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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792880/molecular-alterations-during-larval-development-of-haemonchus-contortus-in-vitro-are-under-tight-post-transcriptional-control
#1
Guangxu Ma, Tao Wang, Pasi K Korhonen, Ching-Seng Ang, Nicholas A Williamson, Neil D Young, Andreas J Stroehlein, Ross S Hall, Anson V Koehler, Andreas Hofmann, Robin B Gasser
In this study, we explored the molecular alterations in the developmental switch from the L3 to the exsheathed L3 (×L3) and to the L4 stage of Haemonchus contortus in vitro using an integrated transcriptomic, proteomic and bioinformatic approach. Totals of 9,754 mRNAs, 88 microRNAs (miRNAs) and 1,591 proteins were identified, and 6,686 miRNA-mRNA pairs inferred in all larval stages studied. Approximately 16% of transcripts in the combined transcriptome (representing all three larval stages) were expressed as proteins, and there were positive correlations (r = 0...
May 22, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792365/protective-effects-of-piceatannol-on-methylglyoxal-induced-cytotoxicity-in-mc3t3-e1-osteoblastic-cells
#2
Kwang Sik Suh, Suk Chon, Eun Mi Choi
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive α-oxoaldehyde that increases under diabetic conditions and subsequently contributes to the complications associated with this disease. Piceatannol is a naturally occurring analogue of resveratrol that possesses multiple biological functions. The present study investigated the effects of piceatannol on MG-induced cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Piceatannol significantly restored MG-induced reductions in cell viability and reduced lactate dehydrogenase release in MG-treated MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, which suggests that it suppressed MG-induced cytotoxicity...
June 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791842/plant-endocytosis-requires-the-er-membrane-anchored-proteins-vap27-1-and-vap27-3
#3
Giovanni Stefano, Luciana Renna, Clarissa Wormsbaecher, Jessie Gamble, Krzysztof Zienkiewicz, Federica Brandizzi
Through yet-undefined mechanisms, the plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a critical role in endocytosis. The plant ER establishes a close association with endosomes and contacts the plasma membrane (PM) at ER-PM contact sites (EPCSs) demarcated by the ER membrane-associated VAMP-associated-proteins (VAP). Here, we investigated two plant VAPs, VAP27-1 and VAP27-3, and found an interaction with clathrin and a requirement for the homeostasis of clathrin dynamics at endocytic membranes and endocytosis. We also demonstrated direct interaction of VAP27-proteins with phosphatidylinositol-phosphate lipids (PIPs) that populate endocytic membranes...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791754/atp-triggers-a-robust-intracellular-ca-2-mediated-signalling-pathway-in-human-synovial-fibroblasts
#4
Kondo C, R B Clark, T Y Kim, Belke D, Banderali U, R T Szerencsei, A H Jalloul, P P M Schnetkamp, Spitzer Kw, Giles Wr
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? In human articular joints, the synovial fibroblast HSF cell population has essential functions including secretion of lubricants. We address some remaining questions concerning activation-secretion coupling by characterizing the main [Ca2+ ]i signalling pathways activated by ATP. What is the main finding and its importance? In HSF ATP acts through a linked G-protein (Gq ) and phospholipase C signalling mechanisms to produce IP-3 which markedly enhances release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum...
