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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734275/low-level-of-autophagy-related-gene-10-atg10-expression-in-the-6-hydroxydopamine-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Marzieh Shams Nooraei, Ali Noori-Zadeh, Shahram Darabi, Farzad Rajaei, Zohreh Golmohammadi, Hojjat Allah Abbaszadeh
Background: Autophagy is a mechanism disassembling the damaged organelles from the cell. This study attempted to examine the expression of several autophagy-related genes in Parkinson’s disease (PD) rat model. Methods: The male Wistar rats were divided into three groups as control, sham, and lesion. In the latter group, the PD rat model was induced by the injection of 6-hydroxydopamine in the striatum.The behavioral test was conducted one (baseline) and four weeks after the surgery through apomorphine hydrochloride...
July 23, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732201/small-molecules-for-early-endosome-specific-patch-clamping
#2
Cheng-Chang Chen, Elisabeth S Butz, Yu-Kai Chao, Yulia Grishchuk, Lars Becker, Stefan Heller, Susan A Slaugenhaupt, Martin Biel, Christian Wahl-Schott, Christian Grimm
To resolve the subcellular distribution of endolysosomal ion channels, we have established a novel experimental approach to selectively patch clamp Rab5 positive early endosomes (EE) versus Rab7/LAMP1-positive late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/LY). To functionally characterize ion channels in endolysosomal membranes with the patch-clamp technique, it is important to develop techniques to selectively enlarge the respective organelles. We found here that two small molecules, wortmannin and latrunculin B, enlarge Rab5-positive EE when combined but not Rab7-, LAMP1-, or Rab11 (RE)-positive vesicles...
July 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731030/cryo-em-structure-and-biochemical-analysis-reveal-the-basis-of-the-functional-difference-between-human-pi3kc3-c1-and-c2
#3
Meisheng Ma, Jun-Jie Liu, Yan Li, Yuwei Huang, Na Ta, Yang Chen, Hua Fu, Ming-Da Ye, Yuehe Ding, Weijiao Huang, Jia Wang, Meng-Qiu Dong, Li Yu, Hong-Wei Wang
Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) plays essential roles in vesicular trafficking, organelle biogenesis and autophagy. Two class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3KC3) complexes have been identified in mammals, the ATG14L complex (PI3KC3-C1) and the UVRAG complex (PI3KC3-C2). PI3KC3-C1 is crucial for autophagosome biogenesis, and PI3KC3-C2 is involved in various membrane trafficking events. Here we report the cryo-EM structures of human PI3KC3-C1 and PI3KC3-C2 at sub-nanometer resolution. The two structures share a common L-shaped overall architecture with distinct features...
July 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730277/regulation-of-class-v-myosin
#4
REVIEW
Ning Zhang, Lin-Lin Yao, Xiang-Dong Li
Class V myosin (myosin-5) is a molecular motor that functions as an organelle transporter. The activation of myosin-5's motor function has long been known to be associated with a transition from the folded conformation in the off-state to the extended conformation in the on-state, but only recently have we begun to understand the underlying mechanism. The globular tail domain (GTD) of myosin-5 has been identified as the inhibitory domain and has recently been shown to function as a dimer in regulating the motor function...
July 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730272/mitochondria-as-a-target-of-cardioprotection-in-models-of-preconditioning
#5
REVIEW
Magdaléna Jašová, Ivana Kancirová, Iveta Waczulíková, Miroslav Ferko
Over the recent years the view on mitochondria in the heart as a cellular powerhouse providing ATP supply needed to sustain contractile function, basal metabolic processes, and ionic homeostasis has changed radically. At present it is known that dysfunctions of these organelles are essential in the development of a large number of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, mitochondria are considered to be a very promising target of endogenous strategies that are essential in the protection of the myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion injury...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729959/shot-gun-proteome-and-transcriptome-mapping-of-the-jujube-floral-organ-and-identification-of-a-pollen-specific-s-locus-f-box-gene
#6
Ruihong Chen, Guoliang Chen, Jian Huang
The flower is a plant reproductive organ that forms part of the fruit produced as the flowering season ends. While the number and identity of proteins expressed in a jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) flower is currently unknown, integrative proteomic and transcriptomic analyses provide a systematic strategy of characterizing the floral biology of plants. We conducted a shotgun proteomic analysis on jujube flowers by using a filter-aided sample preparation tryptic digestion, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729873/ageratum-enation-virus-infection-induces-programmed-cell-death-and-alters-metabolite-biosynthesis-in-papaver-somniferum
