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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156207/intracellular-protein-degradation-from-a-vague-idea-thru-the-lysosome-and-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-and-onto-human-diseases-and-drug-targeting
#1
REVIEW
Aaron Ciechanover
Between the 1950s and 1980s, scientists were focusing mostly on how the genetic code is transcribed to RNA and translated to proteins, but how proteins are degraded has remained a neglected research area. With the discovery of the lysosome by Christian de Duve it was assumed that cellular proteins are degraded within this organelle. Yet, several independent lines of experimental evidence strongly suggested that intracellular proteolysis is largely non-lysosomal, but the mechanisms involved remained obscure...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155726/visualization-and-live-imaging-of-oligodendrocyte-organelles-in-organotypic-brain-slices-using-adeno-associated-virus-and-confocal-microscopy
#2
Lauritz Hagen Kennedy, Johanne Egge Rinholm
Neurons rely on the electric insulation and trophic support of myelinating oligodendrocytes. Despite the importance of oligodendrocytes, the advanced tools currently used to study neurons, have only partly been taken on by oligodendrocyte researchers. Cell type-specific staining by viral transduction is a useful approach to study live organelle dynamics. This paper describes a protocol for visualizing oligodendrocyte mitochondria in organotypic brain slices by transduction with adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying genes for mitochondrial targeted fluorescent proteins under the transcriptional control of the myelin basic protein promoter...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155505/phistc-protein-family-members-localize-to-different-sub-cellular-organelles-and-bind-plasmodium-falciparum-major-virulence-factor-pfemp-1
#3
Vikash Kumar, Jasweer Kaur, Amrit Pal Singh, Vineeta Singh, Anjali Bisht, Jiban Jyoti Panda, Prakash Chandra Mishra, Rachna Hora
Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) encodes a novel repertoire of exported protein family called as Plasmodium helical interspersed sub-telomeric (PHIST) that plays diverse roles in infected red blood cells (iRBCs), contributing to malaria pathogenesis. PHIST proteins are central to parasite biology, and modify human erythrocytes by executing interactions with parasite and host proteins. Here, we have attempted to understand the localization and function of two unexplored proteins of PHISTc sub-family 'PFD1140w and PF11_0503', and compared our findings with a well characterized member 'PFI1780w'...
November 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155499/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-cell-death-in-podocytes
#4
REVIEW
Yu-Chi Cheng, Chien-An Chen, Hung-Chun Chen
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs in a variety of pathophysiological mechanisms, and there has been great interest in managing this pathway for the treatment of clinical diseases. Increased ER stress can block integrin-β1 glycosylation, decrease integrin-β1 protein expression and enhance cell death in podocytes. Autophagy is closely interconnected with ER stress to counteract the possible injurious effects related to the impairment of protein folding and is one of the intracellular protein degradation systems...
December 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155472/experimental-reconstruction-of-double-strand-break-repair-mediated-plastid-dna-insertion-into-the-tobacco-nucleus
#5
Dong Wang, Jinbao Gu, Rakesh David, Zhen Wang, Songtao Yang, Iain R Searle, Jian-Kang Zhu, Jeremy N Timmis
The mitochondria and plastids of eukaryotic cells evolved from endosymbiotic prokaryotes. DNA from the endosymbionts has bombarded nuclei since the ancestral prokaryotes were engulfed by a precursor of the nucleated eukaryotic host. An experimental confirmation regarding the molecular mechanisms responsible for organelle DNA incorporation into nuclei has not been performed until the present analysis. Here we introduced double-strand DNA breaks into the nuclear genome of tobacco through inducible expression of I-SceI, and showed experimentally that tobacco chloroplast DNAs insert into nuclear genomes through double-strand DNA break repair...
November 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155350/the-pmca-pumps-in-genetically-determined-neuronal-pathologies
#6
REVIEW
Tito Calì, Marisa Brini, Ernesto Carafoli
Ca(2+) signals regulate most aspects of animal cell life. They are of particular importance to the nervous system, in which they regulate specific functions, from neuronal development to synaptic plasticity. The homeostasis of cell Ca(2+) must thus be very precisely regulated: in all cells Ca(2+) pumps transport it from the cytosol to the extracellular medium (the Plasma Membrane Ca(2+) ATPases, hereafter referred to as PMCA pumps) or to the lumen of intracellular organelles (the Sarco/Endoplasmatic Reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase and the Secretory Pathway Ca(2+) ATPase, hereafter referred to as SERCA and SPCA pumps, respectively)...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155260/selective-autophagy-the-new-player-in-the-fight-against-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Ming-Yue Wu, Ju-Xian Song, Sheng-Fang Wang, Cui-Zan Cai, Min Li, Jia-Hong Lu
Autophagy is the lysosome-mediated bulk degradation of cellular components for material recycling to maintain cellular homeostasis. Autophagy was initially regarded as a nonselective process, however, recent evidence indicates that this process can in fact be highly selective, especially for targeting and degrading organelles, invading pathogens and protein aggregates. Recent studies have revealed an intrinsic connection between selective autophagy and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
November 16, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155215/membrane-estrogen-receptors-signal-to-determine-transcription-factor-function
#8
Ellis R Levin
Estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta as well as many other steroid receptors are found both within the nucleus and outside the nucleus. This includes extra-nuclear receptors in many organelles, including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, cytosolic endosomes, and membrane lipid rafts, such as caveolae. The functions of these receptors in the various extra-nuclear cell organelles are not well described, but progress for understanding steroid receptor signaling from the membrane has advanced. In this Review I will discuss the enlarging role of membrane ER signaling to the expression, cell localization, and function of transcription factors that are essential to mediate cell physiology or pathophysiology in many organs...