May 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791204/role-of-adenosine-signaling-in-coordinating-cardiomyocyte-function-and-coronary-vascular-growth-in-chronic-fetal-anemia
#5
Lowell Davis, James Musso, Divya Soman, Samantha Louey, Jonathan William Nelson, Sonnet S Jonker
Fetal anemia causes rapid and profound changes in cardiac structure and function, stimulating proliferation of the cardiac myocytes, expansion of the coronary vascular tree, and impairing early contraction and relaxation. While HIF-1α is sure to play a role, adenosine, a metabolic byproduct that increases coronary flow and growth, is implicated as a major stimulus for these adaptations. We hypothesized that genes involved in myocardial adenosine signaling would be up-regulated in chronically anemic fetuses, and that calcium handling genes would be down-regulated...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790818/endosomal-and-phagosomal-snares
#6
Ilse Dingjan, Peter T A Linders, Danielle R J Verboogen, Natalia H Revelo, Martin Ter Beest, Geert van den Bogaart
The soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein family is of vital importance for organelle communication. The complexing of cognate SNARE members present in both the donor and target organellar membranes drives the membrane fusion required for intracellular transport. In the endocytic route, SNARE proteins mediate trafficking between endosomes and phagosomes with other endosomes, lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, the plasma membrane, and the endoplasmic reticulum. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the SNAREs involved in endosomal and phagosomal trafficking...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790068/neuritin-attenuates-neuronal-apoptosis-mediated-by-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-vitro
#7
Xiaokun Sun, Linzhi Dai, Hang Zhang, Xuejun He, Fandi Hou, Wengao He, Shijun Tang, Dong Zhao
Neuritin is an extracellular glycophosphatidylinositol-linked protein that promotes neuronal survival, differentiation, function, and repair, but the exact mechanism of this neuroprotective effect remains unclear. Meanwhile, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) induced apoptosis is attracting increased attention. In this work, we hypothesized that neuritin inhibited ERS to protect cortical neurons. To check this hypothesis, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) for 45 min followed by reperfusion (R) to activate ERS...
May 22, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789578/sk-channel-activation-is-neuroprotective-in-conditions-of-enhanced-er-mitochondrial-coupling
#8
Birgit Honrath, Inge E Krabbendam, Carmen IJsebaart, Valentina Pegoretti, Nadia Bendridi, Jennifer Rieusset, Martina Schmidt, Carsten Culmsee, Amalia M Dolga
Alterations in the strength and interface area of contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria contribute to calcium (Ca2+ ) dysregulation and neuronal cell death, and have been implicated in the pathology of several neurodegenerative diseases. Weakening this physical linkage may reduce Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria, while fortifying these organelle contact sites may promote mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and cell death. Small conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (SK) channels regulate mitochondrial respiration, and their activation attenuates mitochondrial damage in paradigms of oxidative stress...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789420/glycosylation-of-recombinant-anticancer-therapeutics-in-different-expression-systems-with-emerging-technologies
#9
REVIEW
Tariq Nadeem, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Bushra Ijaz, Nadeem Ahmed, Zia Ur Rahman, Muhammad Shahzad Latif, Qurban Ali, Muhammad Adeel Rana
Glycosylation, a posttranslational modification, has a major role in recombinant anticancer therapeutic proteins, as most of the approved recombinant therapeutics are glycoproteins. The constant amino acid sequence of therapeutics determines the enzymatic activity, while the presence of glycans influences their pharmacokinetics, solubility, distribution, serum half-life, effector function, and binding to receptors. Glycoproteins expressed in different expression systems acquire their own oligosaccharides, which increases the protein diversity...
May 22, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788888/scap-srebps-are-central-players-in-lipid-metabolism-and-novel-metabolic-targets-in-cancer-therapy
#10
Xiang Cheng, Jianying Li, Deliang Guo
Lipid metabolism reprogramming emerges as a new hallmark of malignancies. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which are central players in lipid metabolism, are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound transcription factors that control the expression of genes important for lipid synthesis and uptake. Their transcriptional activation requires binding to SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) to translocate their inactive precursors from the ER to the Golgi to undergo cleavage and subsequent nucleus translocation of their NH2-terminal forms...
