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myocardial infarction physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630605/xinfuli-granule-improves-post-myocardial-infarction-ventricular-remodeling-and-myocardial-fibrosis-in-rats-by-regulating-tgf-%C3%AE-smads-signaling-pathway
#1
Jie Ma, Zhi-Yuan Li, Xiao-Peng Liang, Cai-Xia Guo, Pei-Pei Lu, Li-Hong Ma
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical and experimental studies have confirmed the effects of Xinfuli Granule (XG), a compound Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of heart failure (HF). This study aimed to investigate the effects and the mechanisms of XG on ventricular reconstruction in rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left anterior descending branch ligation. The rats that survived 24 h were randomly assigned to five groups: medium-dose of XG group (MI+XGM), high-dose of XG group (MI+XGH), carvedilol group (MI+C), medium-dose of XG + carvedilol group (MI+C+XGM)...
May 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623159/epigenetic-biomarkers-and-cardiovascular-disease-circulating-micrornas
#2
David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Vicenta Llorente-Cortés
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNA (20-25 nucleotides) involved in gene regulation. In recent years, miRNAs have emerged as a key epigenetic mechanism in the development and physiology of the cardiovascular system. These molecular species regulate basic functions in virtually all cell types, and are therefore directly associated with the pathophysiology of a large number of cardiovascular diseases. Since their relatively recent discovery in extracellular fluids, miRNAs have been studied as potential biomarkers of disease...
June 13, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621684/expression-of-hypothalamic-neurohormones-and-their-receptors-in-the-human-eye
#3
Sander R Dubovy, Maria P Fernandez, Jose J Echegaray, Norman L Block, Noriyuki Unoki, Roberto Perez, Irving Vidaurre, Richard K Lee, Mehrdad Nadji, Andrew V Schally
Extrapituitary roles for hypothalamic neurohormones have recently become apparent and clinically relevant, based on the use of synthetic peptide analogs for the treatment of multiple conditions including cancers, pulmonary edema and myocardial infarction. In the eye, it has been suggested that some of these hormones and their receptors may be present in the ciliary body, iris, trabecular meshwork and retina, but their physiological role has yet to be elucidated. Our study intends to comprehensively demonstrate the expression of some hypothalamic neuroendocrine hormones and their receptors within different retinal and extraretinal structures of the human eye...
June 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619598/incremental-prognostic-value-of-a-complex-left-ventricular-remodeling-classification-in-asymptomatic-for-heart-failure-hypertensive-patients
#4
Iacopo Fabiani, Nicola Riccardo Pugliese, Salvatore La Carrubba, Lorenzo Conte, Francesco Antonini-Canterin, Paolo Colonna, Frank Benedetto, Enrico Calogero, Valentina Barletta, Scipione Carerj, Simona Buralli, Stefano Taddei, Maria Francesca Romano, Vitantonio Di Bello
We evaluated the prognostic impact of a complex remodeling classification (CRC) in asymptomatic patients with arterial hypertension (AH). We retrospectively included 749 hypertensive patients (female 325, 43.4% age 62 ± 11.3 years) in Stages A and B of heart failure. CRC was evaluated including indexed left ventricular mass, end-diastolic volume, and relative wall thickness. After 45-month follow-up, we considered a composite endpoint: total mortality, myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization, cerebrovascular events, and acute pulmonary edema...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615705/a-long-term-and-slow-releasing-hydrogen-sulfide-donor-protects-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#5
Xiaotian Sun, Wenshuo Wang, Jing Dai, Sheng Jin, Jiechun Huang, Changfa Guo, Chunsheng Wang, Liewen Pang, Yiqing Wang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as an important gasotransmitter exerting various physiological effects, especially in the cardiovascular system. Herein we investigated the cardioprotective effects of a novel long-term and slow-releasing H2S donor, DATS-MSN, using in vivo myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models and in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation cardiomyocyte models. Unlike the instant-releasing pattern of sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS), the release of H2S from DATS-MSN was quite slow and continuous both in the cell culture medium and in rat plasma (elevated H2S concentrations during 24 h and 72 h reperfusion)...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599373/the-99th-percentile-of-reference-population-for-ctni-and-ctnt-assay-methodology-pathophysiology-and-clinical-implications
#6
REVIEW
Aldo Clerico, Martina Zaninotto, Andrea Ripoli, Silvia Masotti, Concetta Prontera, Claudio Passino, Mario Plebani
According to recent international guidelines, including the 2012 Third Universal Definiton of Myocardial Infarction by the Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF Task Force, an increase in cardiac troponin (cTn) levels over the 99th percentile upper reference limit (99th URL) should be considered clinically relevant, this cut-off being measured with an imprecision ≤10 CV%. In theory 99th URL values strongly depend not only on demographic and physiological variables (i.e. criteria for considering the reference population "healthy"), but also on the analytical performance of cTn methods and mathematical algorithms used for the calculation...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577226/pet-measurements-of-myocardial-blood-flow-post-myocardial-infarction-relationship-to-invasive-and-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-studies-and-potential-clinical-applications
