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Flexible flat foot in children

Ulunay Kanatlı, Erdem Aktas, Haluk Yetkin
BACKGROUND: Flexible flatfoot, as the most prevalent foot deformity in pediatric population still has no standardized strategy for its management hence some orthopedic surgeons have the tendency to use orthotic devices. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether orthotic shoes effect the natural course of the developing medial longitudinal arch in children diagnosed with moderate flexible flatfoot. METHODS: Fourty-five children (33 boys and 12 girls) with moderate flexible flatfoot were enrolled in this study...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Fiona Hawke, Keith Rome, Angela Margaret Evans
BACKGROUND: The complex relationship between foot posture, flexibility, body mass and age in children is not well understood. The objectives of this post hoc analysis were to explore the relationships between foot posture, flexibility, body mass in children aged seven to 15 years. METHODS: Thirty healthy, asymptomatic children (20 girls, 10 boys) aged 7 to 15 years with a mean age (SD) of 10.7 (2.3) years, were recruited through the Auckland University of Technology (AUT) Podiatry Clinic, Auckland, New Zealand...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
A Kothari, S Bhuva, J Stebbins, A B Zavatsky, T Theologis
AIMS: There is increasing evidence that flexible flatfoot (FF) can lead to symptoms and impairment in health-related quality of life. As such we undertook an observational study investigating the aetiology of this condition, to help inform management. The hypothesis was that as well as increased body mass index (BMI) and increased flexibility of the lower limb, an absent anterior subtalar articulation would be associated with a flatter foot posture. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 84 children aged between eight and 15 years old were prospectively recruited...
April 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
A Kothari, P C Dixon, J Stebbins, A B Zavatsky, T Theologis
The role of flexible flat feet (FF) in the development of musculoskeletal symptoms at joints proximal to the ankle is unclear. We undertook an observational study to investigate the relationship between foot posture and the proximal joints in children. It was hypothesised that reduced arch height would be associated with proximal joint symptoms and altered gait kinematics and kinetics particularly in the transverse plane at the hip and knee. Ninety-five children between the ages of 8-15 were recruited into this ethically approved study...
March 2016: Gait & Posture
James B Carr, Scott Yang, Leigh Ann Lather
Flatfoot (pes planus) is common in infants and children and often resolves by adolescence. Thus, flatfoot is described as physiologic because it is usually flexible, painless, and of no functional consequence. In rare instances, flatfoot can become painful or rigid, which may be a sign of underlying foot pathology, including arthritis or tarsal coalition. Despite its prevalence, there is no standard definition for pediatric flatfoot. Furthermore, there are no large, prospective studies that compare the natural history of idiopathic, flexible flat feet throughout development in response to various treatments...
March 2016: Pediatrics
Hong-Jae Lee, Kil-Byung Lim, JeeHyun Yoo, Sung-Won Yoon, Hyun-Ju Yun, Tae-Ho Jeong
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of custom-molded foot orthoses on foot pain and balance in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot 1 month and 3 months after fitting foot orthosis. METHOD: A total of 24 children over 6 years old with flexible flat feet and foot pain for at least 6 months were recruited for this study. Their resting calcaneal stance position and calcaneal pitch angle were measured. Individual custom-molded rigid foot orthoses were prescribed using inverted orthotic technique to control foot overpronation...
December 2015: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
M C Ponce de León Samper, G Herrera Ortiz, C Castellanos Mendoza
PURPOSE: To evaluate the possible relationship between flexible flat foot and developmental hip dysplasia in children between six and 15 years of age. METHOD: Cross-sectional study including 65 patients that had undergone surgery due to residual hip dysplasia or hip dislocation and compared against 75 healthy patients. Flexible flat foot prevalence was measured in each group, with the results showing that 61% of the group with residual hip dysplasia or hip dislocation had this condition, vs...
September 2015: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
A Kothari, P C Dixon, J Stebbins, A B Zavatsky, T Theologis
Flat feet in children are common, and at times symptomatic, but the relationship between function and symptoms or impairment is still unclear. We undertook a prospective, observational study comparing children with paediatric flexible flat foot (PFF) and children with neutral feet (NF) using three dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). It was hypothesised that children with PFF would demonstrate differences in both spatio-temporal parameters of gait and foot and ankle kinematics compared to the NF group and that these differences would correlate with impaired quality of life (QoL)...
March 2015: Gait & Posture
Nicola Portinaro, Alberto Leardini, Artemisia Panou, Valerio Monzani, Paolo Caravaggi
BACKGROUND: A number of multi-segment foot protocols have been proposed to obtain measurements of clinical value. In the clinical assessment of foot pathologies and deformities, such as in the pes-planus, the frontal-plane alignment of the calcaneus and the dynamic properties of the medial longitudinal arch are critical parameters though often neglected by the majority of foot protocols. The aim of the present work is to modify an established foot protocol to obtain static and kinematic measures more consistent with corresponding clinical observations...
2014: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Atefeh Aboutorabi, Hassan Saeedi, Mohammad Kamali, Behshid Farahmand, Arezoo Eshraghi, Roghaye S Dolagh
BACKGROUND: Flat foot in children is a common deformity in which the medial longitudinal arch is reduced or eliminated. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article was to compare flat foot and healthy children on the displacement of the center of pressure and walking parameters in children with two common orthoses (functional foot orthosis and medical shoe). STUDY DESIGN: Comparative study. METHODS: This study included 30 children with flat foot and 20 healthy children as a control group...
