix N Toka, Matylda B Mielcarska, Magdalena Bossowska-Nowicka, Małgorzata Gieryńska, Anna Boratyńska-Jasińska, Justyna Struzik, Marek G Niemiałtowski, Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska
Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that participate in numerous processes in response to viral infection, but they are also a target for viruses. The aim of this study was to define subcellular events leading to alterations in mitochondrial morphology and function during infection with ectromelia virus (ECTV). We used two different cell lines and a combination of immunofluorescence techniques, confocal and electron microscopy, and flow cytometry to address subcellular changes following infection. Early in infection of L929 fibroblasts and RAW 264...
May 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771445/tirofiban-combined-with-rt-pa-intraarterial-thrombolysis-improves-the-recanalization-rate-of-acute-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rabbits
#9
Y-J Yu, W Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative effect of tirofiban combined with recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) selective intra-arterial thrombolysis on acute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 adult male Japanese white rabbits weighing 2.5-3.0 kg were selected, and the acute cerebral infarction model was established via autologous thromboembolism of middle cerebral artery. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: tirofiban group (Ti group, 5 μg/kg, n=15), rt-PA group (rt-PA group, 2 mg/kg, n=15), tirofiban + rt-PA group (Ti + rt-PA group, 3 μg/kg Ti + 1 mg/kg rt-PA, n=15), and control group (Co group, n=15)...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771182/ciliogenesis-is-reciprocally-regulated-by-ppara-and-nr1h4-fxr-through-controlling-autophagy-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Zhi-Qiang Liu, Joon No Lee, Myeongjoo Son, Jae-Young Lim, Raghbendra Kumar Dutta, Yunash Maharjan, SeongAe Kwak, Goo Taeg Oh, Kyunghee Byun, Seong-Kyu Choe, Raekil Park
The primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved microtubule-based cellular organelles that perceive metabolic status and thus link the sensory system to cellular signaling pathways. Therefore, ciliogenesis is thought to be tightly linked to autophagy, which is also regulated by nutrient-sensing transcription factors, such as PPARA (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha) and NR1H4/FXR (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4). However, the relationship between these factors and ciliogenesis has not been clearly demonstrated...
May 17, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770142/subcellular-localization-screening-of-colletotrichum-higginsianum-effector-candidates-identifies-fungal-proteins-targeted-to-plant-peroxisomes-golgi-bodies-and-microtubules
#11
Guillaume P Robin, Jochen Kleemann, Ulla Neumann, Lisa Cabre, Jean-Félix Dallery, Nicolas Lapalu, Richard J O'Connell
The genome of the hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus, Colletotrichum higginsianum , encodes a large inventory of putative secreted effector proteins that are sequentially expressed at different stages of plant infection, namely appressorium-mediated penetration, biotrophy and necrotrophy. However, the destinations to which these proteins are addressed inside plant cells are unknown. In the present study, we selected 61 putative effector genes that are highly induced in appressoria and/or biotrophic hyphae. We then used Agrobacterium -mediated transformation to transiently express them as N -terminal fusions with fluorescent proteins in cells of Nicotiana benthamiana for imaging by confocal microscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769721/spatiotemporal-regulation-of-liquid-like-condensates-in-epigenetic-inheritance
#12
Gang Wan, Brandon D Fields, George Spracklin, Aditi Shukla, Carolyn M Phillips, Scott Kennedy
Non-membrane-bound organelles such as nucleoli, processing bodies, Cajal bodies and germ granules form by the spontaneous self-assembly of specific proteins and RNAs. How these biomolecular condensates form and interact is poorly understood. Here we identify two proteins, ZNFX-1 and WAGO-4, that localize to Caenorhabditis elegans germ granules (P granules) in early germline blastomeres. Later in germline development, ZNFX-1 and WAGO-4 separate from P granules to define an independent liquid-like condensate that we term the Z granule...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769338/the-perk-arm-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-negatively-regulates-transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-replication-by-suppressing-protein-translation-and-promoting-type-i-ifn-production
#13
Mei Xue, Fang Fu, Yanlong Ma, Xin Zhang, Liang Li, Li Feng, Pinghuang Liu
Coronavirus replication is closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the primary cellular organelle for protein synthesis, folding, and modification. ER stress is a common consequence in coronavirus-infected cells. However, how the virus-induced ER stress influences coronavirus replication and pathogenesis remains controversial. Here, we demonstrated that infection with the alphacoronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) induced ER stress and triggered the unfolded protein response (UPR) in vitro and in vivo , and ER stress negatively regulated TGEV replication in vitro Although TGEV infection activated all three UPR pathways (ATF6, IRE1, and PERK), the virus-triggered UPR suppressed TGEV replication in both ST and IPEC-J2 cells primarily through activation of the PERK-eIF2α axis, as shown by functional studies with overexpression, siRNA, or specific chemical inhibitors...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768499/a-fixable-probe-for-visualizing-flagella-and-plasma-membranes-of-the-african-trypanosome
#14
Justin Wiedeman, Kojo Mensa-Wilmot
The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei sp. cause diseases in humans and animals. Studies of T. brucei cell biology have revealed unique features, such as major endocytic events being limited to a single region, and mitochondrial genome segregation mediated via basal bodies. Further understanding of trypanosome cell biology can be facilitated with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. Lack of a plasma membrane probe for fixed trypanosomes remains a persistent problem in need of a working solution. Herein, we report protocols developed using mCLING in super-resolution structured illumination fluorescence microscopy (SR-SIM)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768491/plasmodium-falciparum-dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-3-activity-is-important-for-efficient-erythrocyte-invasion-by-the-malaria-parasite
#15
Christine Lehmann, Michele Ser Ying Tan, Laura E de Vries, Ilaria Russo, Mateo Isidrio Sanchez, Daniel E Goldberg, Edgar Deu
Parasite egress from infected erythrocytes and invasion of new red blood cells are essential processes for the exponential asexual replication of the malaria parasite. These two tightly coordinated events take place in less than a minute and are in part regulated and mediated by proteases. Dipeptidyl aminopeptidases (DPAPs) are papain-fold cysteine proteases that cleave dipeptides from the N-terminus of protein substrates. DPAP3 was previously suggested to play an essential role in parasite egress. However, little is known about its enzymatic activity, intracellular localization, or biological function...