#7
Henry Gewirtz
This review focuses on clinical studies concerning assessment of coronary microvascular and conduit vessel function primarily in the context of acute and sub acute myocardial infarction (MI). The ability of quantitative PET measurements of myocardial blood flow (MBF) to delineate underlying pathophysiology and assist in clinical decision making in this setting is discussed. Likewise, considered are physiological metrics fractional flow reserve, coronary flow reserve, index of microvascular resistance (FFR, CFR, IMR) obtained from invasive studies performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory, typically at the time of PCI for MI...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551635/enhanced-susceptibility-to-5-fluorouracil-in-human-colon-cancer-cells-by-silencing-of-grp78
#8
Seungpil Yun, Yong-Seok Han, Jun Hee Lee, Sangmin Kim, Sang Hun Lee
BACKGROUND: Glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), also known as immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein and as heat shock 70 kDa protein 5, is present in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. GRP78 is generally expressed at low concentrations, but is increased by physiological stress. GRP78 is thought to protect against tissue or organ damage under pathological conditions, such as neurotoxic stress, myocardial infarction, or arteriosclerosis. In addition, in tumors, GRP78 expression is much higher than in normal tissues...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550172/myocardial-overexpression-of-timp3-following-myocardial-infarction-exerts-beneficial-effects-through-promoting-angiogenesis-and-suppressing-early-proteolysis
#9
Abhijit Takawale, Pu Zhang, Abul Azad, Wang Wang, Xiuhua Wang, Allan G Murray, Zamaneh Kassiri
Myocardial infarction (MI) results in loss of cardiomyocytes, adverse extracellular matrix (ECM) and structural remodeling, left ventricular (LV) dilation and dysfunction. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the main regulators of ECM turnover. TIMPs also have MMP-independent functions. TIMP3 levels are reduced in the heart within 24 hours of MI in mice. We investigated if overexpression of TIMP3 post-MI limits adverse remodeling, LV dilation and dysfunction...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538000/revascularization-for-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-and-stable-ischemic-heart-disease-an-update
#10
G B John Mancini, Michael Farkouh, Subodh Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the management of patients with diabetes mellitus and requiring coronary revascularization. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence continues to show that patients with diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease represent a very high-risk group of patients. Choice of stent appears important for minimizing target lesion and target vessel adverse events with everolimus eluting stents having the best performance, particularly in patients being treated with insulin...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526928/exosomes-in-cardiovascular-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Iain M Dykes
Exosomes are small, extracellular membrane-bound particles that mediate intercellular transport of a cytosolic cargo. Exosomal transfer of micro-RNA can modify gene expression in targeted cells. Exosome-based endocrine/paracrine signaling has been shown to be involved in a wide range of physiological processes including those associated with cardiovascular injury and disease, but remains relatively poorly understood. Exosomes offer great potential to the clinical field, with applications in both diagnostics and therapeutics...
May 19, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524859/mesenchymal-stem-cells-sense-mitochondria-released-from-damaged-cells-as-danger-signals-to-activate-their-rescue-properties
#12
Meriem Mahrouf-Yorgov, Lionel Augeul, Claire Crola Da Silva, Maud Jourdan, Muriel Rigolet, Sylvie Manin, René Ferrera, Michel Ovize, Adeline Henry, Aurélie Guguin, Jean-Paul Meningaud, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Roberto Motterlini, Roberta Foresti, Anne-Marie Rodriguez
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect tissues against cell death induced by ischemia/reperfusion insults. This therapeutic effect seems to be controlled by physiological cues released by the local microenvironment following injury. Recent lines of evidence indicate that MSC can communicate with their microenvironment through bidirectional exchanges of mitochondria. In particular, in vitro and in vivo studies report that MSCs rescue injured cells through delivery of their own mitochondria. However, the role of mitochondria conveyed from somatic cells to MSC remains unknown...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520537/anomalous-origin-of-right-coronary-artery-from-left-coronary-sinus-13-cases-treated-with-the-reimplantation-technique
#13
Alain Cubero, Alejandro Crespo, Gadah Hamzeh, Andrés Cortes, Daniel Rivas, José Ignacio Aramendi
OBJECTIVES: Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery is uncommon but potentially clinically significant. Manifestations vary from asymptomatic patients to those who present with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, heart failure, syncope, arrhythmias, and sudden death. We describe our experience with surgical reimplantation and results at midterm follow-up. METHODS: Between February 2003 and July 2016, a total of 13 patients with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery (RCA) from the left sinus underwent surgical reimplantation...
