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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727228/actin-gamma-1-a-new-skin-cancer-pathogenic-gene-identified-by-the-biological-feature-based-classification
#1
Xinqian Dong, Yingsheng Han, Zhen Sun, Junlong Xu
Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer that accounting for at least 40% of cancer cases around the world. This study aimed to identify skin cancer-related biological features and predict skin cancer candidate genes by employing machine learning based on biological features of known skin cancer genes. The known skin cancer-related genes were fetched from database and encoded by the enrichment scores of gene ontology and pathways. The optimal features of the skin cancer related genes were selected with a series of feature selection methods, such as mRMR, IFS, and Random Forest algorithm...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719725/effects-of-eupatilin-on-the-contractility-of-corpus-cavernosal-smooth-muscle-through-nitric-oxide-independent-pathways
#2
S H Choo, S W Lee, M R Chae, S J Kang, H H Sung, D H Han, J N Chun, J K Park, C Y Kim, H K Kim, I So
Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone) is one of the main compounds present in Artemisia species. Eupatilin has both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties and a relaxation effect on vascular contraction regardless of endothelial function. We evaluated the relaxant effects of eupatilin on the corpus cavernosum (CC) of rabbits and the underlying mechanisms of its activity in human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) cells. Isolated rabbit CC strips were mounted in an organ bath system. A conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to measure activation of calcium-sensitive K(+) -channel currents in human CCSM cells...
July 18, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717253/prostacyclin-reverses-platelet-stress-fibre-formation-causing-platelet-aggregate-instability
#3
M Z Yusuf, Z Raslan, L Atkinson, A Aburima, S G Thomas, K M Naseem, S D J Calaminus
Prostacyclin (PGI2) modulates platelet activation to regulate haemostasis. Evidence has emerged to suggest that thrombi are dynamic structures with distinct areas of differing platelet activation. It was hypothesised that PGI2 could reverse platelet spreading by actin cytoskeletal modulation, leading to reduced capability of platelet aggregates to withstand a high shear environment. Our data demonstrates that post-flow of PGI2 over activated and spread platelets on fibrinogen, identified a significant reduction in platelet surface area under high shear...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711870/symmetrical-retrograde-actin-flow-in-the-actin-fusion-structure-is-involved-in-osteoclast-fusion
#4
Jiro Takito, Hirotada Otsuka, Satoshi Inoue, Tsubasa Kawashima, Masanori Nakamura
The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the zipper-like structure (ZLS), a podosome-related structure that transiently appears at the cell contact zone, in osteoclast fusion. Live-cell imaging of osteoclasts derived from RAW264.7 cells transfected with EGFP-actin revealed consistent symmetrical retrograde actin flow in the ZLS, but not in the podosome cluster, the podosome ring or the podosome belt. Confocal imaging showed that the distributions of F-actin, vinculin, paxillin and zyxin in the ZLS were different from those in the podosome belt...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700929/a-cardiomyopathy-mutation-in-the-myosin-essential-light-chain-alters-actomyosin-structure
#5
Piyali Guhathakurta, Ewa Prochniewicz, Osha Roopnarine, John A Rohde, David D Thomas
We have used site-directed time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer to determine the effect of a pathological mutation in the human ventricular essential light chain (hVELC) of myosin, on the structural dynamics of the actin-myosin complex. The hVELC modulates the function of actomyosin, through the interaction of its N-terminal extension with actin and its C-terminal lobe with the myosin heavy chain. Several mutations in hVELC are associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Some biochemical effects of these mutations are known, but further insight is needed about their effects on the structural dynamics of functioning actomyosin...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699686/ablation-of-ceramide-synthase-2-exacerbates-dextran-sodium-sulphate-induced-colitis-in-mice-due-to-increased-intestinal-permeability
#6
Ye-Ryung Kim, Giora Volpert, Kyong-Oh Shin, So-Yeon Kim, Sun-Hye Shin, Younghay Lee, Sun Hee Sung, Yong-Moon Lee, Jung-Hyuck Ahn, Yael Pewzner-Jung, Woo-Jae Park, Anthony H Futerman, Joo-Won Park
Ceramides mediate crucial cellular processes including cell death and inflammation and have recently been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease. Ceramides consist of a sphingoid long-chain base to which fatty acids of various length can be attached. We now investigate the effect of alerting the ceramide acyl chain length on a mouse model of colitis. Ceramide synthase (CerS) 2 null mice, which lack very-long acyl chain ceramides with concomitant increase of long chain bases and C16-ceramides, were more susceptible to dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis, and their survival rate was markedly decreased compared with that of wild-type littermates...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698127/dietary-protein-levels-regulated-antibacterial-activity-inflammatory-response-and-structural-integrity-in-the-head-kidney-spleen-and-skin-of-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-after-challenged-with-aeromonas-hydrophila
#7
Wei-Dan Jiang, Jing Xu, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Pei Wu, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Lin Feng
This study investigated the effects of dietary protein levels on disease resistance, immune function and structural integrity in the head kidney, spleen and skin of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 grass carp (264.11 ± 0.76 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of protein (143.1, 176.7, 217.2, 257.5, 292.2 and 322.8 g digestible protein kg(-1) diet) for 8 weeks. After the growth trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results indicated that optimal levels of dietary protein: (1) (1) increased the lysozyme (LA) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and the complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents, up-regulated antimicrobial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα, target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 mRNA levels, whereas down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) P65, IKKβ, IKKγ, eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP) 1 and 4E-BP2 mRNA levels in the head kidney, spleen and skin of grass carp (P < 0...
