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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922860/structural-plasticity-of-synaptopodin-in-the-axon-initial-segment-during-visual-cortex-development
#1
Annabelle Schlüter, Domenico Del Turco, Thomas Deller, Annika Gutzmann, Christian Schultz, Maren Engelhardt
The axon initial segment (AIS) is essential for action potential generation. Recently, the AIS was identified as a site of neuronal plasticity. A subpopulation of AIS in cortical principal neurons contains stacks of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forming the cisternal organelle (CO). The function of this organelle is poorly understood, but roles in local Ca2+-trafficking and AIS plasticity are discussed. To investigate whether the presence and/or the size of COs are linked to the development and maturation of AIS of cortical neurons, we analyzed the relationship between COs and the AIS during visual cortex development under control and visual deprivation conditions...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922772/plasmolysis-deplasmolysis-causes-changes-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-form-movement-flow-and-cytoskeletal-association
#2
Xiaohang Cheng, Ingeborg Lang, Opeyemi Samson Adeniji, Lawrence Griffing
Plasmolysis of hypocotyl cells of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana diminishes the dynamics of the remodeling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the central protoplast, namely that withdrawn from the cell wall, and more persistent cisternae are formed, yet little change in the actin network in the protoplast occurs. Also, protein flow within the ER network in the protoplast, as detected with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), is not affected by plasmolysis. After plasmolysis, another network of strictly tubular ER remains attached to the plasma membrane-wall interface and is contained within the Hechtian strands and reticulum...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922472/mirna-506-promotes-primary-biliary-cholangitis-like-features-in-cholangiocytes-and-immune-activation
#3
Oihane Erice, Patricia Munoz-Garrido, Javier Vaquero, Maria J Perugorria, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Elena Saez, Alvaro Santos-Laso, Ander Arbelaiz, Raul Jimenez-Agüero, Joaquin Fernandez-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaria, Verónica Torrano, Arkaitz Carracedo, Meenakshisundaram Ananthanarayanan, Marco Marzioni, Jesus Prieto, Ulrich Beuers, Ronald P Oude Elferink, Nicholas F LaRusso, Luis Bujanda, Jose J G Marin, Jesus M Banales
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease associated with autoimmune phenomena targeting intrahepatic bile duct cells (cholangiocytes). Although PBC etiopathogenesis still remains obscure, development of anti-mitochondrial auto-antibodies against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2) is a common feature. MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation occurs in liver and immune cells of PBC patients, but their functional relevance is largely unknown. We previously reported that miR-506 is overexpressed in PBC cholangiocytes and directly targets both Cl(-) /HCO3(-) anion exchanger 2 (AE2) and type III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R3), leading to cholestasis...
September 18, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922469/one-pot-synthesis-of-gdp-mannose-by-a-multi-enzyme-cascade-for-enzymatic-assembly-of-lipid-linked-oligosaccharides
#4
Thomas F T Rexer, Anna Schildbach, Jan Klapproth, Angelika Schierhorn, Reza Mahour, Markus Pietzsch, Erdmann Rapp, Udo Reichl
Glycosylation of proteins is a key function of the biosynthetic-secretory pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. Glycosylated proteins play a crucial role in cell trafficking and signaling, cell-cell adhesion, blood-group antigenicity, and immune response. In addition, the glycosylation of proteins is an important parameter in the optimization of many glycoprotein-based drugs such as monoclonal antibodies. In vitro glycoengineering of proteins requires glycosyltransferases as well as expensive nucleotide sugars...