May 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518124/direct-re-implantation-of-left-coronary-artery-into-the-aorta-in-adults-with-anomalous-origin-of-left-coronary-artery-from-the-pulmonary-artery-alcapa
#14
Reza Tavakoli, Peiman Jamshidi, Nassrin Yamani, Max Gassmann
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly which is one of leading causes of myocardial ischemia and infarction in children. If left untreated, it results in a 90% mortality rate in the first year of life. In patients who survive to the adulthood, the coronary steal phenomenon and retrograde left-sided coronary flow provide a substrate for chronic subendocardial ischemia, which may lead to left ventricular dysfunction, ischemic mitral regurgitation, malignant ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516795/a-comprehensive-guide-to-telocytes-and-their-great-potential-in-cardiovascular-system
#15
I Kucybala, P Janas, S Ciuk, W Cholopiak, W Klimek-Piotrowska, M K Holda
Telocytes, a recently discovered type of interstitial cells, have a very distinctive morphology - the small cell body with long extensions, named telopodes. In our review, apart from introducing general aspects of telocytes, we focus on properties, functions and future potential of those cells in cardiovascular system. However, physiological functions of telocytes in cardiovascular system are still regarded as quite enigmatic. Previous studies claim that they play a role in organogenesis and regeneration, bioelectrical signalling, mechanoelectrical coupling, anti-oxidative protection, angiogenesis and regulation of blood flow...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515341/bet-bromodomain-inhibition-suppresses-innate-inflammatory-and-profibrotic-transcriptional-networks-in-heart-failure
#16
Qiming Duan, Sarah McMahon, Priti Anand, Hirsh Shah, Sean Thomas, Hazel T Salunga, Yu Huang, Rongli Zhang, Aarathi Sahadevan, Madeleine E Lemieux, Jonathan D Brown, Deepak Srivastava, James E Bradner, Timothy A McKinsey, Saptarsi M Haldar
Despite current standard of care, the average 5-year mortality after an initial diagnosis of heart failure (HF) is about 40%, reflecting an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches. Previous studies demonstrated that the epigenetic reader protein bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), an emerging therapeutic target in cancer, functions as a critical coactivator of pathologic gene transactivation during cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. However, the therapeutic relevance of these findings to human disease remained unknown...
May 17, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487175/epinephrine-induced-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-during-laparoscopic-myomectomy-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Joseph Nassif, Hasan Nahouli, Ali Khali, Elie Mikhael, Walid Gharzeddine, Ghina Ghaziri
Laparoscopic myomectomy, a minimally invasive procedure performed for the management of uterine leiomyomas involves a challenging aspect: excessive local bleeding. Hemorrhage control during laparoscopic myomectomy could be reached through the use of a wide range of vasoconstrictors including epinephrine. Epinephrine is frequently used for the control of local bleeding during surgery; however, it has been associated with several complications. In this case report, we present a rare and unique case of stress-induced cardiomyopathy, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC), caused by intra-myomal injection of epinephrine during laparoscopic myomectomy...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478830/glutathione-sodium-salt-as-a-novel-adjunctive-treatment-for-acute-myocardial-infarction
#18
G Truscelli, G Tanzilli, N Viceconte, M Dominici, A Arrivi, L Sommariva, A Granatelli, C Gaudio, E Mangieri
Timely recanalization of infarct related artery along with effective myocardial cell reperfusion represents a major challenge in the management of STEMI. The reperfusion of coronary arteries can induce further cardiomyocyte death by generating oxidative stress, which itself can mediate myocardial damage through a number of different mechanisms. Based on experimental and clinical studies, interventions to treat reperfusion injury by antioxidants were considered to be an appropriate therapeutic option. We emphasize the hypothesis that glutathione sodium salt, a physiologic antioxidant, may be of value when administered to STEMI patients both at an early stage of myocardial reperfusion by primary angioplasty and for up to three days after the procedure, in addition to standard treatment...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474494/a-putative-association-of-interleukin-10-promoter-polymorphisms-with-cardiovascular-disease
#19
Shams Tabrez, Murtaza Ali, Nasimudeen R Jabir, Chelapram K Firoz, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Salwa Hindawi, Ghazi A Damanhouri, Mohammed Nabil Alama
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti inflammatory cytokine involved in the ongoing coronary inflammation and related patho-physiological processes. The piece of work presented herein is aimed at investigating possible association of polymorphisms in IL-10 promoter with Saudi cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients. The study included 80 confirmed CVD patients with diabetes and 75 healthy control individuals both men and women. Concentration of IL-10 in the serum samples were measured by ELISA method. For single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, Sanger method of DNA sequencing was followed...
May 5, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473280/safety-of-early-performance-of-the-six-minute-walk-test-following-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Lívia S Diniz, Victor R Neves, Ana C Starke, Marco P T Barbosa, Raquel R Britto, Antônio L P Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a simple, low cost, reliable, and valid method for evaluating the functional capacity of cardiac patients. However, its early use and safety following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is recent and has been little investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and to compare the safety and the cardiac behavior of early performance of the 6MWT in patients following uncomplicated AMI up to 4 days or more than 4 days after the event...
May 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
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