May 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768406/silencing-of-rpatg6-impaired-the-yolk-accumulation-and-the-biogenesis-of-the-yolk-organelles-in-the-insect-vector-r-prolixus
#16
Priscila H Vieira, Larissa Bomfim, Georgia C Atella, Hatisaburo Masuda, Isabela Ramos
In oviparous animals, the egg yolk is synthesized by the mother in a major metabolic challenge, where the different yolk components are secreted to the hemolymph and delivered to the oocytes mostly by endocytosis. The yolk macromolecules are then stored in a wide range of endocytic-originated vesicles which are collectively referred to as yolk organelles and occupy most of the mature oocytes cytoplasm. After fertilization, the contents of these organelles are degraded in a regulated manner to supply the embryo cells with fundamental molecules for de novo synthesis...
May 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767757/the-contribution-of-organelles-to-plant-intracellular-calcium-signalling
#17
Alex Costa, Lorella Navazio, Ildiko Szabo
Calcium (Ca2+) is among the most important intracellular messengers in living organisms. Understanding of the players and dynamics of Ca2+ signalling pathways in plants may help to unravel the molecular basis of their exceptional flexibility to respond and to adapt to different stimuli. In the present review we focus on new tools that have recently revolutionized our view of organellar Ca2+ signalling as well as on the current knowledge regarding the pathways mediating Ca2+ fluxes across intracellular membranes...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767698/mechanisms-by-which-dietary-fatty-acids-regulate-mitochondrial-structure-function-in-health-and-disease
#18
E Madison Sullivan, Edward Ross Pennington, William D Green, Melinda A Beck, David A Brown, Saame Raza Shaikh
Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles within a cell. Furthermore, mitochondria have a role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and proper calcium concentrations, building critical components of hormones and other signaling molecules, and controlling apoptosis. Structurally, mitochondria are unique because they have 2 membranes that allow for compartmentalization. The composition and molecular organization of these membranes are crucial to the maintenance and function of mitochondria. In this review, we first present a general overview of mitochondrial membrane biochemistry and biophysics followed by the role of different dietary saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in modulating mitochondrial membrane structure-function...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766823/analysis-of-toxicity-effects-of-buspirone-cetirizine-and-olanzapine-on-human-blood-lymphocytes-in-vitro-model
#19
Jalal Pourahmad, Ahmad Salimi, Mosleh Razian
The current study investigates the cytotoxicity mechanism of common drugs with piperazine ring such as cetirizine, olanzapine and buspirone on human lymphocytes. The viability of lymphocytes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse, lysosomal integrity, content of glutathione and lipid peroxidation were determined. Buspirone and cetirizine showed more toxicity than olanzapine on human lymphocytes with an IC50 value of 200 μg/ml, after 6 h of incubation. Significant ROS formation, MMP collapse, lipid peroxidation, lysosomal damage and elevation of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) were observed in treated lymphocytes concentrations (4, 20, 40 µg/ml) of buspirone and cetirizine...
May 15, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765216/dysfunction-of-various-organelles-provokes-multiple-cell-death-after-quantum-dot-exposure
#20
REVIEW
Yan Wang, Meng Tang
Quantum dots (QDs) are different from the materials with the micrometer scale. Owing to the superiority in fluorescence and optical stability, QDs act as possible diagnostic and therapeutic tools for application in biomedical field. However, potential threats of QDs to human health hamper their wide utilization in life sciences. It has been reported that oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in toxicity caused by QDs. Recently, accumulating research unveiled that disturbance of subcellular structures plays a magnificent role in cytotoxicity of QDs...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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