#7
Ashish Srivastava, Lalit Agrawal, Rashmi Raj, Meraj Jaidi, Shri K Raj, Swati Gupta, Ritu Dixit, Poonam C Singh, Tusha Tripathi, Om P Sidhu, Brahma N Singh, Sudhir Shukla, Puneet S Chauhan, Susheel Kumar
A previously unknown disease which causes severe vein thickening and inward leaf curl was observed in a number of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants. The sequence analysis of full-length viral genome and associated betasatellite reveals the occurrence of Ageratum enation virus (AEV) and Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite (ALCB), respectively. Co-infiltration of cloned agroinfectious DNAs of AEV and ALCB induces the leaf curl and vein thickening symptoms as were observed naturally. Infectivity assay confirmed this complex as the cause of disease and also satisfied the Koch's postulates...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729870/plastid-nucleus-distance-alters-the-behavior-of-stromules
#8
Jessica L Erickson, Matthias Kantek, Martin H Schattat
Plastids send "retrograde" signals to the nucleus to deliver information regarding their physiological status. One open question concerning this signal transfer is how the signal bridges the cytoplasm. Based on individual reports of plastid derived tubular membrane extensions connecting to nuclei, these so-called stromules have been suggested to function as communication routes between plastids and nuclei in response to biotic stress. However, based on the data currently available it is unclear whether interactions between stromules and nuclei are truly intentional or observed as a result of an inflated stromule frequency throughout the cell, and are thus a random event...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728293/-curcumin-induces-apoptosis-and-protective-autophagy-in-human-gastric-cancer-cells-with-different-degree-of-differentiation
#9
W Li, Y Zhou, J Yang, H H Zhang, S L Zhao, T Zhang, J Huo, P Zheng
Objective: To investigate the effect of curcumin on the apoptosis and autophagy of human gastric cancer cells with different degree of differentiation. Methods: Gastric cancer cell lines BGC-823 and MKN-28 were treated with curcumin at different concentrations. The effect of curcumin on cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. Autophagy status was analyzed by acridine orange staining. The expression levels of apoptotic and autophagy-related proteins were detected by Western blot...
July 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727848/the-nuclear-proteome-of-trypanosoma-brucei
#10
Carina Goos, Mario Dejung, Christian J Janzen, Falk Butter, Susanne Kramer
Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan flagellate that is transmitted by tsetse flies into the mammalian bloodstream. The parasite has a huge impact on human health both directly by causing African sleeping sickness and indirectly, by infecting domestic cattle. The biology of trypanosomes involves some highly unusual, nuclear-localised processes. These include polycistronic transcription without classical promoters initiated from regions defined by histone variants, trans-splicing of all transcripts to the exon of a spliced leader RNA, transcription of some very abundant proteins by RNA polymerase I and antigenic variation, a switch in expression of the cell surface protein variants that allows the parasite to resist the immune system of its mammalian host...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726862/a-targeted-delivery-strategy-for-the-development-of-potent-trypanocides
#11
Heeren M Gordhan, Jillian E Milanes, Yijian Qiu, Jennifer E Golden, Kenneth A Christensen, James C Morris, Daniel C Whitehead
A new drug delivery strategy was investigated for the development of potent anti-parasitic compounds against Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. Thus, potent in vitro hexokinase inhibitors were rendered cytotoxic by appending a tripeptide peroxosomal targeting sequence that facilitated delivery of the molecular cargo to the appropriate organelle in the parasite.
July 20, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726848/patch-clamp-technique-to-characterize-ion-channels-in-enlarged-individual-endolysosomes
#12
Cheng-Chang Chen, Chunlei Cang, Stefanie Fenske, Elisabeth Butz, Yu-Kai Chao, Martin Biel, Dejian Ren, Christian Wahl-Schott, Christian Grimm
According to proteomics analyses, more than 70 different ion channels and transporters are harbored in membranes of intracellular compartments such as endosomes and lysosomes. Malfunctioning of these channels has been implicated in human diseases such as lysosomal storage disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic pathologies, as well as in the progression of certain infectious diseases. As a consequence, these channels have engendered very high interest as future drug targets. Detailed electrophysiological characterization of intracellular ion channels is lacking, mainly because standard methods to analyze plasma membrane ion channels, such as the patch-clamp technique, are not readily applicable to intracellular organelles...