September 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921568/neuronal-activity-dependent-local-activation-of-dendritic-unfolded-protein-response-promotes-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-cell-soma
#5
Atsushi Saito, Longjie Cai, Koji Matsuhisa, Yosuke Ohtake, Masayuki Kaneko, Soshi Kanemoto, Rie Asada, Kazunori Imaizumi
Unfolded protein response (UPR) has roles not only in resolving the accumulation of unfolded proteins owing to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, but also in regulation of cellular physiological functions. ER stress transducers providing the branches of UPR signaling are known to localize in distal dendritic ER of neurons. These reports suggest that local activation of UPR branches may produce integrated outputs for distant communication, and allow regulation of local events in highly polarized neurons. Here, we demonstrated that synaptic activity- and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent local activation of UPR signaling could be associated with dendritic functions through retrograde signal propagation by using murine neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro-2A and primary cultured hippocampal neurons derived from postnatal day 0 litter C57BL/6 mice...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920994/a-light-up-endoplasmic-reticulum-probe-based-on-a-rational-design-of-red-emissive-fluorogens-with-aggregation-induced-emission
#6
Chong-Jing Zhang, Xiaolei Cai, Shidang Xu, Ruoyu Zhan, Wu Jien, Bin Liu
Fine-tuning electron acceptors through changing one cyano group to an amide generates a more stable and emissive fluorophore with the character of aggregation-induced emission. Conjugation between the new fluorophore and CFFKDEL generated an excellent ER targeting light-up probe with high specificity and good photostability.
September 18, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919885/trypanosoma-cruzi-evades-the-complement-system-as-an-efficient-strategy-to-survive-in-the-mammalian-host-the-specific-roles-of-host-parasite-molecules-and-trypanosoma-cruzi-calreticulin
#7
REVIEW
Galia Ramírez-Toloza, Arturo Ferreira
American Trypanosomiasis is an important neglected reemerging tropical parasitism, infecting about 8 million people worldwide. Its agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, exhibits multiple mechanisms to evade the host immune response and infect host cells. An important immune evasion strategy of T. cruzi infective stages is its capacity to inhibit the complement system activation on the parasite surface, avoiding opsonizing, immune stimulating and lytic effects. Epimastigotes, the non-infective form of the parasite, present in triatomine arthropod vectors, are highly susceptible to complement-mediated lysis while trypomastigotes, the infective form, present in host bloodstream, are resistant...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919480/cholesterol-modulates-the-cellular-localization-of-orai1-channels-and-its-disposition-among-membrane-domains
#8
A Bohórquez-Hernández, Enrico Gratton, Jonathan Pacheco, Alexander Asanov, Luis Vaca
Store Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) is one of the most important mechanisms for calcium mobilization in to the cell. Two main proteins sustain SOCE: STIM1 that acts as the calcium sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Orai1 responsible for calcium influx upon depletion of ER. There are many studies indicating that SOCE is modulated by the cholesterol content of the plasma membrane (PM). However, a myriad of questions remain unanswered concerning the precise molecular mechanism by which cholesterol modulates SOCE...
September 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919256/metabolic-links-between-plasma-cell-survival-secretion-and-stress
#9
REVIEW
Wing Y Lam, Deepta Bhattacharya
Humoral immunity is generated and maintained by antigen-specific antibodies that counter infectious pathogens. Plasma cells are the major producers of antibodies during and after infections, and each plasma cell produces some thousands of antibody molecules per second. This magnitude of secretion requires enormous quantities of amino acids and glycosylation sugars to properly build and fold antibodies, biosynthetic substrates to fuel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) biogenesis, and additional carbon sources to generate energy...
September 11, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919078/slp1-emp65-a-guardian-factor-that-protects-folding-polypeptides-from-promiscuous-degradation
#10
Shan Zhang, Chengchao Xu, Katherine E Larrimore, Davis T W Ng
Newly synthesized proteins engage molecular chaperones that assist folding. Their progress is monitored by quality control systems that target folding errors for degradation. Paradoxically, chaperones that promote folding also direct unfolded polypeptides for degradation. Hence, a mechanism was previously hypothesized that prevents the degradation of actively folding polypeptides. In this study, we show that a conserved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein complex, consisting of Slp1 and Emp65 proteins, performs this function in the ER lumen...
