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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921583/associations-of-alcohol-intake-smoking-physical-activity-and-obesity-with-survival-following-colorectal-cancer-diagnosis-by-stage-anatomic-site-and-tumor-molecular-subtype
#1
Harindra Jayasekara, Dallas R English, Andrew Haydon, Allison M Hodge, Brigid M Lynch, Christophe Rosty, Elizabeth J Williamson, Mark Clendenning, Melissa C Southey, Mark A Jenkins, Robin Room, John L Hopper, Roger L Milne, Daniel D Buchanan, Graham G Giles, Robert J MacInnis
The influence of lifestyle factors on survival following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is not well established. We examined associations between lifestyle factors measured before diagnosis and CRC survival. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study collected data on alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and physical activity, and body measurements at baseline (1990-94) and wave 2 (2003-07). We included participants diagnosed to 31 August 2015 with incident stage I-III CRC within 10-years post exposure assessment...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881611/inhibition-and-deficiency-of-the-immunoproteasome-subunit-lmp7-suppress-the-development-and-progression-of-colorectal-carcinoma-in-mice
#2
Julia Koerner, Thomas Brunner, Marcus Groettrup
New treatment options and drug targets for colorectal carcinoma are a pressing medical need. Inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by Th1 and Th17 cells like IL-6, TNF, IL-17 and IL-23 promote the development and growth of colorectal cancer (CRC). The immunoproteasome is a proteasome subtype highly expressed in immune cells but also in the intestine. Since the immunoproteasome promotes Th1 and Th17 differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, we investigated here whether deficiency or inhibition of the immunoproteasome subunit LMP7 would interfere with CRC development and exacerbation in preventive and therapeutic mouse models...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865736/association-between-inflammatory-diet-pattern-and-risk-of-colorectal-carcinoma-subtypes-classified-by-immune-responses-to-tumor
#3
Li Liu, Reiko Nishihara, Zhi Rong Qian, Fred K Tabung, Daniel Nevo, Xuehong Zhang, Mingyang Song, Yin Cao, Kosuke Mima, Yohei Masugi, Yan Shi, Annacarolina da Silva, Tyler Twombly, Mancang Gu, Wanwan Li, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Keisuke Kosumi, Kentaro Inamura, Jonathan A Nowak, David A Drew, Paul Lochhead, Katsuhiko Nosho, Kana Wu, Molin Wang, Wendy S Garrett, Andrew T Chan, Charles S Fuchs, Edward L Giovannucci, Shuji Ogino
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary patterns affect systemic and local intestinal inflammation, which have been linked to colorectal carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation can interfere with the adaptive immune response. We investigated whether the association of a diet that promotes intestinal inflammation with risk of colorectal carcinoma was stronger for tumors with lower lymphocytic reactions than tumors with higher lymphocytic reactions. METHODS: We collected data from the molecular pathological epidemiology databases of 2 prospective cohort studies: the Nurses' Health Study (since 1976) and the Health Professional Follow-up Study (since 1986)...
August 30, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844117/well-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-neovasculature-expresses-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-a-possible-novel-therapeutic-target
#4
Maureen Moore, Suraj Panjwani, Rashmi Mathew, Michael Crowley, Yi-Fang Liu, Anna Aronova, Brendan Finnerty, Rasa Zarnegar, Thomas J Fahey, Theresa Scognamiglio
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a type II transmembrane glycoprotein receptor, is highly expressed in prostate cancer and in the tumor neovasculature of colon, breast, and adrenocortical tumors. Here, we analyzed PSMA expression in the neovasculature of various thyroid cancer subtypes and assessed whether PSMA expression is correlated with aggressive behavior. From a prospectively maintained database, we evaluated 91 samples from 68 patients, including 37 primary differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) [11 classic papillary (cPTC), 9 follicular-variant (FvPTC), 11 follicular (FTC), 6 radioactive iodine-refractory (RAIR)], 5 anaplastic (ATC) carcinomas, 9 distant and 12 lymph node metastases, 21 benign thyroid nodules, and 7 normal thyroid specimens...
August 26, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837129/large-scale-comparative-metagenomics-of-blastocystis-a-common-member-of-the-human-gut-microbiome
#5
Francesco Beghini, Edoardo Pasolli, Tin Duy Truong, Lorenza Putignani, Simone M Cacciò, Nicola Segata
The influence of unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms on human gut health and disease is still largely unexplored. Blastocystis spp. commonly colonize the gut, but its clinical significance and ecological role are currently unsettled. We have developed a high-sensitivity bioinformatic pipeline to detect Blastocystis subtypes (STs) from shotgun metagenomics, and applied it to 12 large data sets, comprising 1689 subjects of different geographic origin, disease status and lifestyle. We confirmed and extended previous observations on the high prevalence the microrganism in the population (14...
