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myocardial infarction physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149759/dusp1-alleviates-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-suppressing-the-mff-required-mitochondrial-fission-and-bnip3-related-mitophagy-via-the-jnk-pathways
#1
Qinhua Jin, Ruibing Li, Nan Hu, Ting Xin, Pingjun Zhu, Shunying Hu, Sai Ma, Hong Zhu, Jun Ren, Hao Zhou
Mitochondrial fission and selective mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) form an essential axis of mitochondrial quality control that plays a critical role in the development of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the precise upstream molecular mechanism of fission/mitophagy remains unclear. Dual-specificity protein phosphatase1 (DUSP1) regulates cardiac metabolism, but its physiological contribution in the reperfused heart, particularly its influence on mitochondrial homeostasis, is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that cardiac DUSP1 was downregulated following acute cardiac IR injury...
November 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146117/implications-of-disturbances-in-circadian-rhythms-for-cardiovascular-health-a-new-frontier-in-free-radical-biology
#2
REVIEW
Neelam Khaper, Craig D C Bailey, Nilesh R Ghugre, Cristine Reitz, Zikra Awosanmi, Ryan Waines, Tami A Martino
Cell autonomous circadian "clock" mechanisms are present in virtually every organ, and generate daily rhythms that are important for normal physiology. This is especially relevant to the cardiovascular system, for example the circadian mechanism orchestrates rhythms in heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac contractility, metabolism, gene and protein abundance over the 24-hour day and night cycles. Conversely, disturbing circadian rhythms (e.g. via shift work, sleep disorders) increases cardiovascular disease risk, and exacerbates cardiac remodelling and worsens outcome...
November 13, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137693/another-chance-at-life-jordanian-patients-experience-of-going-through-a-myocardial-infarction
#3
Ali Ahmad Ammouri, Joy Kabasindi Kamanyire, Ahmad H Abu Raddaha, Susan Achora, Arwa Atef Obeidat
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a life-threatening health condition that has physical, spiritual, emotional, and social changes. Understanding feelings and thoughts of patients who suffered MI attacks is essential to recovery. Among Jordanian patients who suffered an acute attack of MI, the aim of the study was to describe the experiences and the varied meanings that they assign to their experiences. METHODS: A qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological research design was used...
November 1, 2017: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125794/sr-b1-a-unique-multifunctional-receptor-for-cholesterol-influx-and-efflux
#4
Wen-Jun Shen, Salman Azhar, Fredric B Kraemer
The scavenger receptor, class B type 1 (SR-B1), is a multiligand membrane receptor protein that functions as a physiologically relevant high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor whose primary role is to mediate selective uptake or influx of HDL-derived cholesteryl esters into cells and tissues. SR-B1 also facilitates the efflux of cholesterol from peripheral tissues, including macrophages, back to liver. As a regulator of plasma membrane cholesterol content, SR-B1 promotes the uptake of lipid soluble vitamins as well as viral entry into host cells...
