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myocardial infarction physiology

Tony G Walsh, Alastair W Poole
Our understanding of platelet function has traditionally focused on their roles in physiological hemostasis and pathological thrombosis, the latter being causative of vessel occlusion and subsequent ischemic damage to various tissues. In particular, numerous in vivo studies have implicated causative roles for platelets in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to the myocardium. However, platelets clearly have more complex pathophysiological roles particularly as a result of the heterogeneous nature of biologically active cargo secreted from their granules, or contained within released microparticles or exosomes...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Uma Mahesh R Avula, Jonathan J Hernandez, Masatoshi Yamazaki, Carmen R Valdivia, Antony Chu, Alvaro Rojas-Pena, Kuljeet Kaur, Roberto Ramos-Mondragón, Justus M Anumonwo, Stanley Nattel, Héctor H Valdivia, Jérôme Kalifa
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying spontaneous atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with atrial ischemia/infarction are incompletely elucidated. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underlying spontaneous AF in an ovine model of left atrial myocardial infarction (LAMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: LAMI was created by ligating the atrial branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery. ECG loop recorders were implanted to monitor AF episodes. In 7 sheep, dantrolene-a ryanodine receptor blocker-was administered in vivo during the 8-day observation period (LAMI-D, 2...
March 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Bence Hegyi, Julie Bossuyt, Leigh G Griffiths, Rafael Shimkunas, Zana Coulibaly, Zhong Jian, Kristin N Grimsrud, Claus S Sondergaard, Kenneth S Ginsburg, Nipavan Chiamvimonvat, Luiz Belardinelli, András Varró, Julius G Papp, Piero Pollesello, Jouko Levijoki, Leighton T Izu, W Douglas Boyd, Tamás Bányász, Donald M Bers, Ye Chen-Izu
Heart failure (HF) following myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with high incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. Development of therapeutic strategy requires detailed understanding of electrophysiological remodeling. However, changes of ionic currents in ischemic HF remain incompletely understood, especially in translational large-animal models. Here, we systematically measure the major ionic currents in ventricular myocytes from the infarct border and remote zones in a porcine model of post-MI HF. We recorded eight ionic currents during the cell's action potential (AP) under physiologically relevant conditions usingself AP-clamp sequential dissection...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Keiji Kuba
Cardiovascular diseases are major increasing causes of death in developed countries. Coordinated transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is crucial to maintain normal heart physiology. Dysregulation of these processes causes and/or accompanies multiple pathologies, such as cardiomyopathy and myocardial infarction. The exonuclease-mediated shortening of the mRNA poly(A) tail, a process called deadenylation, is a key step in regulated mRNA degradation, and deadenylation is mostly executed by the CCR4-NOT complex...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Timothy D Bryson, Xiaosong Gu, Remonda M Khalil, Safa Khan, Liping Zhu, Jiang Xu, Edward Peterson, Xiao-Ping Yang, Pamela Harding
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) signals through 4 separate G-protein coupled receptor sub-types to elicit a variety of physiologic and pathophysiological effects. We recently reported that PGE2 via its EP3 receptor could reduce cardiac contractility of isolated myocytes and the working heart preparation. We thus hypothesized that there is an imbalance in the EP3/EP4 ratio towards EP3 in the failing heart and that overexpression of EP4 in a mouse model of heart failure would improve cardiac function...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Yufeng Li, Zhiwei Liu, Yiqian Zhang, Qixiang Zhao, Xiaoyu Wang, Peng Lu, Hao Zhang, Zhu Wang, Hongyan Dong, Zhongming Zhang
Pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) is known to exert diverse physiological activities. Previous studies suggest that hypoxia could induce mitophagy. Astoundingly, under hypoxic condition, we found that PEDF decreased the mitochondrial density of cardiomyocytes. In this study, we evaluated whether PEDF could decrease the mitochondrial density and play a protective role in hypoxic cardiomyocytes via promoting mitophagy. Immunostaining and western blotting were used to analyze mitochondrial density and mitophagy of hypoxic cardiomyocytes...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Irina V Chadaeva, Petr M Ponomarenko, Dmitry A Rasskazov, Ekaterina B Sharypova, Elena V Kashina, Dmitry A Zhechev, Irina A Drachkova, Olga V Arkova, Ludmila K Savinkova, Mikhail P Ponomarenko, Nikolay A Kolchanov, Ludmila V Osadchuk, Alexandr V Osadchuk
BACKGROUND: The progress of medicine, science, technology, education, and culture improves, year by year, quality of life and life expectancy of the populace. The modern human has a chance to further improve the quality and duration of his/her life and the lives of his/her loved ones by bringing their lifestyle in line with their sequenced individual genomes. With this in mind, one of genome-based developments at the junction of personalized medicine and bioinformatics will be considered in this work, where we used two Web services: (i) SNP_TATA_Comparator to search for alleles with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that alters the affinity of TATA-binding protein (TBP) for the TATA boxes of human gene promoters and (ii) PubMed to look for retrospective clinical reviews on changes in physiological indicators of reproductive potential in carriers of these alleles...
