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Shahid Khan, Jonathan M Scholey
Cells from all three domains of life on Earth utilize motile macromolecular devices that protrude from the cell surface to generate forces that allow them to swim through fluid media. Research carried out on archaea during the past decade or so has led to the recognition that, despite their common function, the motility devices of the three domains display fundamental differences in their properties and ancestry, reflecting a striking example of convergent evolution. Thus, the flagella of bacteria and the archaella of archaea employ rotary filaments that assemble from distinct subunits that do not share a common ancestor and generate torque using energy derived from distinct fuel sources, namely chemiosmotic ion gradients and FlaI motor-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis, respectively...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Yinfang Wang, Yitong Huang, Youbin Liu, Jinping Li, Yilong Hao, Peihao Yin, Zongjun Liu, Jingzhou Chen, Ying Wang, Nanping Wang, Peng Zhang
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that are able to change their morphology and cellular distribution by either fission or fusion. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling mitochondrial dynamics in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) remain largely unknown. In this study, we observed that knock down of microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1) in ECs inhibited tube formation and migration, accompanied with decreased promigratory signalings. We showed that MTUS1 was localized in the outer membrane of mitochondria in ECs...
March 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jenna L Gollihue, Samir P Patel, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Mitochondria are essential cellular organelles critical for generating adenosine triphosphate for cellular homeostasis, as well as various mechanisms that can lead to both necrosis and apoptosis. The field of "mitochondrial medicine" is emerging in which injury/disease states are targeted therapeutically at the level of the mitochondrion, including specific antioxidants, bioenergetic substrate additions, and membrane uncoupling agents. Consequently, novel mitochondrial transplantation strategies represent a potentially multifactorial therapy leading to increased adenosine triphosphate production, decreased oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA replacement, improved bioenergetics and tissue sparing...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Yukako Eguchi, Yoshihiro Fukumori, Azuma Taoka
Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize uniform-sized and regularly shaped magnetic nanoparticles in their organelles termed magnetosomes. Homeostasis of the magnetosome lumen must be maintained for its role accomplishment. Here, we developed a method to estimate the pH of a single living cell of the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 using a pH-sensitive fluorescent protein E2 GFP. Using the pH measurement, we estimated that the cytoplasmic pH was approximately 7.6 and periplasmic pH was approximately 7...
March 20, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Xinshen Li, Jianhua Peng, Jinwei Pang, Yue Wu, Xueping Huang, Yong Li, Jian Zhou, Long Gu, Xiaochuan Sun, Ligang Chen, Michael P Vitek, Yong Jiang
COG1410, a mimetic peptide derived from the apolipoprotein E (apoE) receptor binding region, exerts positive effect on neurological deficits in early brain injury (EBI) after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Currently the neuroprotective effect of COG1410 includes inhibiting BBB disruption, reducing neuronal apoptosis, and neuroinflammation. However, the effect and mechanism of COG1410 to subcellular organelles disorder have not been fully investigated. As the main pathway for recycling long-lived proteins and damaged organelles, neuronal autophagy is activated in SAH and exhibits neuroprotective effects by reducing the insults of EBI...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
T Einfalt, D Witzigmann, C Edlinger, S Sieber, R Goers, A Najer, M Spulber, O Onaca-Fischer, J Huwyler, C G Palivan
Despite tremendous efforts to develop stimuli-responsive enzyme delivery systems, their efficacy has been mostly limited to in vitro applications. Here we introduce, by using an approach of combining biomolecules with artificial compartments, a biomimetic strategy to create artificial organelles (AOs) as cellular implants, with endogenous stimuli-triggered enzymatic activity. AOs are produced by inserting protein gates in the membrane of polymersomes containing horseradish peroxidase enzymes selected as a model for natures own enzymes involved in the redox homoeostasis...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Mistianne Feeney, Maike Kittelmann, Rima Menassa, Chris Hawes, Lorenzo Frigerio
Protein storage vacuoles (PSV) are the main repository of protein in dicotyledonous seeds, but little is known about the origins of these transient organelles. PSV are hypothesised to either arise de novo or to originate from the pre-existing embryonic vacuole (EV) during seed maturation. Here, we tested these hypotheses by studying PSV formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) embryos at different stages of seed maturation and recapitulated this process in Arabidopsis leaves reprogrammed to an embryogenic fate by inducing expression of the LEAFY COTYLEDON2 transcription factor...