August 22, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751909/simultaneous-methylation-level-assessment-of-hundreds-of-cpg-sites-by-targeted-bisulfite-pcr-sequencing-tbpseq
#6
Kyuheum Jeon, Byungkuk Min, Jung S Park, Yong-Kook Kang
Methylated-DNA sequencing technologies are producing vast amounts of methylome data from cancer samples, from which cancer-associated differentially methylated CpG sites (cDMCs) are continuously identified and filed. The inclusion of as many cDMCs as possible helps improve the accuracy of cancer diagnosis and sometimes identify cancer subtypes. However, the lack of an established method for the analysis of 100s of cDMCs practically impedes their robust use in clinical medicine. Here, we tested the availability of targeted bisulfite-PCR-sequencing (TBPseq) technology for the assessment of methylation levels of a myriad of CpGs scattered over the genome...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748988/-characterization-of-patients-with-sporadic-colorectal-cancer-following-the-new-consensus-molecular-subtypes-cms
#7
Ana María Wielandt, Cynthia Villarroel, Claudia Hurtado, Daniela Simian, Diego Zamorano, Maripaz Martínez, Magdalena Castro, María Teresa Vial, Udo Kronberg, Francisco López-Kostner
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an heterogeneous disease. Three carcinogenic pathways determine its molecular profile: microsatellite instability (MSI), chromosomal instability (CIN) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Based on the new molecular classification, four consensus CRC molecular subtypes (CMS) are established, which are related to clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of the tumor. AIM: To classify Chilean patients with sporadic CRC according to the new consensus molecular subtypes of carcinogenic pathways...
April 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748213/metabolic-reprogramming-underlies-metastatic-potential-in-an-obesity-responsive-murine-model-of-metastatic-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#8
Ciara H O'Flanagan, Emily L Rossi, Shannon B McDonell, Xuewen Chen, Yi-Hsuan Tsai, Joel S Parker, Jerry Usary, Charles M Perou, Stephen D Hursting
The vast majority of cancer-related deaths are due to metastatic disease, whereby primary tumor cells disseminate and colonize distal sites within the body. Triple negative breast cancer typically displays aberrant Wnt signaling, lacks effective targeted therapies, and compared with other breast cancer subtypes, is more likely to recur and metastasize. We developed a Wnt-driven lung metastasis model of triple negative breast cancer (metM-Wnt(lung)) through serial passaging of our previously described, nonmetastatic, claudin-low M-Wnt cell line...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742689/lymphangiogenic-gene-expression-is-associated-with-lymph-node-recurrence-and-poor-prognosis-after-partial-hepatectomy-for-colorectal-liver-metastasis
#9
Thomas T Vellinga, Onno Kranenburg, Nicola Frenkel, Inge Ubink, Dieuwke Marvin, Klaas Govaert, Susanne van Schelven, Jeroen Hagendoorn, Inne H Borel Rinkes
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relevance of lymphangiogenic gene expression in primary and liver metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and identify determinants of lymphatic invasion. BACKGROUND: Lymphatic development promoting vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is associated with poor outcome in primary CRC. For colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM), intrahepatic lymph invasion and lymph node metastasis are poor prognostic factors. Exact biological factors promoting lymphatic involvement remain elusive, just as the association with molecular subtypes of CRC...