May 22, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788201/genetic-variants-in-autism-related-cntnap2-impair-axonal-growth-of-cortical-neurons
#11
Giorgia Canali, Marta Garcia, Bruno Hivert, Delphine Pinatel, Aline Goullancourt, Ksenia Oguievetskaia, Margaux Saint-Martin, Jean-Antoine Girault, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh, Laurence Goutebroze
The CNTNAP2 gene, coding for the cell adhesion glycoprotein Caspr2, is thought to be one of the major susceptibility genes for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A large number of rare heterozygous missense CNTNAP2 variants have been identified in ASD patients. However, most of them are inherited from an unaffected parent, questioning their clinical significance. In the present study, we evaluate their impact on neurodevelopmental functions of Caspr2 in a heterozygous genetic background. Performing cortical neuron cultures from mouse embryos, we demonstrate that Caspr2 plays a dose-dependent role in axon growth in vitro...
June 1, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788004/juvenile-traumatic-brain-injury-results-in-cognitive-deficits-associated-with-impaired-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-early-tauopathy
#12
Michael J Hylin, Ryan C Holden, Aidan C Smith, Aric F Logsdon, Rabia Qaiser, Brandon P Lucke-Wold
The leading cause of death in the juvenile population is trauma, and in particular neurotrauma. The juvenile brain response to neurotrauma is not completely understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to contribute to injury expansion and behavioral deficits in adult rodents and furthermore has been seen in adult postmortem human brains diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Whether endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased in juveniles with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is poorly delineated...
May 22, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787756/fibronectin-type-iii-domain-containing-4-attenuates-hyperlipidemia-induced-insulin-resistance-via-suppression-of-inflammation-and-er-stress-through-ho-1-expression-in-adipocytes
#13
Wonjae Lee, Subin Yun, Geum Hee Choi, Tae Woo Jung
Although Fibronectin Type III Domain Containing 4 (FNDC4) has been reported to be involved in the modulation of inflammation in macrophages, its effects on inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue are unknown. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FNDC4 on hyperlipidemia-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance in adipocytes via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-mediated pathway. Hyperlipidemia-induced nuclear factor κB (NFκB), inhibitory κBα (IκBα) phosphorylation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and MCP-1 were markedly mitigated by FNDC4...
May 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786576/the-histological-and-electron-microscopic-study-of-the-parotid-salivary-gland-in-dehydrated-rats-of-different-ages
#14
Denys P Biletskyy, Oleg A Ustiansky, Olena S Maksymova, Pavel A Moskalenko, Alexey A Tymoshenko, Anna S Degtyarenko, Viktoriia Yu Harbuzova, Yevhen I Dubovyk, Andrii P Voznyi, Gennadii F Tkach
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Water-salt metabolism disorders is one of the main factor of salivary gland pathology development. The aim: To study the morphological structure of the parotid salivary gland of young, mature and old rats at micro- and ultrastructural levels under water deprivation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The experiment was carried out on thirty six laboratory male rats of different ages (young, mature and old). The rats of the control group received normal volume of drinking water...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785746/systematic-in-depth-proteomic-analysis-of-mitochondria-associated-endoplasmic-reticulum-membranes-mam-in-mouse-and-human-testes
#15
Xiaoli Wang, Yujiao Wen, Juan Dong, Congcong Cao, Shuiqiao Yuan
Mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs) regulate important cellular functions including calcium signaling, bioenergetics, and apoptosis during neurodevelopment and carcinogenesis, but its function in male reproduction and spermatogenesis remains enigmatic because the field lacks a complete understanding of the proteome within testis MAMs. To better understand the biological processes and molecular functions of MAM in testes, here, we report a global mass spectrometry-based proteomic evaluation of the MAM obtained from human testes, mouse testes and brains, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785630/calcium-channels-rho-kinase-protein-kinase-c-and-phospholipase-c-pathways-mediate-mercury-chloride-induced-myometrial-contractions-in-rats
#16
Swati Koli, Atul Prakash, Soumen Choudhury, Rajesh Mandil, Satish K Garg
Adverse effects of mercury on female reproduction are reported; however, its effect on myogenic activity of uterus and mechanism thereof is obscure. Present study was undertaken to unravel the mechanistic pathways of mercuric chloride (HgCl2 )-induced myometrial contraction in rats. Isometric tension in myometrial strips of rats following in vitro exposure to HgCl2 was recorded using data acquisition system-based physiograph. HgCl2 produced concentration-dependent (10 nM-100 μM) uterotonic effect which was significantly (p < 0...