March 19, 2018: Plant Physiology
Kim L Gonzalez, Sarah E Ratzel, Kendall H Burks, Charles H Danan, Jeanne M Wages, Bethany K Zolman, Bonnie Bartel
Peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles critical for plant and human development because they house essential metabolic functions, such as fatty acid β-oxidation. The interacting ATPases PEX1 and PEX6 contribute to peroxisome function by recycling PEX5, a cytosolic receptor needed to import proteins targeted to the peroxisomal matrix. Arabidopsis pex6 mutants exhibit low PEX5 levels and defects in peroxisomal matrix protein import, oil body utilization, peroxisomal metabolism, and seedling growth. These defects are hypothesized to stem from impaired PEX5 retrotranslocation leading to PEX5 polyubiquitination and consequent degradation of PEX5 via the proteasome or of the entire organelle via autophagy...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lu Wang, Jian Kang, Liangzhong Lim, Yuanyuan Wei, Jianxing Song
TDP-43 inclusions are characterized by a large spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS and Alzheimer's. Functionally, TDP-43 is engaged in forming dynamic granules via liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), which is now recognized to be a general principle for organizing a variety of cellular membrane-less organelles. TDP-43 is composed of the N-terminal domain (NTD) adopting an ubiquitin-like fold, two RRMs and C-terminal domain (CTD) with the low-complexity (LC) prion-like sequences. Previously, only the CTD was found to undergo LLPS to form dynamic liquid droplets with relatively small numbers and sizes...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shuyi Wang, Jun Ren
Alcoholism is accompanied with a high incidence of cardiac morbidity and mortality due to the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, manifested as dilation of one or both ventricles, reduced ventricular wall thickness, myofibrillary disarray, interstitial fibrosis, hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. Several theories have been postulated for the etiology of alcoholic cardiomyopathy including ethanol/acetaldehyde toxicity, mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, oxidative injury, apoptosis, impaired myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and protein synthesis, altered fatty acid extraction and deposition, as well as accelerated protein catabolism...
March 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Debora Fontanini, Andrea Andreucci, Monica Ruffini Castiglione, Adriana Basile, Sergio Sorbo, Alessandro Petraglia, Francesca Degola, Erika Bellini, Laura Bruno, Claudio Varotto, Luigi Sanità di Toppi
Although some charophytes (sister group to land plants) have been shown to synthesize phytochelatins (PCs) in response to cadmium (Cd), the functional characterization of their phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is still completely lacking. To investigate the metal response and the presence of PCS in charophytes, we focused on the species Nitella mucronata. A 40 kDa immunoreactive PCS band was revealed in mono-dimensional western blot by using a polyclonal antibody against Arabidopsis thaliana PCS1. In two-dimensional western blot, the putative PCS showed various spots with acidic isoelectric points, presumably originated by post-translational modifications...
March 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yi Shi, Yanhui Su, Joshua H Lipschutz, Glenn P Lobo
Cilia are highly-conserved organelles projecting from the cell surface of nearly every cell type in vertebrates. Ciliary proteins have essential functions in human physiology, particularly in signaling and organ development. As cilia are a component of almost all vertebrate cells, cilia dysfunction can manifest as a constellation of features that characteristically include, retinal degeneration, renal disease and cerebral anomalies. The terminology "Ciliopathies" refers to inherited human disorders caused by genetic mutations in ciliary genes, leading to cilia dysfunctions that form an important and ever expanding multi-organ disease spectrum...