July 24, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739799/lgr5-receptor-promotes-cell-cell-adhesion-in-stem-cells-and-colon-cancer-cells-via-the-iqgap1-rac1-pathway
#10
Kendra S Carmon, Xing Gong, Jing Yi, Ling Wu, Anthony Thomas, Catherine M Moore, Ikuo Masuho, David J Timson, Kirill A Martemyanov, Qingyun J Liu
Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) is a bona fide marker of adult stem cells in several epithelial tissues, most notably in the intestinal crypts, and is highly up-regulated in many colorectal, hepatocellular, and ovarian cancers. LGR5 activation by R-spondin (RSPO) ligands potentiates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vitro; however, deletion of LGR5 in stem cells has little or no effect on Wnt/β-catenin signaling or cell proliferation in vivo Remarkably, modulation of LGR5 expression has a major impact on the actin cytoskeletal structure and cell adhesion in the absence of RSPO stimulation, but the molecular mechanism is unclear...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698102/neonatal-nav1-5-protein-expression-in-normal-adult-human-tissues-and-breast-cancer
#11
Rezan Fahrioglu Yamaci, Scott P Fraser, Esra Battaloglu, Handan Kaya, Kamil Erguler, Christopher S Foster, Mustafa B A Djamgoz
Expression of the neonatal splice variant of the voltage-gated sodium channel α-subunit (VGSC) subtype Nav1.5 (nNav1.5), encoded by the gene SCN5A, was shown earlier to be upregulated in human breast cancer (BCa), both in vitro and in vivo. Channel activity promoted BCa invasion of Matrigel(®)in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Consequently, expression of nNav1.5 has been proposed as a functional biomarker of BCa cells with metastatic potential. Here, we have determined immunohistochemically both nNav1.5 and total VGSC (tVGSC) protein expression in a range of adult human tissues...
August 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692036/neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-affects-molecular-classification-of-colorectal-tumors
#12
K Trumpi, I Ubink, A Trinh, M Djafarihamedani, J M Jongen, K M Govaert, S G Elias, S R van Hooff, J P Medema, M M Lacle, L Vermeulen, I H M Borel Rinkes, O Kranenburg
The recent discovery of 'molecular subtypes' in human primary colorectal cancer has revealed correlations between subtype, propensity to metastasize and response to therapy. It is currently not known whether the molecular tumor subtype is maintained after distant spread. If this is the case, molecular subtyping of the primary tumor could guide subtype-targeted therapy of metastatic disease. In this study, we classified paired samples of primary colorectal carcinomas and their corresponding liver metastases (n=129) as epithelial-like or mesenchymal-like, using a recently developed immunohistochemistry-based classification tool...
July 10, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690657/epigenetic-silencing-of-mort-is-an-early-event-in-cancer-and-is-associated-with-luminal-receptor-positive-breast-tumor-subtypes
#13
Lukas Vrba, Bernard Walter Futscher
Immortality is an essential characteristic of cancer cells; a recent transcriptomic study of epithelial cell immortalization has linked epigenetic silencing of the long noncoding RNA Mortal Obligate RNA Transcript (MORT; alias ZNF667-AS1) to this process. This study evaluated the epigenetic and transcriptional state of MORT in two premalignant conditions-ductal carcinomas in situ and colon adenomas. Results show that MORT silencing is an early epigenetic event in human carcinogenesis, likely occurring near the point where premalignant cells gain immortality; this epigenetic silencing is maintained throughout malignant transformation and metastatic growth...
June 2017: Journal of Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684753/line-1-hypomethylation-is-not-a-common-event-in-preneoplastic-stages-of-gastric-carcinogenesis
#14
Juozas Kupcinskas, Ruta Steponaitiene, Cosima Langner, Giedre Smailyte, Jurgita Skieceviciene, Limas Kupcinskas, Peter Malfertheiner, Alexander Link
LINE-1 hypomethylation is widely accepted as marker for global genomic DNA hypomethylation, which is a frequent event in cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate LINE-1 methylation status at different stages of gastric carcinogenesis and evaluate its prognostic potential in clinical settings. LINE-1 methylation was analyzed in 267 tissue samples by bisulfite pyrosequencing including primary colorectal cancer tissues (T-CRC) with corresponding adjacent colon mucosa (N-CRC), gastric cancer tissues (T-GC) with corresponding gastric mucosa (N-GC), normal gastric tissues (N), chronic non-atrophic and atrophic gastritis (CG)...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683746/multi-omics-of-34-colorectal-cancer-cell-lines-a-resource-for-biomedical-studies
#15
Kaja C G Berg, Peter W Eide, Ina A Eilertsen, Bjarne Johannessen, Jarle Bruun, Stine A Danielsen, Merete Bjørnslett, Leonardo A Meza-Zepeda, Mette Eknæs, Guro E Lind, Ola Myklebost, Rolf I Skotheim, Anita Sveen, Ragnhild A Lothe
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines are widely used pre-clinical model systems. Comprehensive insights into their molecular characteristics may improve model selection for biomedical studies. METHODS: We have performed DNA, RNA and protein profiling of 34 cell lines, including (i) targeted deep sequencing (n = 612 genes) to detect single nucleotide variants and insertions/deletions; (ii) high resolution DNA copy number profiling; (iii) gene expression profiling at exon resolution; (iv) small RNA expression profiling by deep sequencing; and (v) protein expression analysis (n = 297 proteins) by reverse phase protein microarrays...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683472/comprehensive-analysis-of-copy-number-aberrations-in-microsatellite-stable-colon-cancer-in-view-of-stromal-component
#16
M Henar Alonso, Susanna Aussó, Adriana Lopez-Doriga, David Cordero, Elisabet Guinó, Xavier Solé, Mercè Barenys, Javier de Oca, Gabriel Capella, Ramón Salazar, Rebeca Sanz-Pamplona, Victor Moreno
BACKGROUND: Somatic copy number aberrations (CNAs) are common acquired changes in cancer cells having an important role in the progression of colon cancer (colorectal cancer, CRC). This study aimed to perform a characterisation of CNA and their impact in gene expression. METHODS: Copy number aberrations were inferred from SNP array data in a series of 99 CRC. Copy number aberration events were calculated and used to assess the association between copy number dosage, clinical and molecular characteristics of the tumours, and gene expression changes...