November 9, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113999/index-of-microcirculatory-resistance-at-the-time-of-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-predicts-early-cardiac-complications-insights-from-the-oxami-oxford-study-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-cohort
#5
Gregor Fahrni, Mathias Wolfrum, Giovanni Luigi De Maria, Florim Cuculi, Sam Dawkins, Mohammad Alkhalil, Niket Patel, John C Forfar, Bernard D Prendergast, Robin P Choudhury, Keith M Channon, Adrian P Banning, Rajesh K Kharbanda
BACKGROUND: Early risk stratification after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction is currently challenging. Identification of a low-risk group may improve triage of patients to alternative clinical pathways and support early hospital discharge. Our aim was to assess whether the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) at the time of PPCI can identify patients at low risk of early major cardiac complications and to compare its performance against guideline-recommended risk scores...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098626/micrornas-mediate-beneficial-effects-of-exercise-in-heart
#6
Yihua Bei, Lichan Tao, Dragos Cretoiu, Sanda Maria Cretoiu, Junjie Xiao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), a group of small non-coding RNAs, repress gene expressions at posttranscriptional level in most cases and are involved in cardiovascular physiology and disease pathogenesis. Increasing evidence has proved that miRNAs are potential regulators of exercise induced cardiac growth and mediate the benefits of exercise in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In this chapter, we will review the regulatory effects of miRNAs in cardiac adaptations to exercise, and summarize their cardioprotective effects against myocardial infarction, ischemia/reperfusion injury, heart failure, diabetic cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097155/the-mechanism-of-action-and-role-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-the-control-of-vascular-tone
#7
REVIEW
Eleni Dongó, Gabriella Beliczai-Marosi, Ane Stensønes Dybvig, Levente Kiss
Our knowledge about hydrogen sulfide (H2S) significantly changed over the last two decades. Today it is considered as not only a toxic gas but also as a gasotransmitter with diverse roles in different physiological and pathophysiological processes. H2S has pleiotropic effects and its possible mechanisms of action involve (1) a reversible protein sulfhydration which can alter the function of the modified proteins similar to nitrosylation or phosphorylation; (2) direct antioxidant effects and (3) interaction with metalloproteins...
October 30, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089640/acute-and-long-term-cardioprotective-effects-of-the-traditional-chinese-medicine-mlc901-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#8
Anne Vincent, Aurélie Covinhes, Christian Barrère, Laura Gallot, Soulit Thoumala, Christophe Piot, Catherine Heurteaux, Michel Lazdunski, Joël Nargeot, Stéphanie Barrère-Lemaire
MLC901, a traditional Chinese medicine containing a cocktail of active molecules, both reduces cerebral infarction and improves recovery in patients with ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute and long-term benefits of MLC901 in ischemic and reperfused mouse hearts. Ex vivo, under physiological conditions, MLC901 did not show any modification in heart rate and contraction amplitude. However, upon an ischemic insult, MLC901 administration during reperfusion, improved coronary flow in perfused hearts...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075303/guanxintai-exerts-protective-effects-on-ischemic-cardiomyocytes-by-mitigating-oxidative-stress
#9
Jing Yang, Weiju Sun, Junfeng Sun, Fengyue Wang, Yuling Hou, Haiyan Guo, Hongyan Chen, Lu Fu
Oxidative stress participates in numerous myocardial pathophysiological processes and is considered a therapeutic target for myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Guanxintai (GXT), a traditional Chinese medicine, is commonly used to treat cardiovascular disease on account of its numerous beneficial physiological activities, such as dilating coronary arteries, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and reducing the serum lipid content. However, the antioxidative properties of GXT and potential underlying mechanisms remain to be established...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054041/cardiovascular-obstetric-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-women-with-previous-fontan-repair
#10
REVIEW
S J Bonner, O Asghar, A Roberts, S Vause, B Clarke, B Keavney
OBJECTIVES: To determine cardiovascular, obstetric and neonatal outcomes of pregnancies in women who have a Fontan circulation. METHODS: A retrospective case note review of all women with a Fontan circulation who attended the joint obstetric cardiac antenatal clinic at St Mary's Hospital, Manchester (UK) between 2004 and 2016 was performed. RESULTS: In total, there were 19 pregnancies in 9 women with a history of Fontan repair. 23 women with univentricular physiology attended in this time period...
