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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922823/slm35-links-mitochondrial-stress-response-and-longevity-through-tor-signaling-pathway
#1
Jose L Aguilar-Lopez, Raymond Laboy, Fabiola Jaimes-Miranda, Erika Garay, Alexander DeLuna, Soledad Funes
In most eukaryotic cells mitochondria are essential organelles involved in a great variety of cellular functions. One of the physiological processes linked to mitochondria is aging, a gradual process of damage accumulation that eventually promotes cell death. Aging depends on a balance between mitochondrial biogenesis, function and degradation. It has been previously shown that Tor1, Sch9 and Ras2 are activated in response to nutrient availability and regulate cell growth and division. A deficiency in any of these genes promotes lifespan extension and cell protection during oxidative and heat shock stress...
December 2, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922495/toxic-and-endocrine-myopathies
#2
Hans D Katzberg, Charles D Kassardjian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of toxic and endocrine myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Early detection and expeditious correction of metabolic disturbances in endocrinopathies such as Cushing syndrome, thyroid and parathyroid diseases, and acromegaly can minimize and prevent neurologic complications including myopathy. Recently proposed mechanisms of injury in patients with critical illness myopathy include inhibition of protein synthesis, mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, oxidative stress, and disruption of intramuscular calcium homeostasis, which can cause a myosin-loss myopathy...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921996/the-cns-connectome-of-a-tadpole-larva-of-ciona-intestinalis-l-highlights-sidedness-in-the-brain-of-a-chordate-sibling
#3
Kerrianne Ryan, Zhiyuan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Left-right asymmetries in brains are usually minor or cryptic. We report brain asymmetries in the tiny, dorsal tubular nervous system of the ascidian tadpole larva, Ciona intestinalis. Chordate in body plan and development, the larva provides an outstanding example of brain asymmetry. Although early neural development is well studied, detailed cellular organization of the swimming larva's CNS remains unreported. Using serial-section EM we document the synaptic connectome of the larva's 177 CNS neurons. These formed 6618 synapses including 1772 neuromuscular junctions, augmented by 1206 gap junctions...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919658/quinolizinium-as-a-new-fluorescent-lysosomotropic-probe
#4
Emmanouil Zacharioudakis, Tatiana Cañeque, Raúl Custodio, Sebastian Müller, Ana M Cuadro, Juan J Vaquero, Raphaël Rodriguez
We have synthesized a collection of quinolizinium fluorescent dyes for the purpose of cell imaging. Preliminary biological studies in human U2OS osteosarcoma cancer cells have shown that different functional groups appended to the cationic quinolizinium scaffold efficiently modulate photophysical properties but also cellular distribution. While quinolizinium probes are known nuclear staining reagents, we have identified a particular quinolizinium derivative salt that targets the lysosomal compartment. This finding raises the question of predictability of specific organelle targeting from structural features of small molecules...
November 24, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919320/calcium-mediated-actin-reset-caar-mediates-acute-cell-adaptations
#5
Pauline Wales, Christian E Schuberth, Roland Aufschnaiter, Johannes Fels, Ireth García-Aguilar, Annette Janning, Christopher P Dlugos, Marco Schäfer-Herte, Christoph Klingner, Mike Wälte, Julian Kuhlmann, Ekaterina Menis, Laura Hockaday Kang, Kerstin C Maier, Wenya Hou, Antonella Russo, Henry N Higgs, Hermann Pavenstädt, Thomas Vogl, Johannes Roth, Britta Qualmann, Michael M Kessels, Dietmar E Martin, Bela Mulder, Roland Wedlich-Söldner
Actin has well established functions in cellular morphogenesis. However, it is not well understood how the various actin assemblies in a cell are kept in a dynamic equilibrium, in particular when cells have to respond to acute signals. Here, we characterize a rapid and transient actin reset in response to increased intracellular calcium levels. Within seconds of calcium influx, the formin INF2 stimulates filament polymerization at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while cortical actin is disassembled. The reaction is then reversed within a few minutes...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918938/cell-polarity-in-plants-the-yin-and-yang-of-cellular-functions
#6
REVIEW
Jiyan Qi, Thomas Greb
Spatial organization is fundamental for the performance of living organisms and is reflected in a distinct distribution of structures and molecules down to the subcellular level. In particular, eukaryotic cells harbor a vast range of possibilities for distributing organelles, the cytoskeleton or the extracellular matrix in an active and highly regulated manner. An asymmetric or polar distribution is rather the rule than the exception and often reflects a particular position or orientation of a cell within a multicellular body...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918797/going-nuclear-evidence-implicating-the-cell-nucleus-in-mechanotransduction
#7
Spencer E Szczesny, Robert L Mauck
Biophysical stimuli presented to cells via micro-environmental properties (e.g., alignment, stiffness) or external forces have a significant impact on their function and behavior. Recently, the cell nucleus has been identified as a mechano-responsive organelle that contributes to the perception and response to mechanical stimuli. However, the specific mechanotransduction mechanisms that mediate these effects have not been clearly defined. Here, we review the evidence supporting (and refuting) three hypothetical nuclear mechanotransduction mechanisms: physical reorganization of chromatin, signaling at the nuclear envelope, and altered cytoskeletal structure/tension due to nuclear remodeling...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917594/a-novel-two-nucleotide-deletion-in-hps6-affects-mepacrine-uptake-and-platelet-dense-granule-secretion-in-a-family-with-hermansky-pudlak-syndrome
#8
Oliver Andres, Verena Wiegering, Eva-Maria König, Anna Lena Schneider, Daniela Semeniak, Simon Stritt, Eva Klopocki, Harald Schulze
BACKGROUND: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and platelet dysfunction. We report on a novel HPS6 homozygous frameshift variant (c.1919_1920delTC; p.Val640Glyfs*29) in a nonconsanguineous Caucasian family with two affected siblings (index patients) who presented with oculocutaneous albinism at birth and a mild bleeding phenotype during childhood and adolescence. PROCEDURE: Genetic analysis was conducted by panel-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing...