July 25, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676564/calcium-intake-and-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-according-to-expression-status-of-calcium-sensing-receptor-casr
#17
Wanshui Yang, Li Liu, Yohei Masugi, Zhi Rong Qian, Reiko Nishihara, NaNa Keum, Kana Wu, Stephanie Smith-Warner, Yanan Ma, Jonathan A Nowak, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Libin Zhang, Michaela Bowden, Teppei Morikawa, Annacarolina da Silva, Molin Wang, Andrew T Chan, Charles S Fuchs, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Kimmie Ng, Edward Giovannucci, Shuji Ogino, Xuehong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Although evidence suggests an inverse association between calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer, the mechanisms remain unclear. The calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) is expressed abundantly in normal colonic epithelium and may influence carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that calcium intake might be associated with lower risk of CASR-positive, but not CASR-negative, colorectal cancer. DESIGN: We assessed tumour CASR protein expression using immunohistochemistry in 779 incident colon and rectal cancer cases that developed among 136 249 individuals in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study...
July 4, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674287/a-case-of-myasthenia-gravis-and-myositis-induced-by-nivolumab
#18
Fumie Konoeda, Shigeaki Suzuki, Yoshinori Nishimoto, Haruhiko Hoshino, Makoto Takagi
A 74-year-old woman, who developed advanced colon cancer with focal recurrence, received two courses of a low dose of nivolumab. Five days after the second course she noticed bilateral ptosis. Her symptoms rapidly progressed to generalized manifestations including limb and neck weakness, dyspnea, and myalgia within the following two weeks. Neurological and laboratory findings supported the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis and myositis induced by nivolumab. The combination immunotherapy including oral prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange with noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation successfully avoid tracheal intubation...
June 30, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660748/angiotensin-ii-subtype-1a-receptor-signaling-in-resident-hepatic-macrophages-induces-liver-metastasis-formation
#19
Yuki Shimizu, Hideki Amano, Yoshiya Ito, Tomohiro Betto, Sakiko Yamane, Tomoyoshi Inoue, Nobuyuki Nishizawa, Yoshio Matsui, Mariko Kamata, Masaki Nakamura, Hidero Kitasato, Wasaburo Koizumi, Masataka Majima
Liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) are a clinically significant problem. The renin-angiotensin system is involved in tumor growth and metastases. This study was designed to evaluate the role of angiotensin II subtype receptor 1a (AT1a) in the formation of liver metastasis in CRC. A model of liver metastasis was developed by intrasplenic injection of mouse colon cancer (CMT-93) into AT1a knockout mice (AT1aKO) and wild-type (C57BL/6) mice (WT). Compared with WT mice, the liver weight and liver metastatic rate were significantly lower in AT1aKO...
September 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651562/grape-a-pathway-template-method-to-characterize-tissue-specific-functionality-from-gene-expression-profiles
#20
Michael I Klein, David F Stern, Hongyu Zhao
BACKGROUND: Personalizing treatment regimes based on gene expression profiles of individual tumors will facilitate management of cancer. Although many methods have been developed to identify pathways perturbed in tumors, the results are often not generalizable across independent datasets due to the presence of platform/batch effects. There is a need to develop methods that are robust to platform/batch effects and able to identify perturbed pathways in individual samples. RESULTS: We present Gene-Ranking Analysis of Pathway Expression (GRAPE) as a novel method to identify abnormal pathways in individual samples that is robust to platform/batch effects in gene expression profiles generated by multiple platforms...
June 26, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
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