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myocardial infarction physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335793/thrombus-leukocytes-exhibit-more-endothelial-cell-specific-angiogenic-markers-than-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-do-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-suggesting-a-possibility-of-trans-differentiation-a-comprehensive-database-mining-study
#1
Hangfei Fu, Nish Vadalia, Eric R Xue, Candice Johnson, Luqiao Wang, William Y Yang, Claudette Sanchez, Jun Nelson, Qian Chen, Eric T Choi, Jian-Xing Ma, Jun Yu, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
BACKGROUND: Current angiogenic therapies for cancers and cardiovascular diseases have not yet achieved expected benefits, which reflects the need for improved understanding of angiogenesis. In this study, we focused on solving the problem of whether tissues have different angiogenic potentials (APs) in physiological conditions and how angiogenesis is regulated in various disease conditions. METHODS: In healthy and diseased human and mouse tissues, we profiled the expression of 163 angiogenic genes, including transcription regulators (TRs), growth factors and receptors (GF/Rs), cytokines and chemokines (C/Cs), and proteases and inhibitors (P/Is)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333381/protective-actions-of-h2s-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-heart-failure
#2
Erminia Donnarumma, Rishi K Trivedi, David J Lefer
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was identified as the third gasotransmitter in 1996 following the discoveries of the biological importance of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. Although H2S has long been considered a highly toxic gas, the discovery of its presence and enzymatic production in mammalian tissues supports a critical role for this physiological signaling molecule. H2S is synthesized endogenously by three enzymes: cystathionine β-synthase, cystathionine-γ-lyase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. H2S plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiovascular function as H2S has been shown to modulate: vasodilation, angiogenesis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317438/instantaneous-wave-free-ratio-versus-fractional-flow-reserve-to-guide-pci
#3
Matthias Götberg, Evald H Christiansen, Ingibjörg J Gudmundsdottir, Lennart Sandhall, Mikael Danielewicz, Lars Jakobsen, Sven-Erik Olsson, Patrik Öhagen, Hans Olsson, Elmir Omerovic, Fredrik Calais, Pontus Lindroos, Michael Maeng, Tim Tödt, Dimitrios Venetsanos, Stefan K James, Amra Kåregren, Margareta Nilsson, Jörg Carlsson, Dario Hauer, Jens Jensen, Ann-Charlotte Karlsson, Georgios Panayi, David Erlinge, Ole Fröbert
Background The instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is an index used to assess the severity of coronary-artery stenosis. The index has been tested against fractional flow reserve (FFR) in small trials, and the two measures have been found to have similar diagnostic accuracy. However, studies of clinical outcomes associated with the use of iFR are lacking. We aimed to evaluate whether iFR is noninferior to FFR with respect to the rate of subsequent major adverse cardiac events. Methods We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial using the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry for enrollment...