July 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696205/increasing-evidence-of-mechanical-force-as-a-functional-regulator-in-smooth-muscle-myosin-light-chain-kinase
#8
Fabian Baumann, Magnus Sebastian Bauer, Martin Rees, Alexander Alexandrovich, Mathias Gautel, Diana Angela Pippig, Hermann Eduard Gaub
Mechanosensitive proteins are key players in cytoskeletal remodeling, muscle contraction, cell migration and differentiation processes. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a member of a diverse group of serine/threonine kinases that feature cytoskeletal association. Its catalytic activity is triggered by a conformational change upon Ca(2+)/calmodulin (Ca(2+)/CaM) binding. Due to its significant homology with the force-activated titin kinase, smMLCK is suspected to be also regulatable by mechanical stress...
July 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689737/asymmetrically-deployed-actomyosin-based-contractility-generates-a-boundary-between-developing-leg-segments-in-drosophila
#9
Dan Ly, Erin Resch, George Ordiway, Stephen DiNardo
The formation of complex tissues from simple epithelial sheets requires the regional subdivision of the developing tissue. This is initially accomplished by a sequence of gene regulatory hierarchies that set up distinct fates within adjacent territories, and rely on cross-regulatory interactions to do so. However, once adjacent territories are established, cells that confront one another across territorial boundaries must actively participate in maintaining separation from each other. Classically, it was assumed that adhesive differences would be a primary means of sorting cells to their respective territories...
July 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682475/hypertonic-saline-inhibits-airway-smooth-muscle-contraction-by-inhibiting-ca-2-sensitization
#10
Xiao-Cao Liu, Qian Wang, Yu-Shan She, Shu Chen, Xi Luo, Hao Xu, Dun-An Zang, Wen-Jing Zhang, Jun-Ying Qiu, Bei-Bei Liu, Jinhua Shen, Yong-Bo Peng, Ping Zhao, Lu Xue, Weiwei Chen, Li-Qun Ma, Xiangning Fu, Jingyu Chen, Qing-Hua Liu, Meng-Fei Yu
The effects of hypertonic solution on airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We found that hypertonic saline (HS) inhibited acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contraction of ASM from the mouse trachea and human bronchi. In single mouse ASM cells (ASMCs), ACh induced an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) that was further enhanced by 5% NaCl, indicating that the HS-induced inhibition of ASM contraction was not mediated by a decrease in cytosolic Ca(2+) . The Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 relaxed ACh-induced precontraction of mouse tracheal rings...
July 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680569/ppar%C3%AE-attenuates-hypoxia-induced-hypertrophic-transcriptional-pathways-in-the-heart
#11
Abubakr Chaudhry, Kristal A Carthan, Bum-Yong Kang, John Calvert, Roy L Sutliff, C Michael Hart
Chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by increased pressure and resistance in the pulmonary vasculature and hypertrophy of the right ventricle (RV). The transcription factors, nuclear factor activated T-cells (NFAT), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB/p65) contribute to RV hypertrophy (RVH). Because peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activation attenuates hypoxia-induced PH and RVH, we hypothesized that PPARγ inhibits activation of RV hypertrophic transcriptional signaling mechanisms...
