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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088518/s100a8-protein-attenuates-airway-hyperresponsiveness-by-suppressing-the-contraction-of-airway-smooth-muscle
#1
Yu-Dong Xu, Yu Wang, Lei-Miao Yin, Gyoung-Hee Park, Luis Ulloa, Yong-Qing Yang
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a major clinical problem in allergic asthma mainly caused by the hypercontractility of airway smooth muscles (ASM). S100A8 is an important member of the S100 calcium-binding protein family with a potential to regulate cell contractility. Here, we analyze the potential of S100A8 to regulate allergen-induced AHR and ASM contraction. Treatment with recombinant S100A8 (rS100A8) diminished airway hyperresponsiveness in OVA-sensitized rats. ASM contraction assays showed that rS100A8 reduced hypercontractility in both isolated tracheal rings and primary ASM cells treated by acetylcholine...
January 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078418/absolute-quantification-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-by-selected-reaction-monitoring-can-underscore-skeletal-muscle-changes-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#2
Caterina Peggion, Maria Lina Massimino, Giancarlo Biancotto, Roberto Angeletti, Carlo Reggiani, Maria Catia Sorgato, Alessandro Bertoli, Roberto Stella
Skeletal muscle fibers contain different isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) that define distinctive contractile properties. In light of the muscle capacity to adapt MyHC expression to pathophysiological conditions, a rapid and quantitative assessment of MyHC isoforms in small muscle tissue quantities would represent a valuable diagnostic tool for (neuro)muscular diseases. As past protocols did not meet these requirements, in the present study we applied a targeted proteomic approach based on selected reaction monitoring that allowed the absolute quantification of slow and fast MyHC isoforms in different mouse skeletal muscles with high reproducibility...
January 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072855/sdf-1%C3%AE-cxcr4-signaling-in-lipid-rafts-induces-platelet-aggregation-via-pi3-kinase-dependent-akt-phosphorylation
#3
Hiroko Ohtsuka, Tomohiro Iguchi, Moyuru Hayashi, Mizuho Kaneda, Kazuko Iida, Motoyuki Shimonaka, Takahiko Hara, Morio Arai, Yuichi Koike, Naomasa Yamamoto, Kohji Kasahara
Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through its G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K). Here, we demonstrate that SDF-1α induces phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473 in human platelets. SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. SDF-1α also induces the phosphorylation of PDK1 at Ser241 (an upstream activator of Akt), GSK3β at Ser9 (a downstream substrate of Akt), and myosin light chain at Ser19 (a downstream element of the Akt signaling pathway)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068390/effect-of-inulin-on-proteome-changes-induced-by-pathogenic-lipopolysaccharide-in-human-colon
#4
Michele Pier Luca Guarino, Annamaria Altomare, Simone Barera, Vittoria Locato, Silvia Cocca, Cinzia Franchin, Giorgio Arrigoni, Candida Vannini, Sarah Grossi, Paola Campomenosi, Valentina Pasqualetti, Marcella Bracale, Rossana Alloni, Laura De Gara, Michele Cicala
In the present study, the protective role of inulin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress was evaluated on human colonic mucosa using a proteomic approach. Human colonic mucosa and submucosa were sealed between two chambers, with the luminal side facing upwards and overlaid with Krebs (control), LPS or LPS+ inulin IQ solution. The solutions on the submucosal side (undernatants) were collected following 30 min of mucosal exposure. iTRAQ based analysis was used to analyze the total soluble proteomes from human colonic mucosa and submucosa treated with different undernatants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068085/cyclocurcumin-an-antivasoconstrictive-constituent-of-curcuma-longa-turmeric
#5
Keunyoung Kim, Jung-Jun Kim, Yeryeon Jung, Ji-Yoon Noh, Ahmed Shah Syed, Chul Young Kim, Moo-Yeol Lee, Kyung-Min Lim, Ok-Nam Bae, Jin-Ho Chung
Despite the increasing attention on the therapeutic potential of Curcuma longa (turmeric), the biological activities of curcuminoids other than curcumin are not well understood. Here, we investigated antivasoconstrictive activities of C. longa extract and its ingredients using freshly isolated rat aortic rings. C. longa extract significantly suppressed agonist-stimulated vasoconstriction, and cyclocurcumin was found to be the most potent (IC50 against phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction: 14.9 ± 1.0 μM) among the 10 tested ingredients including four curcuminoids...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066146/high-fat-diet-confers-vascular-hyper-contractility-against-angiotensin-ii-through-upregulation-of-mlck-and-cpi-17
#6
