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myocardial infarction physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804855/human-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-versus-feline-cardiomyopathy-what-can-we-learn-from-both-veterinary-and-human-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Valentine Prat, Bertrand Rozec, Chantal Gauthier, Benjamin Lauzier
Cardiovascular affections are a growing health burden in human populations. Recent advances in cardiology have improved treatments and outcomes for myocardial infarction and arrhythmias, but other conditions still remain poorly understood. To date, the classical approach to study cardiovascular diseases involves rodent models, despite their strong differences with human cardiac physiology. In this context, this review will focus on the common traits between human and feline cardiac diseases, namely heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and feline cardiomyopathies, respectively...
August 14, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804535/hongjingtian-injection-attenuates-myocardial-oxidative-damage-via-promoting-autophagy-and-inhibiting-apoptosis
#2
Shujing Zhang, Ling Zhang, Han Zhang, Guanwei Fan, Jiuwen Qiu, Zongbao Fang, Haibo Wu, Yi Wang, Xiaoping Zhao
Natural products with antioxidative activities are widely applied to prevent and treat various oxidative stress related diseases, including ischemic heart disease. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of those therapies are still needed to be illustrated. In this study, we characterized the cardioprotective effects of Hongjingtian Injection (HJT), an extensively used botanical drug for treating coronary heart disease. The H/R-induced profound elevation of oxidative stress was suppressed by HJT. HJT also attenuates oxidative injury by promoting cell viability, intracellular ATP contents, and mitochondrial oxygen consumption...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798316/the-proton-sensing-g-protein-coupled-receptor-t-cell-death-associated-gene-8-tdag8-shows-cardioprotective-effects-against-myocardial-infarction
#3
Akiomi Nagasaka, Chihiro Mogi, Hiroki Ono, Toshihide Nishi, Yuma Horii, Yuki Ohba, Koichi Sato, Michio Nakaya, Fumikazu Okajima, Hitoshi Kurose
Myocardial infarction (MI) is an ischaemic heart condition caused by the occlusion of coronary arteries. Following MI, lactic acid from anaerobic glycolysis increases and infiltrating immune cells produce severe inflammation, which leads to acidosis in the ischaemic heart. However, the physiological implication of this pH reduction remains largely unknown. T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) is a proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor found on cardiac macrophages that recognise increases in extracellular protons...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789934/targeting-calpains-a-novel-immunomodulatory-approach-for-microbial-infections
#4
REVIEW
Vijay Kumar, Ahmad Ali
Calpains are a family of Ca(2+) dependent cytosolic non-lysosomal proteases with well conserved cysteine-rich domains for enzymatic activity. Due to their functional dependency on Ca(2+) concentrations, they are involved in various cellular processes that are regulated by intracellular ca(2+) concentration (i.e. embryo development, cell development and migration, maintenance of cellular architecture and structure etc.). Calpains are widely studied proteases in mammalian (i.e. mouse and human) physiology and pathophysiology due to their ubiquitous presence...
August 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770021/effects-of-antioxidant-supplements-on-the-survival-and-differentiation-of-stem-cells
#5
REVIEW
Sara Shaban, Mostafa Wanees Ahmed El-Husseny, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Amr Muhammad Abdo Salem, Mediana Mamdouh, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim
Although physiological levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required to maintain the self-renewal capacity of stem cells, elevated ROS levels can induce chromosomal aberrations, mitochondrial DNA damage, and defective stem cell differentiation. Over the past decade, several studies have shown that antioxidants can not only mitigate oxidative stress and improve stem cell survival but also affect the potency and differentiation of these cells. Further beneficial effects of antioxidants include increasing genomic stability, improving the adhesion of stem cells to culture media, and enabling researchers to manipulate stem cell proliferation by using different doses of antioxidants...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759107/low-glycaemic-index-diets-for-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#6
REVIEW
Christine Clar, Lena Al-Khudairy, Emma Loveman, Sarah Am Kelly, Louise Hartley, Nadine Flowers, Roberta Germanò, Gary Frost, Karen Rees
BACKGROUND: The glycaemic index (GI) is a physiological measure of the ability of a carbohydrate to affect blood glucose. Interest is growing in this area for the clinical management of people at risk of, or with, established cardiovascular disease. There is a need to review the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this area. This is an update of the original review published in 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of the dietary GI on total mortality, cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure) in healthy people or people who have established cardiovascular disease or related risk factors, using all eligible randomised controlled trials...
July 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756014/caffeine-and-cardiovascular-health
#7
Duncan Turnbull, Joseph V Rodricks, Gregory F Mariano, Farah Chowdhury
This report evaluates the scientific literature on caffeine with respect to potential cardiovascular outcomes, specifically relative risks of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), effects on arrhythmia, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, blood pressure, hypertension, and other biomarkers of effect, including heart rate, cerebral blood flow, cardiac output, plasma homocysteine levels, serum cholesterol levels, electrocardiogram (EKG) parameters, heart rate variability, endothelial/platelet function and plasma/urine catecholamine levels...