March 18, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297585/electromechanical-conditioning-of-adult-progenitor-cells-improves-recovery-of-cardiac-function-after-myocardial-infarction
#4
Aida Llucià-Valldeperas, Carolina Soler-Botija, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Santiago Roura, Cristina Prat-Vidal, Isaac Perea-Gil, Benjamin Sanchez, Ramon Bragos, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Antoni Bayes-Genis
Cardiac cells are subjected to mechanical and electrical forces, which regulate gene expression and cellular function. Therefore, in vitro electromechanical stimuli could benefit further integration of therapeutic cells into the myocardium. Our goals were (a) to study the viability of a tissue-engineered construct with cardiac adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (cardiac ATDPCs) and (b) to examine the effect of electromechanically stimulated cardiac ATDPCs within a myocardial infarction (MI) model in mice for the first time...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287533/isolation-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-from-healthy-volunteers-and-their-migratory-potential-influenced-by-serum-samples-after-cardiac-surgery
#5
Christoph Emontzpohl, David Simons, Sandra Kraemer, Andreas Goetzenich, Gernot Marx, Jürgen Bernhagen, Christian Stoppe
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are recruited from the bone marrow under pathological conditions like hypoxia and are crucially involved in the neovascularization of ischemic tissues. The origin, classification and characterization of EPCs are complex; notwithstanding, two prominent sub-types of EPCs have been established: so-called "early" EPCs (subsequently referred to as early-EPCs) and late-outgrowth EPCs (late-EPCs). They can be classified by biological properties as well as by their appearance during in vitro culture...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267256/shear-sensitive-nanocapsule-drug-release-for-site-specific-inhibition-of-occlusive-thrombus-formation
#6
Christopher P Molloy, Yu Yao, Helene Kammoun, Thomas Bonnard, Thomas Hoefer, Karen Alt, Francisco Tovar-Lopez, Gary Rosengarten, Paul A Ramsland, Andries D van der Meer, Albert van den Berg, Andrew J Murphy, Christoph E Hagemeyer, Karlheinz Peter, Erik Westein
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction and stroke remain the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. The major limitation of current antiplatelet therapy is that their effective concentrations are limited due to bleeding complications. Targeted delivery of antiplatelet drug to sites of thrombosis would overcome these limitations. OBJECTIVES: Here, we have exploited a key biomechanical feature specific to thrombosis; significantly increased blood shear stress due to a reduction in the lumen of the vessel, to achieve site directed delivery of the clinically used antiplatelet agent eptifibatide using shear-sensitive phosphatidylcholine based nanocapsules...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266538/profiling-analysis-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-early-postnatal-mouse-hearts
#7
Xiongshan Sun, Qi Han, Hongqin Luo, Xiaodong Pan, Yan Ji, Yao Yang, Hanying Chen, Fangjie Wang, Wenjing Lai, Xiao Guan, Qi Zhang, Yuan Tang, Jianhong Chu, Jianhua Yu, Weinian Shou, Youcai Deng, Xiaohui Li
Mammalian cardiomyocytes undergo a critical hyperplastic-to-hypertrophic growth transition at early postnatal age, which is important in establishing normal physiological function of postnatal hearts. In the current study, we intended to explore the role of long non-coding (lnc) RNAs in this transitional stage. We analyzed lncRNA expression profiles in mouse hearts at postnatal day (P) 1, P7 and P28 via microarray. We identified 1,146 differentially expressed lncRNAs with more than 2.0-fold change when compared the expression profiles of P1 to P7, P1 to P28, and P7 to P28...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242633/divergent-effects-of-mir-181-family-members-on-myocardial-function-through-protective-cytosolic-and-detrimental-mitochondrial-microrna-targets
#8
Samarjit Das, Mark Kohr, Brittany Dunkerly-Eyring, Dong I Lee, Djahida Bedja, Oliver A Kent, Anthony K L Leung, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Richard A Flavell, Charles Steenbergen
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA (miRNA) is a type of noncoding RNA that can repress the expression of target genes through posttranscriptional regulation. In addition to numerous physiologic roles for miRNAs, they play an important role in pathophysiologic processes affecting cardiovascular health. Previously, we reported that nuclear encoded microRNA (miR-181c) is present in heart mitochondria, and importantly, its overexpression affects mitochondrial function by regulating mitochondrial gene expression...
February 27, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242607/invasive-assessment-of-the-coronary-microcirculation-in-reperfused-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-patients-where-do-we-stand
#9
Heerajnarain Bulluck, Nicolas Foin, Jack W Tan, Adrian F Low, Murat Sezer, Derek J Hausenloy
For patients presenting with an acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, the most effective therapy for reducing myocardial infarct size and preserving left ventricular systolic function is primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). However, mortality and morbidity remain significant. This is partly attributed to the development of microvascular obstruction, which occurs in around 50% of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients post-PPCI, and it is associated with adverse left ventricular remodeling and worse clinical outcomes...