November 16, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153830/-disc-o-fever-getting-down-with-giardia-s-groovy-microtubule-organelle
#9
REVIEW
Christopher Nosala, Kari D Hagen, Scott C Dawson
Protists have evolved a myriad of highly specialized cytoskeletal organelles that expand known functional capacities of microtubule (MT) polymers. One such innovation - the ventral disc - is a cup-shaped MT organelle that the parasite Giardia uses to attach to the small intestine of its host. The molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of suction-based forces by overall conformational changes of the disc remain unclear. The elaborate disc architecture is defined by novel proteins and complexes that decorate almost all disc MT protofilaments, and vary in composition and conformation along the length of the MTs...
November 15, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153394/vcp-p97-mediated-unfolding-as-a-principle-in-protein-homeostasis-and-signaling
#10
REVIEW
Johannes van den Boom, Hemmo Meyer
The AAA+-type ATPase p97 governs an ever-expanding number of cellular processes reaching from degradation of damaged proteins and organelles to key signaling events and chromatin regulation with thousands of client proteins. With its relevance for cellular homeostasis and genome stability, it is linked to muscular and neuronal degeneration and, conversely, constitutes an attractive anti-cancer drug target. Its molecular function is ATP-driven protein unfolding, which is directed by ubiquitin and assisted by a host of cofactor proteins...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152606/ethanol-induced-steatosis-involves-impairment-of-lipophagy-associated-with-reduced-dynamin2-activity
#11
Karuna Rasineni, Terrence M Donohue, Paul G Thomes, Li Yang, Dean J Tuma, Mark A McNiven, Carol A Casey
Background: Lipid droplets (LDs), the organelles central to alcoholic steatosis, are broken down by lipophagy, a specialized form of autophagy. Here, we hypothesize that ethanol administration retards lipophagy by down-regulating Dynamin 2 (Dyn2), a protein that facilitates lysosome re-formation, contributing to hepatocellular steatosis. Methods: Primary hepatocytes were isolated from male Wistar rats fed Lieber-DeCarli control or EtOH liquid diets for 6-8 wk. Hepatocytes were incubated in complete medium (fed) or nutrient-free medium (fasting) with or without the Dyn2 inhibitor Dynasore or the Src inhibitor SU6656...
August 2017: Hepatol Commun
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152458/lysosomal-storage-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Carlos R Ferreira, William A Gahl
Lysosomes are cytoplasmic organelles that contain a variety of different hydrolases. A genetic deficiency in the enzymatic activity of one of these hydrolases will lead to the accumulation of the material meant for lysosomal degradation. Examples include glycogen in the case of Pompe disease, glycosaminoglycans in the case of the mucopolysaccharidoses, glycoproteins in the cases of the oligosaccharidoses, and sphingolipids in the cases of Niemann-Pick disease types A and B, Gaucher disease, Tay-Sachs disease, Krabbe disease, and metachromatic leukodystrophy...
May 25, 2017: Translational Science of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150934/the-current-status-and-perspectives-regarding-the-clinical-implication-of-intracellular-calcium-in-breast-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Amir Tajbakhsh, Alireza Pasdar, Mehdi Rezaee, Mostafa Fazeli, Saman Soleimanpour, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Zahra FarshchiyanYazdi, Tayebe Younesi Rad, Gordon A Ferns, Amir Avan
Calcium ions (Ca(2+) ) act as second messengers in intracellular signaling. Ca(2+) pumps, channels, sensors, and calcium binding proteins, regulate the concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+) as a key regulator of important cellular processes such as gene expression, proliferation, differentiation, DNA repair, apoptosis, metastasis, and hormone secretion. Intracellular Ca(2+) also influences the functions of several organelles, that include: the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, the Golgi, and cell membrane both in normal and breast cancer cells...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150640/early-endosome-motility-mediates-%C3%AE-amylase-production-and-cell-differentiation-in-aspergillus-oryzae
#14
Yusuke Togo, Yujiro Higuchi, Yoshinori Katakura, Kaoru Takegawa
Recent research in filamentous fungi has revealed that the motility of an endocytic organelle early endosome (EE) has a versatile role in many physiological functions. Here, to further examine the motility of EEs in the industrially important fungus Aspergillus oryzae, we visualized these organelles via the Rab5 homolog AoRab5 and identified AoHok1, a putative linker protein between an EE and a motor protein. The Aohok1 disruptant showed retarded mycelial growth and no EE motility, in addition to an apical accumulation of EEs and peroxisomes...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150402/network-science-of-biological-systems-at-different-scales-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Marko Gosak, Rene Markovič, Jurij Dolenšek, Marjan Slak Rupnik, Marko Marhl, Andraž Stožer, Matjaž Perc
Network science is today established as a backbone for description of structure and function of various physical, chemical, biological, technological, and social systems. Here we review recent advances in the study of complex biological systems that were inspired and enabled by methods of network science. First, we present research highlights ranging from determination of the molecular interaction network within a cell to studies of architectural and functional properties of brain networks and biological transportation networks...