September 11, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918898/endoplasmic-reticulum-transport-of-glutathione-by-sec61-is-regulated-by-ero1-and-bip
#11
Alise J Ponsero, Aeid Igbaria, Maxwell A Darch, Samia Miled, Caryn E Outten, Jakob R Winther, Gael Palais, Benoit D'Autréaux, Agnès Delaunay-Moisan, Michel B Toledano
In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Ero1 catalyzes disulfide bond formation and promotes glutathione (GSH) oxidation to GSSG. Since GSSG cannot be reduced in the ER, maintenance of the ER glutathione redox state and levels likely depends on ER glutathione import and GSSG export. We used quantitative GSH and GSSG biosensors to monitor glutathione import into the ER of yeast cells. We found that glutathione enters the ER by facilitated diffusion through the Sec61 protein-conducting channel, while oxidized Bip (Kar2) inhibits transport...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918474/induction-of-immunogenic-cell-death-in-lymphoma-cells-by-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cell-conditioned-medium
#12
Daniel Hao Lin, Arijit Biswas, Mahesh Choolani, Chui-Yee Fong, Ariff Bongso
Strategies that induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) or downregulate CD47 or PD-L1 expression have resulted in successful therapeutic options for tumor eradication. Several groups have reported the tumoricidal effects of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (hWJSCs) or its conditioned medium (hWJSC-CM) on certain cancers but the mechanisms have not been elucidated. Since hWJSCs possess immunomodulatory properties, we investigated whether one of the tumoricidal mechanisms was via ICD. We first concentrated hWJSC-CM into a 3 kDa concentrate and then exposed various concentrations of this concentrate to human lymphoma cells to find out which concentration had the greatest tumoricidal effect...
September 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918467/anisodamine-inhibits-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-associated-txnip-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-rhabdomyolysis-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#13
Xiaopeng Yuan, Yitao Zheng, Chuanbao Chen, Changxi Wang
Anisodamine protects against free radical-induced cellular damage. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of anisodamine on rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (RIAKI). C57BL/6 J mice, TXNIP(-/-) and NLRP3 (-/-) (both were C57BL/6 J background) mice were used to construct RIAKI model. Anisodamine administration was performed on RIAKI mice only. Mice were divided into control, TXNIP-KD (knock down), LNPR3-KD, and anisodamine group (n = 15 in each group). The renal injury, renal function, renal tubular cells apoptosis and expression of Caspase-1, ASC, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers IRE-1α, CHOP, and ATF4, and interleukin (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-18) were detected...
September 16, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918368/gnptab-missense-mutations-cause-loss-of-glcnac-1-phosphotransferase-activity-in-mucolipidosis-type-ii-through-distinct-mechanisms
#14
Nataniel Floriano Ludwig, Renata Voltolini Velho, Fernanda Sperb-Ludwig, Angelina Xavier Acosta, Erlane Marques Ribeiro, Chong Kim, Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz, Raquel Boy, Maria Juliana Rodovalho-Doriqui, Charles Marques Lourenço, Emerson Santana Santos, Thomas Braulke, Sandra Pohl, Ida Vanessa D Schwartz
Mucolipidoses (ML) II and III alpha/beta are lysosomal storage diseases caused by pathogenic mutations in GNPTAB encoding the α⁄β-subunit precursor of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase. To determine genotype-phenotype correlation and functional analysis of mutant GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase, 13 Brazilian patients clinically and biochemical diagnosed for MLII or III alpha/beta were studied. By sequencing of genomic GNPTAB of the MLII and MLIII alpha/beta patients we identified six novel mutations: p.D76G, p.S385L, p...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917840/both-nitric-oxide-and-nitrite-prevent-homocysteine-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-subsequent-apoptosis-via-cgmp-dependent-pathway-in-neuronal-cells
#15
Sun-Oh Jeong, Yong Son, Ju Hwan Lee, Seung Won Choi, Sung Hun Kim, Yong-Kwan Cheong, Hun-Taeg Chung, Hyun-Ock Pae
Growing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and/or ER stress-mediated apoptosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The present study investigated the effects of non-cytotoxic concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrite, a metabolite of NO, on ER stress and ER stress-mediated apoptosis in Neuro-2a cells exposed to homocysteine (Hcy), an endogenous ER stress inducer. Hcy induced ER stress, as confirmed by inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) phosphorylation and X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp1) mRNA splicing as well as C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression, and apoptosis, as verified by Annexin V-positive cells...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917714/mitochondria-in-the-nervous-system-from-health-to-disease-part-i
#16
EDITORIAL
Brian M Polster, Maria Teresa Carrì, Philip M Beart
In Part I of this Special Issue on "Mitochondria in the Nervous System: From Health to Disease", the editors bring together contributions from experts in brain mitochondrial research to provide an up-to-date overview of mitochondrial functioning in physiology and pathology. The issue provides cutting edge reviews on classical areas of mitochondrial biology that include energy substrate utilization, calcium handling, mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum communication, and cell death regulation. Additional reviews and original research articles touch upon key mitochondrial defects seen across multiple neurodegenerative conditions, including fragmentation, loss of respiratory capacity, calcium overload, elevated reactive oxygen species generation, perturbed NAD(+) metabolism, altered protein acetylation, and compromised mitophagy...