March 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209728/evaluation-of-cell-therapy-on-exercise-performance-and-limb-perfusion-in-peripheral-artery-disease-the-cctrn-patients-with-intermittent-claudication-injected-with-aldh-bright-cells-pace-trial
#10
Emerson C Perin, Michael P Murphy, Keith L March, Roberto Bolli, John Loughran, Phillip C Yang, Nicholas J Leeper, Ronald L Dalman, Jason Q Alexander, Timothy D Henry, Jay H Traverse, Carl J Pepine, R David Anderson, Scott Berceli, James T Willerson, Raja Muthupillai, Amir A Gahremanpour, Ganesh Raveendran, Omaida C Velazquez, Joshua M Hare, Ivonne H Schulman, Vijaykumar S Kasi, William R Hiatt, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, João A Lima, Doris A Taylor, Micheline M Resende, Adrian P Gee, April G Durett, Jeannette Bloom, Sara Richman, Patricia G'Sell, Shari Williams, Fouzia Khan, Elsie G Ross, Michelle R Santoso, JoAnne Goldman, Dana Leach, Eileen Handberg, Benjamin Y C Cheong, Nichole A Piece, Darcy DiFede, Barb Bruhn-Ding, Emily Caldwell, Judy Bettencourt, Dejian Lai, Linda B Piller, Lara M Simpson, Michelle Cohen, Shelly L Sayre, Rachel W Vojvodic, Lem Moyé, Ray F Ebert, Robert D Simari, Alan T Hirsch
Background -Atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects 8-12% of Americans over 65 and is associated with a major decline in functional status, increased myocardial infarction and stroke rates, and increased risk of ischemic amputation. Current treatment strategies for claudication have limitations. PACE is an NHLBI-sponsored, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2, exploratory clinical trial designed to assess safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow-derived aldehyde dehydrogenase bright (ALDHbr) cells in PAD patients and to explore associated claudication physiologic mechanisms...
February 16, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197046/outcome-of-noncardiac-surgical-patients-admitted-to-a-multidisciplinary-intensive-care-unit
#11
Pradeep Kumar, M K Renuka, M S Kalaiselvan, A S Arunkumar
CONTEXT: Surgical procedures carry significant morbidity and mortality depending on the type of surgery and patients. There is a dearth of evidence from India on the outcome of surgical patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). AIMS: We aimed to describe the incidence and risk factors of postoperative complications and mortality in noncardiac surgical patients admitted to the ICU. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective observational study on all perioperative patients admitted to a multidisciplinary ICU for 18 months...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186692/targeted-genome-engineering-to-control-vegf-expression-in-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-potential-implications-for-the-treatment-of-myocardial-infarction
#12
Hyun-Min Cho, Pyung-Hwan Kim, Hyun-Kyung Chang, Yi-Ming Shen, Kwaku Bonsra, Byung-Jae Kang, Soo-Young Yum, Joo-Hyun Kim, So-Yeong Lee, Min-Cheol Choi, Hyongbum Henry Kim, Goo Jang, Je-Yoel Cho
Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) exhibit potency for the regeneration of infarcted hearts. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is capable of inducing angiogenesis and can boost stem cell-based therapeutic effects. However, high levels of VEGF can cause abnormal blood vessel growth and hemangiomas. Thus, a controllable system to induce therapeutic levels of VEGF is required for cell therapy. We generated an inducible VEGF-secreting stem cell (VEGF/hUCB-MSC) that controls the expression of VEGF and tested the therapeutic efficacy in rat myocardial infarction (MI) model to apply functional stem cells to MI...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163340/automated-tuning-for-parameter-identification-and-uncertainty-quantification-in-multi-scale-coronary-simulations
#13
Justin S Tran, Daniele E Schiavazzi, Abhay B Ramachandra, Andrew M Kahn, Alison L Marsden
Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, which can result in coronary artery stenosis, acute coronary artery occlusion, and eventually myocardial infarction, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Non-invasive characterization of coronary blood flow is important to improve understanding, prevention, and treatment of this disease. Computational simulations can now produce clinically relevant hemodynamic quantities using only non-invasive measurements, combining detailed three dimensional fluid mechanics with physiological models in a multiscale framework...