June 2014: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Angela Jane MacKenzie, Keith Rome, Angela Margaret Evans
BACKGROUND: The pediatric flat foot frequently presents as a common parental concern in the health care setting. Foot orthoses are often used, yet benefits are uncertain and disputed, having been variably investigated. A recent Cochrane review cites limited evidence for nonsurgical interventions. This critical and structured review evaluates the effect of pediatric foot orthoses from assessment of the current literature. METHODS: A systematic search of the following electronic databases: Medline, CINAHL, AMED, and SPORTDiscus, using an array of search terms...
December 2012: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
P Iodice, R G Bellomo, M Migliorini, M Megna, R Saggini
UNLABELLED: The flat foot can be defined as a syndrome with multiple etiopathogenesis, characterized by an altered structure of the longitudinal arch of the plantar vault with its reduction in height. The plantar arch collapse can be counteracted by strengthening the muscles involved; for many years, specific physical exercises have been proposed with this purpose in physical and rehabilitation medicine. The aim of our work was to improve the plantar arch muscles' tone using high focal vibration therapy (300Hz) METHODS: 10 children with a 4th degree flat foot (age: 8,7±2,2; height: 132±15cm; weight: 35,2±12,3Kg) underwent 10 sessions, 2 days/wk, of 30 min of focused high vibratory therapy at a frequency of 300 Hz (Vissman, Italy)...
January 2012: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Yi-Fen Shih, Chao-Yin Chen, Wen-Yin Chen, Hsiu-Chen Lin
BACKGROUND: A high percentage of young children present with flatfeet. Although the percentage of those with flatfeet declines with age, about 15% of the population maintains a flat arch. A reduction in longitudinal arch height usually combines with excessive subtalar joint pronation and may be related to other musculoskeletal problems of the lower extremity kinetic chain. The purpose of this study is to describe and compare the lower extremity kinematics between children with normal arches and those with flexible flatfeet, with the intent of providing practical information for decision making when treating children with flexible flatfeet...
2012: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
A M Evans, K Rome
The pediatric flat foot is a frequent presentation in clinical practice, a common concern to parents and continues to be debated within professional ranks. As an entity, it is confused by varied classifications, the notion of well-intended prevention and unsubstantiated, if common, treatment. The available prevalence estimates are all limited by variable sampling, assessment measures and age groups and hence result in disparate findings (0.6-77.9%). Consistently, flat foot has been found to normally reduce with age...
March 2011: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
John Y Kwon, Mark S Myerson
Pes planus, commonly referred as flat foot, is a combination of foot and ankle deformities. When faced with this deformity in children, the treating surgeon should use a systematic method for evaluation to distinguish normal variation from true pathology, as well as conditions that have a benign natural history versus those that may lead to significant disability if left untreated. Certain deformities will inevitably worsen and therefore require surgery. Common sense clearly supports the indication for a simple procedure, such as an arthroereisis or an osteotomy, performed in the young child as opposed to an arthrodesis in older adolescence or adulthood as the foot becomes more rigid...
June 2010: Foot and Ankle Clinics
J Chomiak, P Dungl, O Adamec, R Hart
The aim of this communication is to provide both clinical and radiological evaluation of short-term results of the lengthening osteotomy of the anterior part of the calcaneus after Evans in the treatment of the flat foot in children and determine indication criteria of this operation. In the 1996-1999 period 35 feet were operated on in 23 children (13 boys, 10 girls), 12 children underwent bilateral surgery in the interval of 6-12 months. The average age at the time of surgery was 10,5 years and the age range 4,3-18,5...
2000: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
D Twomey, A S McIntosh, J Simon, K Lowe, S I Wolf
The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematics of normal arched and low arched feet in children and use this data to quantify the differences between the two foot types during walking gait. Multi-segment foot motion was measured, using the Heidelberg foot measurement method (HFMM), for 25 normal arched feet and 27 low arched feet in 9-12-year-old children. The kinematic differences in the foot between the two groups during walking were relatively small, except for the medial arch and forefoot supination angles...
May 2010: Gait & Posture
Edwin J Harris
The frequent occurrence of flexible flatfoot raises the question of its pathologic status. There may be cultural overtones resulting in the consideration that flat feet are always pathologic. Parents may believe that their own flat feet were successfully treated when they were children and wish the same for their offspring. Few studies attempt to answer the question of the natural history of this condition. This article reviews the available literature dealing with the natural history, comorbidities, recommendations for treatment, expansion of biomechanical theory, and classification of flatfoot...
January 2010: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
Zoran Vukasinović, Zorica Zivković, Cedomir Vucetić
The authors describe flatfoot, as one of very frequent deformities in everyday medical practice. A special condition of the deformity associated with a calcaneal valgus position and complicated by a knee valgus position (as a consequence of non-treatment) is described. Also, the precise anatomy of the longitudinal foot arches (medial and lateral), definition and classification of the deformity, clinical findings and therapeutic protocols are proposed. The authors especially emphasise that the need for having extensive knowledge on the differences between a flexible and rigid flatfoot, having in mind that the treatment of flexible flat foot is usually not necessary, while the treatment of rigid flatfoot is usually unavoidable...
May 2009: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
Anton Tudor, Lana Ruzic, Branko Sestan, Luka Sirola, Tomislav Prpic
OBJECTIVE: Because the controversy about the relation of foot morphology and foot function is still present, we find it surprising that there are no studies published dealing with motor skills and athletic performance in flat-footed school children. Our aim in this study was to determine if there is an association between the degree of foot flatness and several motor skills that are necessary for sport performance. METHODS: The feet of 218 children aged 11 to 15 years were scanned, and the arch index was determined...
March 2009: Pediatrics
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