October 16, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050558/similarity-and-difference-of-resting-distal%C3%A2-to-aortic-coronary-pressure-and%C3%A2-instantaneous-wave-free-ratio
#11
Joo Myung Lee, Jonghanne Park, Doyeon Hwang, Chee Hae Kim, Ki Hong Choi, Tae-Min Rhee, Yaliang Tong, Jin Joo Park, Eun-Seok Shin, Chang-Wook Nam, Joon-Hyung Doh, Bon-Kwon Koo
BACKGROUND: Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) has been used in clinical practice to identify functionally significant stenosis and to guide treatment strategy. However, there are limited clinical data regarding another resting pressure-derived index, resting distal to aortic coronary pressure (Pd/Pa), and similarities and differences between resting Pd/Pa and iFR. OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated the changes in resting Pd/Pa and iFR according to anatomic and hemodynamic stenosis severity and their prognostic implications...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050528/uv-assisted-3d-bioprinting-of-nano-reinforced-hybrid-cardiac-patch-for-myocardial-tissue-engineering
#12
Mohammad Izadifar, Dean Chapman, Paul Babyn, Xiongbiao Chen, Michael E Kelly
Biofabrication of cell supportive cardiac patches that can be directly implanted on myocardial infarct is a potential solution for myocardial infarction repair. Ideally, cardiac patches should be able to mimic myocardium extracellular matrix for rapid integration with the host tissue, raising the need to develop cardiac constructs with complex features. In particular, cardiac patches should be electrically conductive, mechanically robust and elastic, biologically active and pre-vascularized.. In this study, we aim to biofabricate a nano-reinforced hybrid cardiac patch laden with human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) with improved electrical, mechanical and biological behavior...
October 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040268/benefit-and-harm-of-intensive-blood-pressure-treatment-derivation-and-validation-of-risk-models-using-data-from-the-sprint-and-accord-trials
#13
Sanjay Basu, Jeremy B Sussman, Joseph Rigdon, Lauren Steimle, Brian T Denton, Rodney A Hayward
BACKGROUND: Intensive blood pressure (BP) treatment can avert cardiovascular disease (CVD) events but can cause some serious adverse events. We sought to develop and validate risk models for predicting absolute risk difference (increased risk or decreased risk) for CVD events and serious adverse events from intensive BP therapy. A secondary aim was to test if the statistical method of elastic net regularization would improve the estimation of risk models for predicting absolute risk difference, as compared to a traditional backwards variable selection approach...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030341/macrophage-overexpression-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-in-aged-mice-improves-diastolic-physiology-and-cardiac-wound-healing-following-myocardial-infarction
#14
Cesar A Meschiari, Mira Jung, Rugmani Padmanabhan Iyer, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Hiroe Toba, Michael R Garrett, Merry L Lindsey
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 increases in the myocardium with advanced age and after MI. Because young transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human MMP-9 only in macrophages mice show better outcomes post-MI, while aged TG mice show a worse aging phenotype, we wanted to evaluate the combination effect to see if the detrimental effect of aging counteracted the benefits of macrophage MMP-9 overexpression. We used 17-28 month old male and female C57BL/6J wild type (WT) mice and TG mice (n = 10-21/group) to evaluate the effects of aging superimposed on MI...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026925/er-protein-quality-control-and-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-the-heart
#15
A Arrieta, E A Blackwood, C C Glembotski
Cardiac myocytes are the cells responsible for the robust ability of the heart to pump blood throughout the circulatory system. Cardiac myocytes grow in response to a variety of physiological and pathological conditions; this growth challenges endoplasmic reticulum-protein quality control (ER-PQC), a major feature of which includes the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER-PQC and the UPR in cardiac myocytes growing under physiological conditions, including normal development, exercise, and pregnancy, are sufficient to support hypertrophic growth of each cardiac myocyte...
October 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020367/clinical-outcomes-of-state-of-the-art-percutaneous-coronary-revascularization-in-patients-with-de-novo-three-vessel-disease-1-year-results-of-the-syntax-ii-study
#16
Javier Escaned, Carlos Collet, Nicola Ryan, Giovanni Luigi De Maria, Simon Walsh, Manel Sabate, Justin Davies, Maciej Lesiak, Raul Moreno, Ignacio Cruz-Gonzalez, Stephan P Hoole, Nick Ej West, J J Piek, Azfar Zaman, Farzin Fath-Ordoubadi, Rodney H Stables, Clare Appleby, Nicolas van Mieghem, Robert Jm van Geuns, Neal Uren, Javier Zueco, Pawel Buszman, Andres Iñiguez, Javier Goicolea, David Hildick-Smith, Andrzej Ochala, Dariusz Dudek, Colm Hanratty, Rafael Cavalcante, Arie Pieter Kappetein, David P Taggart, Gerrit-Anne van Es, Marie-Angèle Morel, Ton de Vries, Yoshinobu Onuma, Vasim Farooq, Patrick W Serruys, Adrian P Banning
Aims: To investigate if recent technical and procedural developments in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) significantly influence outcomes in appropriately selected patients with three-vessel (3VD) coronary artery disease. Methods and results: The SYNTAX II study is a multicenter, all-comers, open-label, single arm study that investigated the impact of a contemporary PCI strategy on clinical outcomes in patients with 3VD in 22 centres from four European countries...