January 5, 2017: Computers & Fluids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149843/gamma-glutamyl-transferase-and-cardiovascular-disease
#14
REVIEW
Gjin Ndrepepa, Adnan Kastrati
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is an enzyme located on the external surface of cellular membranes. GGT contributes in maintaining the physiological concentrations of cytoplasmic glutathione and cellular defense against oxidative stress via cleavage of extracellular glutathione and increased availability of amino acids for its intracellular synthesis. Increased GGT activity is a marker of antioxidant inadequacy and increased oxidative stress. Ample evidence suggests that elevated GGT activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, arterial hypertension, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause and CVD-related mortality...
December 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135002/ischemia-reperfusion
#15
Theodore Kalogeris, Christopher P Baines, Maike Krenz, Ronald J Korthuis
Ischemic disorders, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease, are the most common causes of debilitating disease and death in westernized cultures. The extent of tissue injury relates directly to the extent of blood flow reduction and to the length of the ischemic period, which influence the levels to which cellular ATP and intracellular pH are reduced. By impairing ATPase-dependent ion transport, ischemia causes intracellular and mitochondrial calcium levels to increase (calcium overload)...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132040/erectile-dysfunction-as-a-predictor-of-cardiovascular-disease
#16
Sh Janjgava, T Doliashvili
Endothelial dysfunction precedes the clinical stage of atherosclerotic disease and is recognized as an additional risk factor when detecting symptomatic patients. Endothelial function is largely mediated by nitric oxide, and this vasodilatory mechanism is also responsible for the venous and arterial dilatation required to obtain and maintain an erection. The physiological effects and clinical aspects of sexual function have been extensively studied and reported in patients who have angina or who have experienced a myocardial infarction and in those who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or heart transplant...
December 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130064/cardiovascular-consequences-of-metabolic-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Johnathan D Tune, Adam G Goodwill, Daniel J Sassoon, Kieren J Mather
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the concurrence of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL cholesterol, and/or hypertension. Earlier conceptualizations of the MetS focused on insulin resistance as a core feature, and it is clearly coincident with the above list of features. Each component of the MetS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the combination of these risk factors elevates rates and severity of cardiovascular disease, related to a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions including microvascular dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and heart failure...
January 9, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129708/learned-helplessness-and-depressive-symptoms-following-myocardial-infarction
#18
Benjamin A Smallheer, Michael Vollman, Mary S Dietrich
Psychosocial factors are known to impact depressive symptoms across clinical populations. Learned helplessness has the potential of affecting depressive symptoms following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), though little is known about this relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between learned helplessness and depressive symptoms in patients following an AMI. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, participants with a diagnosed AMI within the past 12 months were recruited...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119044/a-novel-side-branch-protection-technique-in-coronary-stent-implantation-jailed-corsair-technique
#19
REVIEW
Yohei Numasawa, Kenichi Sakakura, Kei Yamamoto, Shingo Yamamoto, Yousuke Taniguchi, Hideo Fujita, Shin-Ichi Momomura
Side branch occlusion, which was one of the common complications in percutaneous coronary interventions, was closely associated with cardiac death and myocardial infarction. Clinical guidelines also support the importance of preservation of physiologic blood flow in SB during PCI to bifurcation lesions. In order to avoid side branch occlusion during stent implantation, we often performed the jailed wire technique, in which a conventional guide wire was inserted to the side branch before stent implantation to the main vessel...
January 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116730/evaluation-of-endothelial-dysfunction-in-vivo
#20
Mihail Todiras, Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader
Vascular endothelial cells play a major role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. Impairment of physiological properties of the endothelium, such as the promotion of vasodilation and anti-aggregation, leads to a condition called endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is an important early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and has been shown to have prognostic value in predicting vascular events including stroke and myocardial infarction.Endothelial-dependent vasodilation is one of the most widely used methods for assessment of endothelial function in rodents...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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