July 26, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753665/quantification-of-sympathetic-hyperinnervation-and-denervation-after-myocardial-infarction-by-three-dimensional-assessment-of-the-cardiac-sympathetic-network-in-cleared-transparent-murine-hearts
#8
Teruki Yokoyama, Jong-Kook Lee, Keiko Miwa, Tobias Opthof, Satoki Tomoyama, Hiroyuki Nakanishi, Akira Yoshida, Haruyo Yasui, Tadatsune Iida, Shigeru Miyagawa, Shigeo Okabe, Yoshiki Sawa, Yasushi Sakata, Issei Komuro
BACKGROUND: The sympathetic nervous system is critical in maintaining the normal physiological function of the heart. Its dysfunction in pathological states may exacerbate the substrate for arrhythmias. Obviously, knowledge of its three-dimensional (3D) structure is important, however, it has been revealed by conventional methods only to a limited extent. In this study, a new method of tissue clearance in combination with immunostaining unravels the 3D structure of the sympathetic cardiac network as well as its changes after myocardial infarction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749565/melatonin-suppresses-platelet-activation-and-function-against-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-ppar%C3%AE-fundc1-mitophagy-pathways
#9
Hao Zhou, Dandan Li, Pingjun Zhu, Shunying Hu, Nan Hu, Sai Ma, Ying Zhang, Tianwen Han, Jun Ren, Feng Cao, Yundai Chen
Platelet activation is a major (patho-) physiological mechanism that underlies ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, we explored the molecular signals for platelet hyperactivity and investigated the beneficial effects of melatonin on platelet reactivity in response to I/R injury. After reperfusion, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) was progressively downregulated in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery and in mice with I/R injury model...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735151/do-air-pollution-and-neighborhood-greenness-exposures-improve-the-predicted-cardiovascular-risk
#10
Maayan Yitshak-Sade, Itai Kloog, Victor Novack
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies show associations between exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current cardiovascular equations incorporate the major risk factors for CVD. The patients' environment, however, is not incorporated in these equations. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, we assessed the contribution of neighborhood greenness and particulate matter (coarse-PM and PM<2.5μm-PM2.5) to the development of CVD by analyzing the change in prediction abilities...
October 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716730/interaction-of-small-g-protein-signaling-modulator-3-with-connexin-43-contributes-to-myocardial-infarction-in-rat-hearts
#11
Chang Youn Lee, Jung-Won Choi, Sunhye Shin, Jiyun Lee, Hyang-Hee Seo, Soyeon Lim, Seahyoung Lee, Hyun-Chul Joo, Sang Woo Kim, Ki-Chul Hwang
Connexin 43 (Cx43), a ubiquitous connexin expressed in the heart and skin, is associated with a variety of hereditary conditions. Therefore, the characterization of Cx43-interacting proteins and their dynamics is important to understand not only the molecular mechanisms underlying pathological malfunction of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication but also to identify novel and unanticipated biological functions of Cx43. In the present study, we observed potential targets of Cx43 to determine new molecular functions in cardio-protection...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715991/trimethylamine-n-oxide-the-microbiome-and-heart-and-kidney-disease
#12
Steven H Zeisel, Manya Warrier
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biologically active molecule and is a putative promoter of chronic diseases including atherosclerosis in humans. Host intestinal bacteria produce its precursor trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, choline, or choline-containing compounds. Most of the TMA produced is passively absorbed into portal circulation, and hepatic flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) efficiently oxidize TMA to TMAO. Both observational and experimental studies suggest a strong positive correlation between increased plasma TMAO concentrations and adverse cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and death...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714397/prognostic-value-of-copeptin-in-chronic-kidney-disease-from-general-population-to-end-stage-renal-disease
#13
Edyta Golembiewska, Anna Machowska, Peter Stenvinkel, Bengt Lindholm
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is released in response to osmotic and non-osmotic stimuli and plays a key role in many physiologic and pathologic processes. The main function of AVP is the control of fluid homeostasis by inducing water conservation by the kidney, but it also stimulates arteriolar vasoconstriction and the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These actions are mediated by different AVP receptors located on various target cells. Produced in hypothalamus from a larger precursor, pre-proAVP, AVP is produced in equimolar amounts to copeptin, a glycopeptide with yet unknown biologic function...