December 4, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917381/arachidonoyl-specific-diacylglycerol-kinase-%C3%AE%C2%B5-and-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#9
REVIEW
Tomoyuki Nakano, Hirooki Matsui, Toshiaki Tanaka, Yasukazu Hozumi, Ken Iseki, Kaneyuki Kawamae, Kaoru Goto
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises an interconnected membrane network, which is made up of lipid bilayer and associated proteins. This organelle plays a central role in the protein synthesis and sorting. In addition, it represents the synthetic machinery of phospholipids, the major constituents of the biological membrane. In this process, phosphatidic acid (PA) serves as a precursor of all phospholipids, suggesting that PA synthetic activity is closely associated with the ER function. One enzyme responsible for PA synthesis is diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) that phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG) to PA...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917371/hijacker-of-the-antitumor-immune-response-autophagy-is-showing-its-worst-facet
#10
REVIEW
Elodie Viry, Muhammad Zaeem Noman, Tsolère Arakelian, Audrey Lequeux, Salem Chouaib, Guy Berchem, Etienne Moussay, Jérôme Paggetti, Bassam Janji
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a housekeeping process constitutively executed at basal level in all cells to promote cellular homeostasis by regulating organelle and protein turnover. However, autophagy deregulation caused by several stress factors, such as hypoxia, is prevalent in many cancers. It is now well established that autophagy can act as tumor suppressor or tumor promoter depending on tumor type, stage, and genetic context. In developed tumors, autophagy promotes the survival of cancer cells and therefore operates as a cell resistance mechanism...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916343/cardiac-autophagic-vacuolation-in-severe-x-linked-myopathy-with-excessive-autophagy
#11
Iulia Munteanu, Hannu Kalimo, Antti Saraste, Ichizo Nishino, Berge A Minassian
X-linked myopathy with excessive autophagy (XMEA), caused by mutations of the VMA21 gene, is a strictly skeletal muscle disease. Extensive studies in yeast established VMA21 as the master assembly chaperone of V-ATPase, the complex multisubunit proton pump that acidifies organelles and that is vital to all mammalian tissues. As such, skeletal muscle disease exclusivity in XMEA is highly surprising. We now show that the severest VMA21 mutation, c.164-6t>g, does result in XMEA-typical pathology with autophagic vacuolar changes outside skeletal muscle, namely in the heart...
October 19, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916258/the-apicoplast-genomes-of-two-taxonomic-units-of-babesia-from-sheep
#12
Tao Wang, Guiquan Guan, Pasi K Korhonen, Anson V Koehler, Ross S Hall, Neil D Young, Hong Yin, Robin B Gasser
The apicoplast (ap) is a unique, non-photosynthetic organelle found in most apicomplexan parasites. Due to the essential roles that this organelle has, it has been widely considered as target for drugs against diseases caused by apicomplexans. Exploring the ap genomes of such parasites would provide a better understanding of their systematics and their basic molecular biology for therapeutics. However, there is limited information available on the ap genomes of apicomplexan parasites. In the present study, the ap genomes of two operational taxonomic units of Babesia (known as Babesia sp...
