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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352814/does-adherence-to-the-world-cancer-research-fund-american-institute-of-cancer-research-cancer-prevention-guidelines-reduce-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-the-uk-women-s-cohort-study
#1
Petra Jones, Janet E Cade, Charlotte E L Evans, Neil Hancock, Darren C Greenwood
Evidence on adherence to diet-related cancer prevention guidelines and associations with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is limited and conflicting. The aim of this cohort analysis is to evaluate associations between adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) 2007 recommendations and incident CRC. The UK Women's Cohort Study comprises over 35 372 women who filled in a FFQ at baseline in 1995. They were followed up for CRC incidence for a median of 17·4 years, an individual score linking adherence to eight of the WCRF/AICR recommendations was constructed...
January 21, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352087/subtype-specific-selection-for-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-but-not-to-tetracyclines-occurs-in-campylobacter-jejuni-from-beef-cattle-in-confined-feeding-operations-in-southern-alberta-canada
#2
Andrew L Webb, L Brent Selinger, Eduardo N Taboada, G Douglas Inglis
Campylobacter jejuni was longitudinally isolated from beef cattle housed in four confined feeding operations (CFOs) in southern Alberta over 18 months. All of the cattle were administered a variety of antimicrobial agents (AMAs) non-therapeutically and metaphylactically during their time in the CFOs. In total, 7966 C. jejuni isolates were recovered from cattle. More animals were colonized by the bacterium after >60 days in the CFO (i.e. interim) compared to individuals upon entry at the CFO (i.e. arrival)...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341983/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-and-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children-in-davidson-county-tennessee-united-states-a-case-control-study
#3
Aamer Imdad, Monique A Foster, Junaid Iqbal, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Daniel C Payne, Chengxian Zhang, James D Chappell, Natasha Halasa, Oscar G Gómez-Duarte
BACKGROUND: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children; however, there is limited information available on the epidemiology, phylogenetics, serotyping, and antibiotic susceptibility of DEC in children in the United States. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of DEC among children with and without acute gastroenteritis in Davidson County, Tennessee. METHODS: This prospective, frequency matched, case-control study recruited subjects 15 days to 17 years of age and detected DEC with polymerase chain reaction from stool samples...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305856/expression-and-regulation-of-proton-coupled-oligopeptide-transporters-in-colonic-tissue-and-immune-cells-of-mice
#4
Yuqing Wang, Yongjun Hu, Ping Li, Yayun Weng, Nobuhiko Kamada, Huidi Jiang, David E Smith
A number of studies have implicated proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters (POTs) in the initiation and/or progression of inflammatory bowel disease and immune cell signaling. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to delineate the expression of POTs in mouse colonic tissues and immune cells, and characterize the potential role of these transporters in nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) signaling. Using a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, we found that DSS down regulated Pht1 gene expression and up regulated Pht2 gene expression in colonic tissue and immune cells...
January 3, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285256/investigation-of-rip140-and-lcor-as-independent-markers-for-poor-prognosis-in-cervical-cancer
#5
Aurelia Vattai, Vincent Cavailles, Sophie Sixou, Susanne Beyer, Christina Kuhn, Mina Peryanova, Helene Heidegger, Kerstin Hermelink, Doris Mayr, Sven Mahner, Christian Dannecker, Udo Jeschke, Bernd Kost
Introduction: RIP140 (Receptor Interacting Protein) is involved in the regulation of oncogenic signaling pathways and in the development of breast and colon cancers. The aim of the study was to analyze the expression of RIP140 and its partner LCoR in cervical cancers, to decipher their relationship with histone protein modifications and to identify a potential link with patient survival. Methods: Immunohistochemical analyses were carried out to quantify RIP140 and LCoR expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections cervical cancer samples...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285252/immunological-landscape-of-consensus-clusters-in-colorectal-cancer
#6
Pawel Karpinski, Joanna Rossowska, Maria Malgorzata Sasiadek
Recent, large-scale expression-based subtyping has advanced our understanding of the genomic landscape of colorectal cancer (CRC) and resulted in a consensus molecular classification that enables the categorization of most CRC tumors into one of four consensus molecular subtypes (CMS). Currently, major progress in characterization of immune landscape of tumor-associated microenvironment has been made especially with respect to microsatellite status of CRCs. While these studies profoundly improved the understanding of molecular and immunological profile of CRCs heterogeneity less is known about repertoire of the tumor infiltrating immune cells of each CMS...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280285/treatment-related-changes-after-short-term-exposure-of-sd-rats-to-aloe-vera-whole-leaf-freeze-dried-powder
#7
Tao Chen, Li Wang, Chunyan Hu
Aloe vera is a widely used natural herb from which many sorts of commercial products have been derived using different preparation technologies. Aloe whole-leaf powder is one of the most popular subtypes. The long-term impact of aloe products has already been reported; however, there have been few studies about short-term exposure, and especially about the relative impact of Aloe vera whole-leaf freeze-dried powder (AWFP). To provide more toxicological data and to document the early changes induced by AWFP, in this study 120 SD rats were divided into four groups (control and 400/1200/2000 mg/kg treatment groups) and were administered AWFP once daily by oral gavage for 28 consecutive days, followed by a two week recovery phase...