July 14, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714245/drug-loaded-multifunctional-nanoparticles-targeted-to-the-endocardial-layer-of-the-injured-heart-modulate-hypertrophic-signaling
#14
Mónica P A Ferreira, Sanjeev Ranjan, Sini Kinnunen, Alexandra Correia, Virpi Talman, Ermei Mäkilä, Brianda Barrios-Lopez, Marianna Kemell, Vimalkumar Balasubramanian, Jarno Salonen, Jouni Hirvonen, Heikki Ruskoaho, Anu J Airaksinen, Hélder A Santos
Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death globally. Severe myocardial ischemia results in a massive loss of myocytes and acute myocardial infarction, the endocardium being the most vulnerable region. At present, current therapeutic lines only ameliorate modestly the quality of life of these patients. Here, an engineered nanocarrier is reported for targeted drug delivery into the endocardial layer of the left ventricle for cardiac repair. Biodegradable porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles are functionalized with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), which is known to be expressed predominantly in the endocardium of the failing heart...
July 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699517/circadian-micrornas-in-cardioprotection
#15
Yoshimasa Oyama, Colleen Marie Bartman, Jennifer Gile, Tobias Eckle
The most dramatic feature of life on Earth is our adaptation to the cycle of day and night. Throughout evolutionary time, almost all living organisms developed a molecular clock linked to the light-dark cycles of the sun. In present time, we know that this molecular clock is crucial to maintain metabolic and physiological homeostasis. Indeed, a dysregulated molecular clockwork is a major contributing factor to many metabolic diseases. In fact, the time of onset of acute myocardial infarction exhibits a circadian periodicity and recent studies found that the light regulated circadian rhythm protein Period 2 (PER2) elicits endogenous cardioprotection from ischemia...
July 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696497/role-of-ca2-and-ion-channels-in-the-regulation-of-apoptosis-under-hypoxia
#16
REVIEW
Miaohong Wang, Jin Tan, Yuyang Miao, Mengmeng Li, Qiang Zhang
Hypoxia is a kind of common pathological condition existing in various diseases such as sleep apnea syndrome, myocardial infarction and stroke, which can precipitate the onset of diseases through inducing cell apoptosis. Ca²⁺ is the ubiquitous message in cell. Given the crucial role of Ca2²⁺ in physiology, intracellular Ca²⁺ overload is a significant regulator of apoptosis. Numerous experiments show that hypoxia may cause changes of multiple cellular Ca²⁺ channels, for instance, Na⁺/ Ca²⁺ Exchanger (NCX), L-type voltage dependent Ca²⁺ channel (L-VDCC), inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3R) and so on, which contribute to intracellular Ca²⁺ overload, thus eventually triggering cell apoptosis...
July 11, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685472/potential-erythropoiesis-in-the-primo-vascular-system-in-heart-failure
#17
Chae Jeong Lim, Yiming Shen, So Yeong Lee, Pan Dong Ryu
The primo-vascular system (PVS), composed of primo-nodes (PNs) and primo-vessels (PVs), has been identified in various animal models. However, little is known about its function. Here, we investigated the changes in gross morphology and cellular composition of the organ-surface PVS (osPVS) in rats with heart failure (HF) induced by myocardial infarction. The size of the PNs in rats with HF was larger than in sham rats (1.87 vs. 0.80 mm(2); P < 0.01) and the density of osPVS per rat was greater for the HF rats (28 of 6 rats vs...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684095/atrial-fibrillation-and-heart-failure-cause-or-effect
#18
REVIEW
Sandeep Prabhu, Aleksandr Voskoboinik, David M Kaye, Peter M Kistler
There are emerging epidemics of atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure in most developed countries, with a significant health burden. Due to many shared pathophysiological mechanisms, which facilitate the maintenance of each condition, AF and heart failure co-exist in up to 30% of patients. In the circumstance where known structural causes of heart failure (such as myocardial infarction) are absent, patients presenting with both conditions present a unique challenge, particularly as the temporal relationship of each condition can often remain elusive from the clinical history...
September 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681363/physiological-insights-of-recent-clinical-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-technologies-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Kenji Shigemi, Soichiro Fuke, Dai Une, Keita Saku, Shuji Shimizu, Toru Kawada, Toshiaki Shishido, Kenji Sunagawa, Masaru Sugimachi
Diagnostic and therapeutic methods for cardiovascular diseases continue to be developed in the 21st century. Clinicians should consider the physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system to ensure successful diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we focus on the roles of cardiovascular physiology in recent diagnostic and therapeutic technologies for cardiovascular diseases. In the first section, we discuss how to evaluate and utilize left ventricular arterial coupling in the clinical settings...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677649/effect-of-oxidative-stress-on-cardiovascular-system-in-response-to-gravity
#20
REVIEW
Ken Takahashi, Hiroki Okumura, Rui Guo, Keiji Naruse
Long-term habitation in space leads to physiological alterations such as bone loss, muscle atrophy, and cardiovascular deconditioning. Two predominant factors-namely space radiation and microgravity-have a crucial impact on oxidative stress in living organisms. Oxidative stress is also involved in the aging process, and plays important roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and myocardial infarction. Here, we discuss the effects of space radiation, microgravity, and a combination of these two factors on oxidative stress...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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