February 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Tian-Rui Yang, Yun-Bo Miao, Rong-Ping Zhang, Jin-Wen Yu
OBJECTIVE: To establish an ex vivo model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion in tree shrews. METHODS: The Langendorff ex vivo heart perfusion system was used to establish the myocardial ischemia reperfusion model in tree shrews with different irrigation and reperfusion time settings. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were measured by enzyme-labeled immunosorbent assay, creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) was detected using immunosuppression method, and malondialdehyde was measured with thiobarbital staining method; the infarct size was measured using 2, 3, 5-triphenyltrazoliumchloride (TTC) method...
February 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Angelino Calderone
The intermediate filament protein nestin was identified in diverse populations of cells implicated in cardiovascular remodeling. Cardiac resident neural progenitor/stem cells constitutively express nestin and following an ischemic insult migrate to the infarct region and participate in angiogenesis and neurogenesis. A modest number of normal adult ventricular fibroblasts express nestin and the intermediate filament protein is upregulated during the progression of reparative and reactive fibrosis. Nestin depletion attenuates cell cycle re-entry suggesting that increased expression of the intermediate filament protein in ventricular fibroblasts may represent an activated phenotype accelerating the biological impact during fibrosis...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Onur Zorbozan, Arif A Cevik, Nurdan Acar, Engin Ozakin, Hamit Ozcelik, Alparslan Birdane, Fikri M Abu-Zidan
We aimed to define factors predicting mortality in patients having ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who had Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) in our setting.This is a prospective study on patients presenting to the emergency department with STEMI who underwent PCI during a 12-month period. Physiological parameters were calculated using the vital signs and age of patients. Time-based factors in the institutional protocol were collected. Univariate analysis was performed to define significant factors that affected mortality...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Magdalena Harakalova, Folkert W Asselbergs
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a form of severe failure of cardiac muscle caused by a long list of etiologies ranging from myocardial infarction, DNA mutations in cardiac genes, to toxics. Systems analysis integrating next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based omics approaches, such as the sequencing of DNA, RNA, and chromatin, provide valuable insights into DCM mechanisms. The outcome and interpretation of NGS methods can be affected by the localization of cardiac biopsy, level of tissue degradation, and variable ratios of different cell populations, especially in the presence of fibrosis...
February 27, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Melinda S Schaller, Joel L Ramirez, Warren J Gasper, Greg J Zahner, Nancy K Hills, S Marlene Grenon
OBJECTIVE: Frailty, a syndrome characterized by decreased physiologic reserves and resistance to stressors, is associated with disability, poor surgical outcomes, and mortality. We evaluated the impact of frailty on cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients with intermittent claudication. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of patients with stable intermittent claudication enrolled in the OMEGA-PAD Study between 2010-2015...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Ioannis Smyrnias, Normann Goodwin, Dagmar Wachten, Jonas Skogestad, Jan Magnus Aronsen, Emma L Robinson, Kateryna Demydenko, Anne Segonds-Pichon, David Oxley, Sakthivel Sadayappan, Karin Sipido, Martin D Bootman, H Llewelyn Roderick
The shortening of sarcomeres that co-ordinates the pump function of the heart is stimulated by electrically-mediated increases in [Ca2+ ]. This process of excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) is subject to modulation by neurohormonal mediators that tune the output of the heart to meet the needs of the organism. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent modulator of cardiac function with effects on contraction amplitude, chronotropy and automaticity. The actions of ET-1 are evident during normal adaptive physiological responses and increased under pathophysiological conditions, such as following myocardial infarction and during heart failure, where ET-1 levels are elevated...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Lillianne H Wright, Daniel J Herr, Symone S Brown, Harinath Kasiganesan, Donald R Menick
Myocardial infarctions (MIs) cause the loss of myocytes due to lack of sufficient oxygenation and latent revascularization. Although the administration of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reduces the size of infarctions and improves cardiac physiology in small-animal models of MI injury, the cellular targets of the HDACs, which the drugs inhibit, are largely unspecified. Here, we show that WNT-inducible secreted protein-1 (Wisp-1), a matricellular protein that promotes angiogenesis in cancers as well as cell survival in isolated cardiac myocytes and neurons, is a target of HDACs...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
I S Stafeev, M Y Menshikov, V A Tkachuk, E V Parfenova
A new trend in modern experimental cardiology is the development of approaches to correction of reparation after myocardial infarction (MI) with the use of specific effects on immune cells. One of the main targets for such interventions is the process of macrophage's polarization in the infarction zone. Proinflammatory M1‑macrophages contribute to hampered myocardial repair, in contrast to M2‑macrophages that promote regeneration. Currently, there are two main ways of targeted delivery of agents necessary for macrophage reprogramming - inlipoid and inglycan-encapsulated particles...