December 2017: Clin Nephrol Res
Jing Tian, Rong Lv, Wei Guo
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction, which are uncorrelated with underlying coronary artery disease or hypertension. As an important metabolic organelle, mitochondria directly involve the process of cell growth, proliferation, signal transduction, apoptosis and so on. Recent studies have demonstrated a close correlation between the mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The underlying effects of mitochondrial dysfunction in the progress of diabetic cardiomyopathy involve disturbed metabolism, oxidative stress, defective calcium handling, mitochondrial uncoupling, apoptosis, imbalance of mitochondrial quality control and regulation of MicroRNAs...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Matthew M Crane, Matt Kaeberlein
Aging is a fundamental aspect of life, yet also one of the most confounding. In individual cells, aging results in a progressive decline which affects all organelles and reduces a cell's ability to maintain homeostasis. Because of the interconnected nature of cellular systems, the failure of even a single organelle can have cascading effects. We are just beginning to understand the dramatic physiological changes that occur during aging. Because most aging research has focused on population dynamics, or differences between wild-type and mutant populations, single-cell behavior has been largely overlooked...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Systems Biology
Sarah Cohen
Long considered inert fat storage depots, it has become clear that lipid droplets (LDs) are bona fide organelles. Like other organelles, they have a characteristic complement of proteins and lipids, and undergo a life cycle that includes biogenesis, maturation, interactions with other organelles, and turnover. I will discuss recent insights into mechanisms governing the life cycle of LDs, and compare and contrast the LD life cycle with that of other metabolic organelles such as mitochondria, peroxisomes, and autophagosomes, highlighting open questions in the field...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Doreen Baumann, Helen Salia, Lilo Greune, Stephanie Norkowski, Britta Körner, Zina M Uckeley, Gad Frankel, Marianne Guenot, Christian Rüter, M Alexander Schmidt
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) subvert host cell signaling pathways by injecting effector proteins via a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS). The T3SS-dependent EspB protein is a multi-functional effector protein, which contributes to adherence and translocator pore formation and after injection exhibits several intracellular activities. In addition, EspB is also secreted into the environment. Effects of secreted EspB have not been reported thus far. As a surrogate for secreted EspB we employed recombinant EspB (rEspB) derived from the prototype EPEC strain E2348/69 and investigated the interactions of the purified protein with different human epithelial and immune cells including monocytic THP-1 cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, U-937, epithelial T84, Caco-2, and HeLa cells...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Chris Chin Wah Chen, Avigail T Erlich, David A Hood
BACKGROUND: Parkin is a ubiquitin ligase that is involved in the selective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria. This process is termed mitophagy and can assist in mitochondrial quality control. Endurance training can produce adaptations in skeletal muscle toward a more oxidative phenotype, an outcome of enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. It remains unknown whether Parkin-mediated mitophagy is involved in training-induced increases in mitochondrial content and function. Our purpose was to determine a role for Parkin in maintaining mitochondrial turnover in muscle, and its requirement in mediating mitochondrial biogenesis following endurance exercise training...
March 17, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
Jenq-Lin Yang, Sujira Mukda, Shang-Der Chen
Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and mortality in most developing and developed countries. The current best practices for patients with acute ischemic stroke include intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and endovascular thrombectomy for large-vessel occlusion to improve clinical outcomes. However, only a limited portion of patients receive thrombolytic therapy or endovascular treatment because the therapeutic time window after ischemic stroke is narrow. To address the current shortage of stroke management approaches, it is critical to identify new potential therapeutic targets...
March 9, 2018: Redox Biology
Junsheng Yang, Zhuangzhuang Zhao, Mingxue Gu, Xinghua Feng, Haoxing Xu
Cells utilize calcium ions (Ca2+ ) to signal almost all aspects of cellular life, ranging from cell proliferation to cell death, in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. A key aspect of this regulation is the compartmentalization of Ca2+ in various cytoplasmic organelles that act as intracellular Ca2+ stores. Whereas Ca2+ release from the large-volume Ca2+ stores, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus, are preferred for signal transduction, Ca2+ release from the small-volume individual vesicular stores that are dispersed throughout the cell, such as lysosomes, may be more useful in local regulation, such as membrane fusion and individualized vesicular movements...
March 16, 2018: Protein & Cell
Lyubov A Suldina, Ksenia N Morozova, Aleksei G Menzorov, Elena A Kizilova, Elena Kiseleva
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are widely used in developmental biology and transgenic research. Despite numerous studies, ultrastructural reorganization of inner cell mass (ICM) cells during in vitro culture has not yet been described in detail. Here, we for the first time performed comparative morphological and morphometric analyses of three ES cell lines during their derivation in vitro. We compared morphological characteristics of blastocyst ICM cells at 3.5 and 4.5 days post coitum on feeder cells (day 6, passage 0) with those of ES cells at different passages (day 19, passage 2; day 25, passage 4; and passage 15)...
March 16, 2018: Protoplasma
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