Jee In Kim
Obesity is a critical risk factor for the hypertension. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) in obese individuals is known to be upregulated in obesity-induced hypertension, direct evidence that explains the underlying mechanism for increased vascular tone and consequent increase in blood pressure (BP) is largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the novel mechanism underlying Ang II-induced hyper-contractility and hypertension in obese rats. Eight-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 60% fat diet or normal diet for 4 months...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066135/ameliorative-effects-of-atractylodin-on-intestinal-inflammation-and-co-occurring-dysmotility-in-both-constipation-and-diarrhea-prominent-rats
#7
Changchun Yu, Yongjian Xiong, Dapeng Chen, Yanli Li, Bin Xu, Yuan Lin, Zeyao Tang, Chunling Jiang, Li Wang
Intestinal disorders often co-occur with inflammation and dysmotility. However, drugs which simultaneously improve intestinal inflammation and co-occurring dysmotility are rarely reported. Atractylodin, a widely used herbal medicine, is used to treat digestive disorders. The present study was designed to characterize the effects of atractylodin on amelioration of both jejunal inflammation and the co-occurring dysmotility in both constipation-prominent (CP) and diarrhea-prominent (DP) rats. The results indicated that atractylodin reduced proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the plasma and inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators iNOS and NF-kappa B in jejunal segments in both CP and DP rats...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063950/dietary-alpha-linolenic-acid-linoleic-acid-ratios-modulate-immune-response-physical-barrier-and-related-signaling-molecules-mrna-expression-in-the-gills-of-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#8
Yun-Yun Zeng, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
This study was conducted to explore the possible effects of dietary ALA/LNA ratios on the gill immunity, tight junction and antioxidant capacity, and the related signaling factor mRNA levels of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed diets with different ALA/LNA ratios (0.01, 0.34, 0.68, 1.03, 1.41, 1.76 and 2.15) for 60 days. The present results showed that ALA/LNA ratio of 1.03 significantly enhanced lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 contents, promoted mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (Hepcidin and liver expression antimicrobial peptide-2), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1) and inhibitor protein κBα, whereas suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor a and interferon γ2), and signal molecules (IκB kinase β, IκB kines γ and nuclear factor κB p65) mRNA levels in the gill, indicating that optimal dietary ALA/LNA ratio improve gill immunity of juvenile fish...
January 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063919/proteomic-analysis-of-the-protective-effects-of-aqueous-bark-extract-of-terminalia-arjuna-roxb-on-isoproterenol-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-rats
#9
Santosh Kumar, Md Jahangir Alam, Pankaj Prabhakar, Sayeed Ahmad, Subir K Maulik, Manish Sharma, Shyamal K Goswami
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) has been in use as an ethnomedicine for cardiovascular ailments in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Studies using hemodynamic, ROS scavenging and anti-inflammatory parameters in animal models have shown its anti-atherogenic, hypotensive, inotropic, anti-inflammatory effects. However, details analysis on its effects on established molecular and cell biological markers are a prerequisite for its wider acceptance to the medical community...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062507/brown-adipose-tissue-regulates-small-artery-function-through-nadph-oxidase-4-derived-hydrogen-peroxide-and-redox-sensitive-protein-kinase-g-1%C3%AE
#10
Malou Friederich-Persson, Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat, Patrik Persson, Augusto C Montezano, Rhian M Touyz
OBJECTIVE: Biomedical interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) has increased since the discovery of functionally active BAT in adult humans. Although white adipose tissue (WAT) influences vascular function, vascular effects of BAT are elusive. Thus, we investigated the regulatory role and putative vasoprotective effects of BAT, focusing on hydrogen peroxide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (Nox4), and redox-sensitive signaling. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Vascular reactivity was assessed in wild-type and Nox4-knockout mice (Nox4(-/-)) by wire myography in the absence and presence of perivascular adipose tissue of different phenotypes from various adipose depots: (1) mixed WAT/BAT (inguinal adipose tissue) and (2) WAT (epididymal visceral fat) and BAT (intrascapular fat)...