December 2017: Kardiologiia
A Mahalakshmi, Gino A Kurian
Earlier literature underlines that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathology of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), diabetes mellitus (DM), fibrosis and hypertrophy which could adversely affect the normal cardiac function. However, the contributory role of oxidative stress in I/R pathology of heart with pre-existing abnormalities or diseases like DM and DCM remains to be explored. I/R injury was induced in normal (normal diet), DM (normal diet + streptozotocin: multiple low dose of 30mg/kg) and DCM (high fat diet (40% fat) + streptozotocin: multiple low dose of 30mg/kg) rat hearts using Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus...
February 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Mohammad Jamshed Siddiqui, Mohamad Fadly Bin Kamarudin, Abdul Kareem Mohammed Al-Shami, Siti Zaiton Mat So'ad, Shazia Qasim Jamshed
Hypertension is a pathological condition in which the blood pressure is higher than under normal physiological conditions, i.e., 140/90 mmHg or higher. Blood pressure is measured as the force exerted by the blood pumped by the heart against the walls of arteries (aorta) and distributed throughout the body. Use of complementary and alternative medicine as a cure for hypertension is a common phenomenon because of the high risk of cardiovascular complications and kidney diseases caused by conventional Western medicine...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Zhan Wang, Sang Jin Lee, Heng-Jie Cheng, James J Yoo, Anthony Atala
Bioengineering of a functional cardiac tissue composed of primary cardiomyocytes has great potential for myocardial regeneration and in vitro tissue modeling. However, its applications remain limited because the cardiac tissue is a highly organized structure with unique physiologic, biomechanical, and electrical properties. In this study, we undertook a proof-of-concept study to develop a contractile cardiac tissue with cellular organization, uniformity, and scalability by using three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting strategy...
February 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Jonghanne Park, Joo Myung Lee, Bon-Kwon Koo, Eun-Seok Shin, Chang-Wook Nam, Joon-Hyung Doh, Doyeon Hwang, Jinlong Zhang, Xinyang Hu, JianAn Wang, Fei Ye, Shaoliang Chen, Junqing Yang, Jiyan Chen, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Hiroyoshi Yokoi, Hitoshi Matsuo, Hiroaki Takashima, Yasutsugu Shiono, Takashi Akasaka
BACKGROUND: Understanding of the risk conferred by functionally insignificant lesions in multiple coronary vessels is limited. We investigated the prognostic implications of coronary artery disease (CAD) based on 3-vessel fractional flow reserve (FFR). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1,136 patients underwent FFR measurement in the 3 major epicardial arteries. We defined vessels with "Moderate CAD" as vessels with FFR, 0.81 to 0.87. Patients were classified into Group 1: No apparent CAD (FFR>0...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Peifang Cong, Yunen Liu, Nannan Liu, Yubiao Zhang, Changci Tong, Lin Shi, Xuelei Liu, Xiuyun Shi, Ying Liu, Zhou Tong, Mingxiao Hou
BACKGROUND: Exposure to cold weather is associated with infaust cardiovascular responses, including myocardial infarction and arrhythmias. However, the exact mechanisms of these adverse changes in the myocardium under cold stress are unknown. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms of cardiac injury induced by cold stress in mice. METHODS: The mice were randomly divided into three groups, normal control (no handling), 1-week cold stress and 2-week cold stress...
February 15, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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