November 7, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020260/clinical-implications-of-three-vessel-fractional-flow-reserve-measurement-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#17
Joo Myung Lee, Bon-Kwon Koo, Eun-Seok Shin, Chang-Wook Nam, Joon-Hyung Doh, Doyeon Hwang, Jonghanne Park, Kyung-Jin Kim, Jinlong Zhang, Xinyang Hu, JianAn Wang, Chul Ahn, Fei Ye, Shaoliang Chen, Junqing Yang, Jiyan Chen, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Hiroyoshi Yokoi, Hitoshi Matsuo, Hiroaki Takashima, Yasutsugu Shiono, Takashi Akasaka
Aims: There are limited data on the clinical implications of total physiologic atherosclerotic burden assessed by invasive physiologic studies in patients with coronary artery disease. We investigated the prognostic implications of total physiologic atherosclerotic burden assessed by total sum of fractional flow reserve (FFR) in three vessels (3V-FFR). Methods and results: A total of 1136 patients underwent FFR measurement in three vessels (3V FFR-FRIENDS study, NCT01621438)...
August 19, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016907/clinical-value-of-different-qrs-t-angle-expressions
#18
Katerina Hnatkova, Joachim Seegers, Petra Barthel, Tomas Novotny, Peter Smetana, Markus Zabel, Georg Schmidt, Marek Malik
Aims: Increased spatial angle between QRS complex and T wave loop orientations has repeatedly been shown to predict cardiac risk. However, there is no consensus on the methods for the calculation of the angle. This study compared the reproducibility and predictive power of three most common ways of QRS-T angle assessment. Methods and results: Electrocardiograms of 352 healthy subjects, 941 survivors of acute myocardial infarction (MI), and 605 patients recorded prior to the implantation of automatic defibrillator [implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)] were used to obtain QRS-T angle measurements by the maximum R to T (MRT), area R to T (ART), and total cosine R to T (TCRT) methods...
September 13, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016754/cardiac-troponins-from-myocardial-infarction-to-chronic-disease
#19
Kyung Chan Park, David C Gaze, Paul O Collinson, Michael S Marber
Elucidation of the physiologically distinct subunits of troponin in 1973 greatly facilitated our understanding of cardiac contraction. Although troponins are expressed in both skeletal and cardiac muscle, there are isoforms of troponin I/T expressed selectively in the heart. By exploiting cardiac-restricted epitopes within these proteins, one of the most successful diagnostic tests to-date has been developed: cardiac troponin (cTn) assays. For the past decade, cTn has been regarded as the gold-standard marker for acute myocardial necrosis: the pathological hallmark of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
September 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016703/%C3%AE-arrestin-2-mediates-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-inhibiting-gpcr-independent-cell-survival-signalling
#20
Yimei Wang, Li Jin, Ying Song, Mao Zhang, Dan Shan, Yuli Liu, Meng Fang, Fengxiang Lv, Rui-Ping Xiao, Yan Zhang
Aims: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although timely restoration of coronary blood flow (reperfusion) is the most effective therapeutics of myocardial infarction, reperfusion causes further cardiac damage, i.e. ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. β-arrestins (Arrbs) have been traditionally defined as negative regulators of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling, but recent studies have shown that they are essential for G protein-independent, GPCR-mediated biased signalling...
November 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
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