November 6, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915989/new-insights-into-vitamin-d-and-autophagy-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#13
Hyun-Woo Suh, Jin Kyung Kim, Tae Sung Kim, Eun-Kyeong Jo
Vitamin D exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in both health and disease. The importance of vitamin D in protection against various inflammatory and metabolic diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), has been discussed. Considerable data indicate a role for vitamin D in the activation of autophagy, an intracellular renewal system that maintains homeostasis by eliminating large protein aggregates and damaged organelles. Recent studies have demonstrated an intricate interplay between autophagy and the regulation of inflammation, suggesting that autophagy-modulating agents could be used to treat IBDs...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915172/dark-chilling-induces-substantial-structural-changes-and-modifies-galactolipid-and-carotenoid-composition-during-chloroplast-biogenesis-in-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l-cotyledons
#14
Joanna Skupień, Joanna Wójtowicz, Łucja Kowalewska, Radosław Mazur, Maciej Garstka, Katarzyna Gieczewska, Agnieszka Mostowska
Plants in a temperate climate are often subject to different environmental factors, chilling stress among them, which influence the growth especially during early stages of plant development. Chloroplasts are one of the first organelles affected by the chilling stress. Therefore the proper biogenesis of chloroplasts in early stages of plant growth is crucial for undertaking the photosynthetic activity. In this paper, the analysis of the cotyledon chloroplast biogenesis at different levels of plastid organization was performed in cucumber, one of the most popular chilling sensitive crops...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914529/agglutinin-isolated-from-arisema-heterophyllum-blume-induces-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-a549-cells-through-inhibiting-pi3k-akt-pathway-and-inducing-er-stress
#15
Li-Xing Feng, Peng Sun, Tian Mi, Miao Liu, Wang Liu, Si Yao, Yi-Min Cao, Xiao-Lu Yu, Wan-Ying Wu, Bao-Hong Jiang, Min Yang, De-An Guo, Xuan Liu
Arisaema heterophyllum Blume is one of the three medicinal plants known as traditional Chinese medicine Rhizoma Arisaematis (RA). RA has been popularly used to treat patients with convulsions, inflammation, and cancer for a long time. However, the underlying mechanisms for RA effects are still unclear. The present study was designed to determine the cytotoxicity of agglutinin isolated from Arisema heterophyllum Blume (AHA) and explore the possible mechanisms in human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells. AHA with purity up to 95% was isolated and purified from Arisaema heterophyllum Blume using hydrophobic interaction chromatography...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914320/biochemical-precursor-effects-on-the-fatty-acid-production-in-cell-suspension-cultures-of-theobroma-cacao-l
#16
O Parra, A M Gallego, A Urrea, L F Rojas, C Correa, L Atehortúa
Cocoa butter (CB) is composed of 96% palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids that are responsible for the hardness, texture and fusion properties of chocolate. Through in vitro plant cell culture it is possible to modify CB lipid profiles and to study the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway on a subcellular level, evaluating fundamental aspects to enhance in vitro fatty acid production in a specific and controlled way. In this research, culture media was supplemented with acetate, biotin, pyruvate, bicarbonate and glycerol at three different concentrations and the effects on the biomass production (g/L), cell viability, and fatty acids profile and production was evaluated in in vitro cell suspensions culture...
November 25, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913685/novel-biomarkers-in-kidney-disease-roles-for-cilia-wnt-signalling-and-atmin-in-polycystic-kidney-disease
#17
REVIEW
Paraskevi Goggolidou, Patricia D Wilson
Biomarkers, the measurable indicators of biological conditions, are fast becoming a popular approach in providing information to track disease processes that could lead to novel therapeutic interventions for chronic conditions. Inherited, chronic kidney disease affects millions of people worldwide and although pharmacological treatments exist for some conditions, there are still patients whose only option is kidney dialysis and kidney transplantation. In the past 10 years, certain chronic kidney diseases have been reclassified as ciliopathies...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913682/translational-regulation-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Yi Zhang, Hong Xu
Mitochondria are generated by the expression of genes on both nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial biogenesis is highly plastic in response to cellular energy demand, developmental signals and environmental stimuli. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates mitochondrial biogenesis to co-ordinate energy homeostasis with cell growth. The local translation of mitochondrial proteins on the outer membrane facilitates their efficient import and thereby allows prodigious mitochondrial biogenesis during rapid cell growth and proliferation...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913206/mag-fluo4-in-t-cells-imaging-of-intra-organelle-free-ca-2-concentrations
#19
Björn-Philipp Diercks, Ralf Fliegert, Andreas H Guse
Ca(2+) signaling is a major signal transduction pathway involved in T cell activation, but also in apoptosis of T cells. Since T cells make use of several Ca(2+)-mobilizing second messengers, such as nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate, d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and cyclic ADP-ribose, we intended to analyze luminal Ca(2+) concentration upon cell activation. Mag-Fluo4/AM, a low-affinity Ca(2+) dye known to localize to the endoplasmic reticular lumen in many cell types, showed superior brightness and bleaching stability, but, surprisingly, co-localized with mito-tracker, but not with ER-tracker in Jurkat T cells...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911729/polyadenylation-and-degradation-of-rna-in-the-mitochondria
#20
REVIEW
Shiri Levy, Gadi Schuster
Mitochondria have their own gene expression machinery and the relative abundance of RNA products in these organelles in animals is mostly dictated by their rate of degradation. The molecular mechanisms regulating the differential accumulation of the transcripts in this organelle remain largely elusive. Here, we summarize the present knowledge of how RNA is degraded in human mitochondria and describe the coexistence of stable poly(A) tails and the nonabundant tails, which have been suggested to play a role in the RNA degradation process...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
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