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myosin light chain

Alessandro Pecci, Xuefei Ma, Anna Savoia, Robert S Adelstein
The MYH9 gene encodes the heavy chain of non-muscle myosin IIA, a widely expressed cytoplasmic myosin that participates in a variety of processes requiring the generation of intracellular chemomechanical force and translocation of the actin cytoskeleton. Non-muscle myosin IIA functions are regulated by phosphorylation of its 20 kDa light chain, of the heavy chain, and by interactions with other proteins. Variants of MYH9 cause an autosomal-dominant disorder, termed MYH9-related disease, and may be involved in other conditions, such as chronic kidney disease, non-syndromic deafness, and cancer...
April 18, 2018: Gene
Juanjuan Liu, Yuanyuan Jin, Xiaozhou Feng, Sen Zou, Guangxin Lv, Zhifei Zhang, Zhaoyong Yang
Goat myosin light chain 6 (gMYL6) is a constituent of certain extracted immunization-induced goat anti-cancer bioactive peptides (ACBPs). However, little is known about its activity onto NK cells which are the basic cellular attackers in cancer immunotherapy for patients with malignancies. Because of the complicated extraction process and low yield of gMYL6 out of the goat ACBPs' mixture, the Nano-flow liquid chromatography and C-terminal polycationic tag expression strategy were used to identify and enrich the peptide to investigate its bioactivity against cancers/tumors...
April 18, 2018: Immunology Letters
Reiko Yamagishi-Kimura, Megumi Honjo, Takashi Komizo, Takashi Ono, Akiko Yagi, Jinhee Lee, Kazunori Miyata, Tomokazu Fujimoto, Toshihiro Inoue, Hidenobu Tanihara, Junko Nishida, Takatoshi Uchida, Yuka Araki, Makoto Aihara
Purpose: To explore interactions between pilocarpine and the ROCK inhibitor, ripasudil, on IOP and pupil diameter in human eyes, and morphological and functional changes in outflow tissues in vitro. Methods: IOP and pupil diameter were measured after pilocarpine and/or ripasudil, which were topically applied in healthy subjects. Human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells were used in a gel contraction assay, for the evaluation of phosphorylation of myosin light chain and cofilin, and immunostaining for cytoskeletal proteins...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yihua Wang, Chen-Ching Yuan, Katarzyna Kazmierczak, Danuta Szczesna-Cordary, Thomas P Burghardt
Myosin transduces ATP free energy into mechanical work in muscle. Cardiac muscle has dynamically wide-ranging power demands on the motor as the muscle changes modes in a heartbeat from relaxation, via auxotonic shortening, to isometric contraction. The cardiac power output modulation mechanism is explored in vitro by assessing single cardiac myosin step-size selection versus load. Transgenic mice express human ventricular essential light chain (ELC) in wild- type (WT), or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutant forms, A57G or E143K, in a background of mouse α-cardiac myosin heavy chain...
April 2018: Open Biology
Xuhua Yu, Jiajun Xu, Wenwu Liu, Weigang Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intravascular bubbles can exert pleiotropic detrimental effects, partly by inducing endothelial microparticles (EMPs) production, which play critical roles in cell communication and vascular inflammation cascades. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to delineate the possible mechanisms involving bubble-induced EMPs formation. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were contacted by bubbles and EMPs level in supernatant were quantified by flow cytometry...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Grace E Lidgerwood, Andrew J Morris, Alison Conquest, Maciej Daniszewski, Louise A Rooney, Shiang Y Lim, Damián Hernández, Helena H Liang, Penelope Allen, Paul P Connell, Robyn H Guymer, Alex W Hewitt, Alice Pébay
The human retina is a complex structure of organised layers of specialised cells that support the transmission of light signals to the visual cortex. The outermost layer of the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) forms part of the blood retina barrier and is implicated in many retinal diseases. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid exerting pleiotropic effects in various cell types, during development, normal physiology and disease. Its producing enzyme AUTOTAXIN (ATX) is highly expressed by the pigmented epithelia of the human eye, including the RPE...
April 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Menaka C Thounaojam, Manuela Bartoli, Sandeep Khurana
Patients with cirrhosis have reduced systemic vascular resistance and elevated circulating bile acids (BAs). Previously, we showed that secondary conjugated BAs impair vascular tone by reducing vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) Ca2+ influx. In this study, we investigated the effect of deoxycholylglycine (DCG), on Ca2+ sensitivity in reducing vascular tone. First, we evaluated the effects of DCG on U46619- and phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA)-induced vasoconstriction. DCG reduced U46619-induced vascular tone but failed to reduce PMA-induced vasoconstriction...