December 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057763/the-ultrastructural-organization-of-actin-and-myosin-ii-filaments-in-the-contractile-ring-new-support-for-an-old-model-of-cytokinesis
#11
John H Henson, Casey E Ditzler, Aphnie Germain, Patrick M Irwin, Eric T Vogt, Shucheng Yang, Xufeng Wu, Charles B Shuster
Despite recent advances in our understanding of the components and spatial regulation of the contractile ring (CR), the precise ultrastructure of actin and myosin II within the animal cell CR remains an unanswered question. We employed super-resolution light microscopy and platinum replica transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the structural organization of actin and myosin II in isolated cortical cytoskeletons prepared from dividing sea urchin embryos. 3D structured illumination microscopy (SIM) indicated that within the CR, actin and myosin II filaments were organized into tightly packed linear arrays oriented along the axis of constriction, and restricted to a narrow zone within the furrow...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051852/artificial-slanted-nanocilia-array-as-a-mechanotransducer-for-controlling-cell-polarity
#12
Hong Nam Kim, Kyung-Jin Jang, Jung-Youn Shin, Daeshik Kang, Sang Moon Kim, Ilkyoo Koh, Yoonmi Hong, Segeun Jang, Min Sung Kim, Byung-Soo Kim, Hoon Eui Jeong, Noo Li Jeon, Pilnam Kim, Kahp-Yang Suh
We present a method to induce cell directional behavior using slanted nanocilia arrays. NIH-3T3 fibroblasts demonstrated bidirectional polarization in a rectangular arrangement on vertical nanocilia arrays and exhibited a transition from a bidirectional to a unidirectional polarization pattern when the angle of the nanocilia was decreased from 90° to 30°. The slanted nanocilia guided and facilitated spreading by allowing the cells to contact the sidewalls of the nanocilia, and the directional migration of the cells opposed the direction of the slant due to the anisotropic bending stiffness of the slanted nanocilia...
January 4, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043906/heterotrimeric-g-stimulatory-protein-alpha-subunit-is-required-for-intestinal-smooth-muscle-contraction-in-mice
#13
Xiaoteng Qin, Shangming Liu, Qiulun Lu, Meng Zhang, Xiuxin Jiang, Sanyuan Hu, Jingxin Li, Cheng Zhang, Jiangang Gao, Min-Sheng Zhu, Yun Zhang, Wencheng Zhang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G stimulatory protein (Gsa), encoded by the guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha stimulating gene (Gnas, in mice), is expressed ubiquitously and mediates receptor-stimulated production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activation of the protein kinase A signaling pathway. We investigated the roles of Gsa in vivo in smooth muscle cells of mice. METHODS: We performed studies of mice with Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of Gnas in smooth muscle cells (Gsa(SMKO) and SM22-CreER(T2), induced in adult mice by tamoxifen)...
December 30, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039755/myosin-phosphorylation-on-stress-fibers-predicts-contact-guidance-behavior-across-diverse-breast-cancer-cells
#14
Juan Wang, Ian C Schneider
During cancer progression the extracellular matrix is remodeled, forming aligned collagen fibers that proceed radially from the tumor, resulting in invasion. We have recently shown that different invasive breast cancer cells respond to epitaxially grown, aligned collagen fibrils differently. This article develops insight into why these cells differ in their contact guidance fidelity. Small changes in contractility or adhesion dramatically alter directional persistence on aligned collagen fibrils, while migration speed remains constant...
November 28, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039055/tgf%C3%AE-1-induces-stress-fiber-formation-through-upregulation-of-trpc6-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#15
Soonbum Park, Sanghoon Lee, Eun-Jung Park, MinJi Kang, Insuk So, Ju-Hong Jeon, Jung Nyeo Chun
Aberrant transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) signaling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of vascular fibrosis. On the other hand, deregulated transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) channel expression shows impaired vascular physiology and wound healing. However, it has little been known about the functional association between TGFβ1 and TRPC6 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we analyzed the microarray data obtained from TGFβ1-treated A7r5 VSMCs. We found that TGFβ1 specifically elevates the expression level of TRPC6 mainly through Smad-dependent canonical pathway...