September 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917667/amyloid-%C3%AE-42-clearance-and-neuroprotection-mediated-by-x-box-binding-protein-1-signaling-decline-with-aging-in-the-drosophila-brain
#17
María S Marcora, Lautaro F Belfiori-Carrasco, Nadia I Bocai, Laura Morelli, Eduardo M Castaño
The unfolded protein response (UPR) may be pathogenically related to Alzheimer's disease. Yet, the effects of chronic amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) accumulation and UPR activation upon neurotoxicity remain unclear. Here, we show that neuronal Aβ42 expression in Drosophila activated the inositol-requiring protein-1/X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) UPR branch before the onset of behavioral impairment and persisted with aging. Early upregulation of hsc3/BiP, a target of XBP1 and activating transcription factor 6 pathways, was also sustained in old animals...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917260/roles-of-sigma-1-receptors-on-mitochondrial-functions-relevant-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Tzu-Yu Weng, Shang-Yi Anne Tsai, Tsung-Ping Su
The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a chaperone that resides mainly at the mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (called the MAMs) and acts as a dynamic pluripotent modulator in living systems. At the MAM, the Sig-1R is known to play a role in regulating the Ca(2+) signaling between ER and mitochondria and in maintaining the structural integrity of the MAM. The MAM serves as bridges between ER and mitochondria regulating multiple functions such as Ca(2+) transfer, energy exchange, lipid synthesis and transports, and protein folding that are pivotal to cell survival and defense...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917050/preparation-of-selenocysteine-containing-forms-of-human-selenok-and-selenos
#19
Zhengqi Zhang, Jun Liu, Sharon Rozovsky
Selenoprotein K (SELENOK) and Selenoprotein S (SELENOS) are the members of the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) complex, which is responsible for translocating misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytosol for degradation. Besides its involvement in the ERAD, SELENOK was shown to bind and stabilize the palmitoyl transferase DHHC6, and thus contributes to palmitoylation. SELENOK and SELENOS reside in the ER membrane by the way of a single transmembrane helix. Both contain an intrinsically disordered region with a selenocysteine (Sec) located one or two residues away from the C-terminus...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916755/protein-o-fucosylation-in-plasmodium-falciparum-ensures-efficient-infection-of-mosquito-and-vertebrate-hosts
#20
Sash Lopaticki, Annie S P Yang, Alan John, Nichollas E Scott, James P Lingford, Matthew T O'Neill, Sara M Erickson, Nicole C McKenzie, Charlie Jennison, Lachlan W Whitehead, Donna N Douglas, Norman M Kneteman, Ethan D Goddard-Borger, Justin A Boddey
O-glycosylation of the Plasmodium sporozoite surface proteins CSP and TRAP was recently identified, but the role of this modification in the parasite life cycle and its relevance to vaccine design remain unclear. Here, we identify the Plasmodium protein O-fucosyltransferase (POFUT2) responsible for O-glycosylating CSP and TRAP. Genetic disruption of POFUT2 in Plasmodium falciparum results in ookinetes that are attenuated for colonizing the mosquito midgut, an essential step in malaria transmission. Some POFUT2-deficient parasites mature into salivary gland sporozoites although they are impaired for gliding motility, cell traversal, hepatocyte invasion, and production of exoerythrocytic forms in humanized chimeric liver mice...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
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