August 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726733/interaction-of-mitochondria-with-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-plasma-membrane-in-calcium-homeostasis-lipid-trafficking-and-mitochondrial-structure
#13
REVIEW
Jędrzej Szymański, Justyna Janikiewicz, Bernadeta Michalska, Paulina Patalas-Krawczyk, Mariasole Perrone, Wiesław Ziółkowski, Jerzy Duszyński, Paolo Pinton, Agnieszka Dobrzyń, Mariusz R Więckowski
Studying organelles in isolation has been proven to be indispensable for deciphering the underlying mechanisms of molecular cell biology. However, observing organelles in intact cells with the use of microscopic techniques reveals a new set of different junctions and contact sites between them that contribute to the control and regulation of various cellular processes, such as calcium and lipid exchange or structural reorganization of the mitochondrial network. In recent years, many studies focused their attention on the structure and function of contacts between mitochondria and other organelles...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726664/expanded-phenotype-of-tmem67-gene-mutation-case-report
#14
T Tkemaladze, G Melikishvili, V Kherkheulidze, A Melikishvili, T Davitaia
Human ciliopathies are a class of multi-organ genetic disorders caused by defects of proteins expressed at the primary cilium, an organelle present on the cell surface of almost all cell types. Thus far, dozens of causative genes for ciliopathies have been identified and many of them are known to cause allelic disease. Of particular interest is the TMEM67 gene, encoding the transmembrane protein meckelin. The involvement of the mutant TMEM67 gene is known to be associated with a broad range of clinical presentations, namely Joubert syndrome 6 (JBTS6), nephronophthisis 11 (NPHP11), Bardet-Biedel syndrome (BBS), COACH syndrome, and lethal Meckel syndrome type 3 (MKS3)...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726080/proteomic-approach-to-address-low-seed-germination-in-cyclobalnopsis-gilva
#15
REVIEW
Madiha Zaynab, Sonia Kanwal, Muhammad Furqan, Waqar Islam, Ali Noman, Ghulam Muhammad Ali, Nazia Rehman, Sara Zafar, Kalsoom Sughra, Muhammad Jahanzab
Seeds play essential roles in plant life cycle and germination is a complex process which is associated with different phases of water imbibition. Upon imbibition, seeds begin utilization of storage substances coupled with metabolic activity and biosynthesis of new proteins. Regeneration of organelles and emergence of radicals lead to the establishment of seedlings. All these activities are regulated in coordinated manners. Translation is the requirement of germination of seeds via involvements of several proteins like beta-amylase, starch phosphorylase...
July 19, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725668/data-on-myod-reduction-by-autophagy-in-c2c12-cells
#16
Yeong-Min Yoo, Yung Chul Park
Autophagy is a highly regulated physiologic mechanism in which cells maintain homeostasis by degrading excessive or unnecessary proteins and damaged or aged organelles through the lysosomal machinery (Yorimitsu and Klionsky, 2005) [1]. MyoD is basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that regulate myoblast proliferation and myogenic differentiation. MyoD is expressed in adult skeletal muscle (Megeney et al., 1996) [2] and adult fibers (Brack et al., 2005) [3]. MyoD is mainly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (Floyd et al...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725638/isolation-of-f-novicida-containing-phagosome-from-infected-human-monocyte-derived-macrophages
#17
Valentina Marecic, Olga Shevchuk, Mateja Ozanic, Mirna Mihelcic, Michael Steinert, Antonija Jurak Begonja, Yousef Abu Kwaik, Marina Santic
Francisella is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen, which causes tularemia in humans and animals. A crucial step of Francisella infection is its invasion of macrophage cells. Biogenesis of the Francisella-containing phagosome (FCP) is arrested for ~15 min at the endosomal stage, followed by gradual bacterial escape into the cytosol, where the microbe proliferates. The crucial step in pathogenesis of tularemia is short and transient presence of the bacterium within phagosome. Isolation of FCPs for further studies has been challenging due to the short period of time of bacterial residence in it and the characteristics of the FCP...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725050/carrier-mediated-and-energy-dependent-uptake-and-efflux-of-deoxynivalenol-in-mammalian-cells
#18
Xiaoming Li, Peiqiang Mu, Jikai Wen, Yiqun Deng
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant mycotoxins and exerts many adverse effects on humans and animals. To date, the transporting mechanism of DON in mammalian cells remains unclear. In this study, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA), Transwell models and metabolic inhibitors were used to determine the possible transporting mechanisms of DON in Caco-2, MDCK and HepG2 cells. PAMPA and Transwell models showed reduced passive transport and increased intestinal absorption, indicating a carrier-mediated transporting mechanism...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723556/peroxisome-mediated-metabolism-is-required-for-immune-response-to-microbial-infection
#19
Francesca Di Cara, Avinash Sheshachalam, Nancy E Braverman, Richard A Rachubinski, Andrew J Simmonds
The innate immune response is critical for animal homeostasis and is conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates. This response depends on specialized cells that recognize, internalize, and destroy microbial invaders through phagocytosis. This is coupled to autonomous or non-autonomous cellular signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokine production. Lipids are known signaling factors in this process, as the acute phase response of macrophages is accompanied by systemic lipid changes that help resolve inflammation...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723420/plant-and-yeast-cornichon-possess-a-conserved-acidic-motif-required-for-correct-targeting-of-plasma-membrane-cargos
#20
Paul Rosas-Santiago, Daniel Lagunas-Gomez, Carolina Yáñez-Domínguez, Rosario Vera-Estrella, Olga Zimmermannova, Hana Sychrová, Omar Pantoja
The export of membrane proteins along the secretory pathway is initiated at the endoplasmic reticulum after proteins are folded and packaged inside this organelle by their recruiting into the coat complex COPII vesicles. It is proposed that cargo receptors are required for the correct transport of proteins to its target membrane, however, little is known about ER export signals for cargo receptors. Erv14/Cornichon belong to a well conserved protein family in Eukaryotes, and have been proposed to function as cargo receptors for many transmembrane proteins...
July 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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