October 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273547/-molecular-characterisation-defines-several-subtypes-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#8
REVIEW
Jérôme Raffenne, Jérôme Cros
Multi-omics high throughput analyses lead to the description of multiple molecular subtypes of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with major prognostic impact for most of them. There is no consensual multilevel integrative classification yet like in colon or breast cancers. Genomic classifications have identified a tumor subtype (15% of the patients) with deficient homologous DNA repair-system leading to increase sensitivity to platinum-based therapies and possibly to PARP inhibitors and immunotherapies. Transcriptomic classifications are still debated but all have identified an aggressive subtype with a very poor prognosis, presumably unfit for a surgical approach...
December 19, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259703/prostaglandin-e2-ep2-signaling-as-a-node-of-chronic-inflammation-in-the-colon-tumor-microenvironment
#9
REVIEW
Tomohiro Aoki, Shuh Narumiya
Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer. Involvement of prostaglandin (PG) system in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer has been suggested from clinical studies demonstrating therapeutic effect of NSAIDs including aspirin or selective COX-2 inhibitors. However, mechanisms on how PG regulates inflammatory responses leading to colorectal cancer development remain obscure. Further, careful attention is needed to use these drugs for a long time because of adverse effects due to non-specific inhibition of physiological PG production in addition to pathological one, making the development of alternatives to aspirin important...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241223/tumour-sidedness-and-intrinsic-subtypes-in-patients-with-stage-ii-iii-colon-cancer-analysis-of-nsabp-c-07-nrg-oncology
#10
S Rim Kim, Nan Song, Greg Yothers, Patrick G Gavin, Carmen J Allegra, Soonmyung Paik, Katherine L Pogue-Geile
BACKGROUND: We tested the association of colon tumour sidedness with prognosis and with molecular subtypes recently shown to be predictive of oxaliplatin benefit in stage III colon cancer. METHODS: NSABP/NRG C-07 trial (N=1603) was used to determine association of tumour sidedness with molecular subtypes and recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Sidedness was associated with molecular subtypes except stem-like/CMS4 subtype...
December 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228901/the-relation-between-blastocystis-and-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-swedish-travellers
#11
Joakim Forsell, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Martin Angelin, Anders Johansson, Birgitta Evengård, Margareta Granlund
BACKGROUND: Blastocystis sp. is a unicellular eukaryote that is commonly found in the human intestine. Its ability to cause disease is debated and a subject for ongoing research. In this study, faecal samples from 35 Swedish university students were examined through shotgun metagenomics before and after travel to the Indian peninsula or Central Africa. We aimed at assessing the impact of travel on Blastocystis carriage and seek associations between Blastocystis and the bacterial microbiota...
December 11, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212459/acquisition-and-persistence-of-strain-specific-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-their-determinants-in-community-nursing-homes
#12
Nataliya G Batina, Christopher J Crnich, Dörte Döpfer
BACKGROUND: Nursing home residents are frequently colonized with various strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but the intra-facility dynamics of strain-specific MRSA remains poorly understood. We aimed at identifying and quantifying the associations between acquisition and carriage of MRSA strains and their potential risk factors in community nursing homes using mathematical modeling. METHODS: The data was collected during a longitudinal MRSA surveillance study in six nursing homes in South Central Wisconsin...
December 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212164/targeted-sequencing-of-established-and-candidate-colorectal-cancer-genes-in-the-colon-cancer-family-registry-cohort
#13
Leon Raskin, Yan Guo, Liping Du, Mark Clendenning, Christophe Rosty, Noralane M Lindor, Stephen B Gruber, Daniel D Buchanan
The underlying genetic cause of colorectal cancer (CRC) can be identified for 5-10% of all cases, while at least 20% of CRC cases are thought to be due to inherited genetic factors. Screening for highly penetrant mutations in genes associated with Mendelian cancer syndromes using next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be prohibitively expensive for studies requiring large samples sizes. The aim of the study was to identify rare single nucleotide variants and small indels in 40 established or candidate CRC susceptibility genes in 1,046 familial CRC cases (including both MSS and MSI-H tumor subtypes) and 1,006 unrelated controls from the Colon Cancer Family Registry Cohort using a robust and cost-effective DNA pooling NGS strategy...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198958/inhalation-anaesthetic-isoflurane-inhibits-the-muscarinic-cation-current-and-carbachol-induced-gastrointestinal-smooth-muscle-contractions
#14
Dariia Dryn, Jialie Luo, Mariia Melnyk, Alexander Zholos, Hongzhen Hu
Gastrointestinal tract motility may be demoted significantly after surgery operations at least in part due to anaesthetic agents, but there is no comprehensive explanation of the molecular mechanism(s) of such adverse effects. Anesthetics are known to interact with various receptors and ion channels including several subtypes of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Two members of the canonical subfamily of TRP channels (TRPC), TRPC4 and TRPC6 are Ca2+-permeable cation channels involved in visceral smooth muscle contractility induced by acetylcholine, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the gut...