March 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680155/polarized-distribution-of-active-myosin-ii-regulates-directional-migration-of-cultured-olfactory-ensheathing-cells
#12
Cheng-Gen Zheng, Fan Zhang, Xiao-Mei Bao, Shi-Yang Wu, Peng Wang, Jia-Nan Zhou, Yuan Gao, Hong-Lin Teng, Ying Wang, Zhi-Hui Huang
Migration of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) is critical for development of olfactory system and essential for neural regeneration after OEC transplantation into nerve injury site. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of directional migration of OECs remain unclear. In this study, we found that in migrating OECs, phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC, active myosin II) displayed a polarized distribution, with the leading front exhibiting higher than soma and trailing process. Over-expression of GFP-MLC significantly reduced OEC migration...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672931/resveratrol-enhances-vascular-reactivity-in-mice-following-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-via-the-rhoa-rock-mlcp-pathway
#13
Xu-Qing Wang, Yu-Ping Zhang, Li-Min Zhang, Niu-Niu Feng, Ming-Zhu Zhang, Zi-Gang Zhao, Chun-Yu Niu
The aim of the present study was to identify whether sepsis-induced vascular hyporeactivity is associated with microcirculation disturbance and multiple organ injuries. The current study assessed the impact of resveratrol (Res) treatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge mediated vascular hyporeactivity. Effects of Res treatment (30 mg/kg; i.m.) at 1 h following LPS stimulation (5 mg/kg; i.v.) on the survival time, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and maximal difference of MAP (ΔMAP) to norepinephrine (NE; 4...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671992/signaling-pathways-induced-by-serine-proteases-to-increase-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function
#14
Kelcie A Lahey, Natalie J Ronaghan, Judie Shang, Sébastien P Dion, Antoine Désilets, Richard Leduc, Wallace K MacNaughton
Changes in barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract are thought to contribute to the inflammatory bowel diseases Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Previous work in our lab demonstrated that apical exposure of intestinal epithelial cell lines to serine proteases results in an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). However, the underlying mechanisms governing this response are unclear. We aimed to determine the requirement for proteolytic activity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, and downstream intracellular signaling in initiating and maintaining enhanced barrier function following protease treatment using a canine intestinal epithelial cell line (SCBN)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661046/activation-of-camkk%C3%AE-ampk%C3%AE-pathway-by-2-ag-in-human-platelets
#15
Maria Grazia Signorello, Giuliana Leoncini
The objective of this study was to determine whether AMPK is activated by 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and participates to the cytoskeleton control in human platelets. We found that 2-AG stimulates the AMPKα activation through a Ca(2+) /Calmodulin-dependent pathway as the specific inhibition of the CaMKKβ by STO-609 inhibits the AMPKα phosphorylation/activation. Moreover the CaMKKβ/AMPKα pathway activated by 2-AG is involved in the phosphorylation of cofilin, vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and myosin light chain (MLCs)...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660097/fasudil-a-clinically-used-rock-inhibitor-stabilizes-rod-photoreceptor-synapses-after-retinal-detachment
#16
Ellen Townes-Anderson, Jianfeng Wang, Éva Halász, Ilene Sugino, Amy Pitler, Ian Whitehead, Marco Zarbin
PURPOSE: Retinal detachment disrupts the rod-bipolar synapse in the outer plexiform layer by retraction of rod axons. We showed that breakage is due to RhoA activation whereas inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK), using Y27632, reduces synaptic damage. We test whether the ROCK inhibitor fasudil, used for other clinical applications, can prevent synaptic injury after detachment. METHODS: Detachments were made in pigs by subretinal injection of balanced salt solution (BSS) or fasudil (1, 10 mM)...
June 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658550/crucial-role-for-cd69-in-allergic-inflammatory-responses-cd69-myl9-system-in-the-pathogenesis-of-airway-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Motoko Y Kimura, Koji Hayashizaki, Koji Tokoyoda, Shiki Takamura, Shinichiro Motohashi, Toshinori Nakayama
CD69 has been known as an early activation marker of lymphocytes; whereas, recent studies demonstrate that CD69 also has critical functions in immune responses. Early studies using human samples revealed the involvement of CD69 in various inflammatory diseases including asthma. Moreover, murine disease models using Cd69(-/-) mice and/or anti-CD69 antibody (Ab) treatment have revealed crucial roles for CD69 in inflammatory responses. However, it had not been clear how the CD69 molecule contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases...
July 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658286/mybpc3-mutations-are-associated-with-a-reduced-super-relaxed-state-in-patients-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#18
James W McNamara, Amy Li, Sean Lal, J Martijn Bos, Samantha P Harris, Jolanda van der Velden, Michael J Ackerman, Roger Cooke, Cristobal G Dos Remedios
The "super-relaxed state" (SRX) of myosin represents a 'reserve' of motors in the heart. Myosin heads in the SRX are bound to the thick filament and have a very low ATPase rate. Changes in the SRX are likely to modulate cardiac contractility. We previously demonstrated that the SRX is significantly reduced in mouse cardiomyocytes lacking cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C). Here, we report the effect of mutations in the cMyBP-C gene (MYBPC3) using samples from human patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656582/an-historical-perspective-of-the-discovery-of-titin-filaments
#19
REVIEW
Cris Dos Remedios, Darcy Gilmour
This review takes readers back to 1949, when two Australian scientists, Draper and Hodge, reported the first high-resolution electron microscopy images of striated muscle. In 1953, Jean Hanson and Hugh Huxley published phase-contrast microscopy and electron microscopy images that established the filamentous nature of the sarcomere, namely the myosin-containing thick filaments and actin-containing thin filaments. They discussed a putative third filament system, possibly a thinner actin-containing S filament, that appeared to connect one Z disc to the next...
June 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644070/particulate-matter-disrupts-human-lung-endothelial-cell-barrier-integrity-via-rho-dependent-pathways
#20
Ting Wang, Yuka Shimizu, Xiaomin Wu, Gabriel T Kelly, Xiaoyan Xu, Lichun Wang, Zhongqing Qian, Yin Chen, Joe G N Garcia
Increased exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases and cancer. We and others have shown that PM induces lung microvascular barrier dysfunction which potentially enhances the systemic toxicity of PM. However, the mechanisms by which PM disrupts vascular endothelial integrity remain incompletely explored. We hypothesize that PM induces endothelial cell (EC) cytoskeleton rearrangement via Rho GTPase-dependent pathways to facilitate vascular hyperpermeability...
June 23, 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
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