November 3, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150254/subcellular-distribution-and-biotransformation-of-phenanthrene-in-pakchoi-after-inoculation-with-endophytic-pseudomonas-sp-as-probed-using-hrms-coupled-with-isotope-labeling
#16
Kai Sun, Mussie Y Habteselassie, Juan Liu, Shunyao Li, Yanzheng Gao
Contamination of food-crops with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses a grave concern to food safety, especially when PAHs are internalized. We have demonstrated in our previous study that inoculation of crop with a phenanthrene-degrading endophytic Pseudomonas sp. Ph6-gfp could overcome this problem. Here, the subcellular distribution and biotransformation mechanism of phenanthrene in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) seedlings with inoculation of Ph6-gfp were further investigated both in vitro and in vivo...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149721/biological-safety-and-tissue-distribution-of-16-mercaptohexadecyl-trimethylammonium-bromide-modified-cationic-gold-nanorods
#17
Monika Zarska, Michal Sramek, Filip Novotny, Filip Havel, Andrea Babelova, Blanka Mrazkova, Oldrich Benada, Milan Reinis, Ivan Stepanek, Kamil Musilek, Jiri Bartek, Monika Ursinyova, Ondrej Novak, Rastislav Dzijak, Kamil Kuca, Jan Proska, Zdenek Hodny
The exceptionally high cellular uptake of gold nanorods (GNRs) bearing cationic surfactants makes them a promising tool for biomedical applications. Given the known specific toxic and stress effects of some preparations of cationic nanoparticles, the purpose of this study was to evaluate, in an in vitro and in vivo in mouse, the potential harmful effects of GNRs coated with (16-mercaptohexadecyl)trimethylammonium bromide ((MTAB)GNRs). Interestingly, even after cellular accumulation of high amounts of (MTAB)GNRs sufficient for induction of photothermal effect, no genotoxicity (even after longer-term accumulation), induction of autophagy, destabilization of lysosomes (dominant organelles of their cellular destination), alterations of actin cytoskeleton, or in cell migration could be detected in vitro...
November 1, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149699/tetrahymena-cilia-cap-is-built-in-a-multi-step-process-a-study-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#18
Cecília Seixas, João Gonçalves, Luís Viseu Melo, Helena Soares
Cilia are complex and dynamic organelles that have motility and sensory functions. Defects in cilia biogenesis and function are at the origin of human ciliopathies. In motile cilia, a basal body organizes the axoneme composed of nine microtubule doublets surrounding a central pair of singlet microtubules. The distal ends of axonemal microtubules are attached to the membrane by microtubule-capping structures. Little is known about the early steps of cilium assembly. Although cilia grow and resorb from their distal tips, it remains poorly understood where and when the components of the caps are first assembled...
October 20, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149643/the-role-of-the-p38-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway-mediated-autophagy-in-cadmium-exposed-monogonont-rotifer-brachious-koreanus
#19
Hye-Min Kang, Chang-Bum Jeong, Min-Sub Kim, Jin-Sol Lee, Jiaying Zhou, Young Hwan Lee, Duck-Hyun Kim, Eunyoung Moon, Hee-Seok Kweon, Su-Jae Lee, Jae-Seong Lee
Autophagy is a 'self-eating' system that regulates the degradation of cellular components and is involved in various biological processes including survival and development. However, despite its crucial role in organisms, the regulatory mechanism of autophagy remains largely unclear, particularly in invertebrates. In this study, conserved autophagy in the rotifer Brachionus koreanus in response to cadmium (Cd) exposure was verified by measuring acidic vesicle organelles using acridine orange (AO) and neutral red (NR) staining, and by detecting LC3 I/II on Western blot and immunofluorescence...
November 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149609/snapshot-functions-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-membrane-contact-sites
#20
Raquel Salvador-Gallego, Melissa J Hoyer, Gia K Voeltz
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of the nuclear envelope and a reticulated interconnected network of tubules and sheets. ER sheets are studded with ribosomes and provide the entryway for proteins into the secretory pathway. ER tubules move dynamically on microtubules and form membrane contact sites with other organelles, where membranes are tethered, but not fused. This Snapshot reviews key biological processes that take place at ER contact sites with the Golgi, endosomes, and mitochondria.
November 16, 2017: Cell
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