November 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190923/prognostic-values-of-distinct-cbx-family-members-in-breast-cancer
#15
Yuan-Ke Liang, Hao-Yu Lin, Chun-Fa Chen, De Zeng
Chromobox (CBX) family proteins are canonical components in polycomb repressive complexes 1 (PRC1), with epigenetic regulatory function and transcriptionally repressing target genes via chromatin modification. A plethora of studies have highlighted the function specifications among CBX family members in various cancer, including lung cancer, colon cancer and breast cancer. Nevertheless, the functions and prognostic roles of distinct CBX family members in breast cancer (BC) remain elusive. In this study, we reported the prognostic values of CBX family members in patients with BC through analysis of a series of databases, including CCLE, ONCOMINE, Xena Public Data Hubs, and Kaplan-Meier plotter...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187560/multi-omics-approach-reveals-distinct-differences-in-left-and-right-sided-colon-cancer
#16
Wangxiong Hu, Yanmei Yang, Xiaofen Li, Minran Huang, Fei Xu, Weiting Ge, Suzhan Zhang, Shu Zheng
Increasing evidence suggests that left-sided colon cancer (LCC) and right-sided colon cancer (RCC) are emerging as two different colorectal cancer (CRC) types with distinct clinical characteristics. However, the discrepancy in the underlying molecular event between these types of cancer has not been thoroughly elucidated to date and warrants comprehensive investigation. To this end, an integrated data set from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was used to compare and contrast LCC and RCC, covering mutation, DNA methylation, gene expression, and miRNA...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180604/classifying-colorectal-cancer-by-tumor-location-rather-than-sidedness-highlights-a-continuum-in-mutation-profiles-and-consensus-molecular-subtypes
#17
Jonathan M Loree, Allan Al Pereira, Michael Lam, Alexandra N Willauer, Kanwal Raghav, Arvind Dasari, Van K Morris, Shailesh M Advani, David G Menter, Cathy Eng, Kenna Shaw, Russell Broaddus, Mark J Routbort, Yusha Liu, Jeffrey Morris, Rajyalakshmi Luthra, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Michael J Overman, Dipen M Maru, Scott Kopetz
PURPOSE: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) are classified as right/left sided based on whether they occur before/after the splenic flexure, with established differences in molecular subtypes and outcomes.  However, it is unclear if this division is optimal and whether precise tumor location provides further information. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In 1,876 patients with CRC we compared mutation prevalence and overall survival (OS) according to side and location. Consensus Molecular Subtype (CMS) was compared in a separate cohort of 608 patients...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169336/multi-region-and-single-cell-sequencing-reveal-variable-genomic-heterogeneity-in-rectal-cancer
#18
Mingshan Liu, Yang Liu, Jiabo Di, Zhe Su, Hong Yang, Beihai Jiang, Zaozao Wang, Meng Zhuang, Fan Bai, Xiangqian Su
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous group of malignancies with complex molecular subtypes. While colon cancer has been widely investigated, studies on rectal cancer are very limited. Here, we performed multi-region whole-exome sequencing and single-cell whole-genome sequencing to examine the genomic intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) of rectal tumors. METHODS: We sequenced nine tumor regions and 88 single cells from two rectal cancer patients with tumors of the same molecular classification and characterized their mutation profiles and somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) at the multi-region and the single-cell levels...
November 23, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166611/ccr5-directs-the-mobilization-of-cd11b-gr1-ly6c-low-polymorphonuclear-myeloid-cells-from-the-bone-marrow-to-the-blood-to-support-tumor-development
#19
Elias Hawila, Hila Razon, Gizi Wildbaum, Carolin Blattner, Yair Sapir, Yuval Shaked, Viktor Umansky, Nathan Karin
Cells of hematopoietic origin can be subdivided into cells of the lymphoid lineage and those of the myeloid lineage, among which are myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). The MDSCs can be further divided into CD11b(+)Ly6G(-)Ly6C(hi) monocytic (Mo) MDSCs and CD11b(+)Ly6G(+)Ly6C(low) polymorphonuclear (PMN) MDSCs. Both subtypes support tumor growth and suppress anti-tumor immunity. Their accumulation at the tumor site includes mobilization from the bone marrow to the blood followed by colonization at the tumor site...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164052/development-of-novel-patient-derived-xenografts-from-breast-cancer-brain-metastases
#20
María J Contreras-Zárate, D Ryan Ormond, Austin E Gillen, Colton Hanna, Nicole L Day, Natalie J Serkova, Britta M Jacobsen, Susan M Edgerton, Ann D Thor, Virginia F Borges, Kevin O Lillehei, Michael W Graner, Peter Kabos, Diana M Cittelly
Brain metastases are an increasing burden among breast cancer patients, particularly for those with HER2(+) and triple negative (TN) subtypes. Mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of brain metastases and preclinical validation of therapies has relied almost exclusively on intracardiac injection of brain-homing cells derived from highly aggressive TN MDA-MB-231 and HER2(+) BT474 breast cancer cell lines. Yet, these well characterized models are far from representing the tumor heterogeneity observed clinically and, due to their fast progression in vivo, their suitability to validate therapies for established brain metastasis remains limited...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
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