December 27, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035903/drosophila-non-muscle-myosin-ii-motor-activity-determines-the-rate-of-tissue-folding
#16
Claudia G Vasquez, Sarah M Heissler, Neil Billington, James R Sellers, Adam C Martin
Non-muscle cell contractility is critical for tissues to adopt shape changes. Although, the non-muscle myosin II holoenzyme (myosin) is a molecular motor that powers contraction of actin cytoskeleton networks, recent studies have questioned the importance of myosin motor activity cell and tissue shape changes. Here, combining the biochemical analysis of enzymatic and motile properties for purified myosin mutants with in vivo measurements of apical constriction for the same mutants, we show that in vivo constriction rate scales with myosin motor activity...
December 30, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028174/dock8-regulates-macrophage-migration-through-cdc42-activation-and-lrap35a-interaction
#17
Akira Shiraishi, Takehito Uruno, Fumiyuki Sanematsu, Miho Ushijima, Daiji Sakata, Toshiro Hara, Yoshinori Fukui
DOCK8 is an atypical guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42, and its mutations cause combined immunodeficiency in humans. Accumulating evidence indicates that DOCK8 regulates the migration and activation of various subsets of leukocytes, yet its regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. We herein report that DOCK8-deficient macrophages exhibit a migration defect in a two-dimensional (2D) setting. Although DOCK8 deficiency in macrophages did not affect the global Cdc42 activation induced by chemokine stimulation, rescue experiments revealed that the GEF activity of DOCK8 was required for macrophage migration...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027402/shellfish-allergens-tropomyosin-and-beyond
#18
Margaretha A Faber, Mariona Pascal, Ouiam El Kharbouchi, Vito Sabato, Margo M Hagendorens, Ine I Decuyper, Chris H Bridts, Didier G Ebo
IgE-mediated shellfish allergy constitutes an important cause of food-related adverse reactions. Shellfish are classified into molluscs and crustaceans, the latter belonging to the class of arthropoda. Among crustaceans, shrimps are the most predominant cause of allergic reactions and thus more extensively studied. Several major and minor allergens have been identified and cloned. Amongst them invertebrate tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and hemocyanin are the most relevant...
December 27, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024953/immune-protection-conferred-by-recombinant-mrlc-myosin-regulatory-light-chain-antigen-in-titermax-gold%C3%A2-adjuvant-against-experimental-fasciolosis-in-rats
#19
Luan C Henker, Claiton I Schwertz, Neuber J Lucca, Manoela M Piva, Keila C Prior, Piotr Baska, Luke Norbury, Kamil Januszkiewicz, Diogenes Dezen, Marta M M F Duarte, Rafael N Moresco, Liana Bertagnolli da Rosa, Ricardo E Mendes
Protection against experimental fasciolosis in rats immunized with recombinant myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in TiterMax Gold® adjuvant was assessed. The experimental trial consisted of four groups of 15 animals; group 1 was unimmunized and infected, group 2 was immunized with MRLC in adjuvant and infected, group 3 was infected and immunized with adjuvant only and group 4 was unimmunized and uninfected. Immunization with MRLC in TiterMax Gold® adjuvant (group 2) induced a reduction in fluke burdens of 51...
December 23, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013338/colon-cancer-cell-derived-12-s-hete-induces-the-retraction-of-cancer-associated-fibroblast-via-mlc2-rho-rock-and-ca-2-signalling
#20
Serena Stadler, Chi Huu Nguyen, Helga Schachner, Daniela Milovanovic, Silvio Holzner, Stefan Brenner, Julia Eichsteininger, Mira Stadler, Daniel Senfter, Liselotte Krenn, Wolfgang M Schmidt, Nicole Huttary, Sigurd Krieger, Oskar Koperek, Zsuzsanna Bago-Horvath, Konstantin Alexander Brendel, Brigitte Marian, Oliver de Wever, Robert M Mader, Benedikt Giessrigl, Walter Jäger, Helmut Dolznig, Georg Krupitza
Retraction of mesenchymal stromal cells supports the invasion of colorectal cancer cells (CRC) into the adjacent compartment. CRC-secreted 12(S)-HETE enhances the retraction of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and therefore, 12(S)-HETE may enforce invasivity of CRC. Understanding the mechanisms of metastatic CRC is crucial for successful intervention. Therefore, we studied pro-invasive contributions of stromal cells in physiologically relevant three-dimensional in vitro assays consisting of CRC spheroids, CAFs, extracellular matrix and endothelial cells, as well as in reductionist models...
December 24, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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