May 21, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784924/allergy-immunotherapy-restores-airway-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-through-suppressing-il-25-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-asthma
#17
Xiefang Yuan, Junyi Wang, Yin Li, Xiang He, Bin Niu, Dehong Wu, Nan Lan, Xiaoyun Wang, Yun Zhang, Xi Dai, Xing Wang, Zhigang Liu, Guoping Li
Constant exposure to allergen triggers destructive type 2 cell-mediated inflammation. The effect of allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) in maintaining airway epithelial barrier function in asthma remains unknown. In the current study, we showed that SIT maintained airway epithelial homeostasis in mice exposed to dermatophagoides farinae (Der f), which induced increased expression of IL-25, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and airway epithelial apoptosis. Meanwhile, SIT treatment ameliorated airway inflammatory infiltration and hyper-responsiveness in allergic mice...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784903/exercise-ameliorates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-vascular-dysfunction-in-mesenteric-arteries-in-atherosclerosis
#18
Junyoung Hong, Kwangchan Kim, Eunkyung Park, Jonghae Lee, Melissa M Markofski, Sean P Marrelli, Yoonjung Park
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is closely associated with atherosclerosis, but the effects of exercise on ER stress-mediated endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis is not yet fully understood. We assessed endothelium-dependent vasodilation in isolated mesenteric arteries from wild type (WT), WT with exercise (WT-EX), ApoE knockout (ApoE KO), and ApoE KO mice with exercise (ApoE KO-EX). Vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh) was elicited in the presence of inhibitors of ER stress, eNOS, caspase-1, and UCP-2 (Tudca, L-NAME, AC-YVARD-cmk, and Genipin, respectively) and the ER stress inducer (Tunicamycin)...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784879/er-resident-protein-46-erp46-triggers-the-mannose-trimming-activity-of-er-degradation-enhancing-%C3%AE-mannosidase-like-protein-3-edem3
#19
Shangyu Yu, Shinji Ito, Ikuo Wada, Nobuko Hosokawa
Protein folding in the cell is regulated by several quality-control mechanisms. Correct folding of glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is tightly monitored by the recognition of glycan signals by lectins in the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. In mammals, mannose trimming from N-glycans is crucial for disposal of misfolded glycoproteins. The mannosidases responsible for this process are ER mannosidase I and ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs). However, the molecular mechanism of mannose removal by EDEMs remains unclear, partly owing to the difficulty of reconstituting mannosidase activity in vitro Here, our analysis of EDEM3-mediated mannose-trimming activity on a misfolded glycoprotein revealed that ERp46, an ER-resident oxidoreductase, associates stably with EDEM3...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784816/encephalitis-is-mediated-by-rop18-of-toxoplasma-gondii-a-severe-pathogen-in-aids-patients
#20
Ran An, Yuewen Tang, Lijian Chen, Haijian Cai, De-Hua Lai, Kang Liu, Lijuan Wan, Linli Gong, Li Yu, Qingli Luo, Jilong Shen, Zhao-Rong Lun, Francisco J Ayala, Jian Du
The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasitic protozoan among mammalian hosts, including humans. During the course of infection, the CNS is the most commonly damaged organ among invaded tissues. The polymorphic rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18) is a key serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) kinase that phosphorylates host proteins to modulate acute virulence. However, the basis of neurotropism and the specific substrates through which ROP18 exerts neuropathogenesis remain unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we performed proteomic analysis of proteins that selectively bind to active ROP18 and identified RTN1-C, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that is preferentially expressed in the CNS...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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