April 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Francine Parker, Matthew Batchelor, Marcin Wolny, Ruth Hughes, Peter J Knight, Michelle Peckham
Over 20 mutations in β-cardiac myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), expressed in cardiac and slow muscle fibres, cause Laing early onset distal myopathy (MPD-1), a skeletal muscle myopathy. Most of these mutations are in the coiled-coil tail, and commonly involve a mutation to a proline, or a single residue deletion, both of which are predicted to strongly affect the secondary structure of the coiled coil. To test this, we characterised the effects of two MPD-1 causing mutations: A1603P and K1617del in vitro and in cells...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Y Long, L Du, J J Kim, B Chen, Y Zhu, Y Zhang, S Yao, H He, X Zheng, Z Huang, N Dai
BACKGROUND: Alterations in intestinal permeability regulated by tight junctions (TJs) are associated with immune activation and visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is an important mediator of epithelial TJ. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of MLCK in the pathogenesis of IBS using a post infectious IBS (PI-IBS) mouse model. METHODS: Trichinella spiralis-infected PI-IBS mouse model was used...
April 11, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Xiao-Hui Zhang, Zhao-Hui Feng, Xiao-Yu Wang
Rho kinase (ROCK) was the first downstream Rho effector found to mediate RhoA-induced actin cytoskeletal changes through effects on myosin light chain phosphorylation. There is abundant evidence that the ROCK pathway participates in the pathogenesis of retinal endothelial injury and proliferative epiretinal membrane traction. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ROCK pathway inhibitor Y-27632 on retinal Müller cells subjected to hypoxia or oxidative stress. Müller cells were subjected to hypoxia or oxidative stress by exposure to CoCl2 or H2 O2 ...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Khaled Almansour, Alistair Taverner, Ian M Eggleston, Randall J Mrsny
Tight junction (TJ) structures restrict the movement of solutes between adjacent epithelial cells to maintain homeostatic conditions. A peptide, termed PIP 640, with the capacity to regulate the transient opening of intestinal TJ structures through an endogenous mechanism involving the induction of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation at serine 19 (MLC-pS19 ) has provided a promising new method to enhance the in vivo oral bioavailability of peptide therapeutics. PIP 640 is a decapeptide composed of all D-amino acids (rrdykvevrr-NH2 ) that contains a central sequence designed to emulates a specific domain of C-kinase potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor-17 kDa (CPI-17) surrounded by positively-charged amino acids that provide a cell penetrating peptide (CPP)-like character...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Alyson S Smith, Roberta B Nowak, Sitong Zhou, Michael Giannetto, David S Gokhin, Julien Papoin, Ionita C Ghiran, Lionel Blanc, Jiandi Wan, Velia M Fowler
The biconcave disk shape and deformability of mammalian RBCs rely on the membrane skeleton, a viscoelastic network of short, membrane-associated actin filaments (F-actin) cross-linked by long, flexible spectrin tetramers. Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) motors exert force on diverse F-actin networks to control cell shapes, but a function for NMII contractility in the 2D spectrin-F-actin network of RBCs has not been tested. Here, we show that RBCs contain membrane skeleton-associated NMIIA puncta, identified as bipolar filaments by superresolution fluorescence microscopy...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rishi Drolia, Shivendra Tenguria, Abigail C Durkes, Jerrold R Turner, Arun K Bhunia
Intestinal epithelial cells are the first line of defense against enteric pathogens, yet bacterial pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, can breach this barrier. We show that Listeria adhesion protein (LAP) induces intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction to promote bacterial translocation. These disruptions are attributed to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, which is observed in mice challenged with WT and isogenic strains lacking the surface invasion protein Internalin A (ΔinlA), but not a lap- mutant...
March 28, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Ossama Allam, Suzanne Samarani, Vikram Mehraj, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Cecile Tremblay, Jean-Pierre Routy, Devendra Amre, Ali Ahmad
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pleiotropic cytokine of the IL-1 family with multiple context dependent functions. We and others have shown that HIV infection is accompanied by increased circulating levels of IL-18 along with decreased levels of its antagonist, Interleukin-18 Binding Protein (IL-18BP). The infection is also accompanied by intestinal inflammation and decreased intestinal integrity as measured by intestinal permeability, regeneration and repair. However, little is known concerning the relation between high level of IL-18 associated with the viral infection and intestinal permeability...
2018: PloS One
Othman A Al-Shboul, Ahmed N Al-Dwairi, Mohammad A Alqudah, Ayman G Mustafa
Evidence of sex-related differences in gastrointestinal (GI) functions has been reported in the literature. In addition, various GI disorders have disproportionate prevalence between the sexes. An essential step in the initiation of smooth muscle contraction is the phosphorylation of the 20-kDa regulatory myosin light chain (MLC20 ) by the Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). However, whether male stomach smooth muscle inherits different contractile signaling mechanisms for the regulation of MLC20 phosphorylation from that in females has not been established...
March 2018: Biomedical Reports
Emily K Nguyen, Olha M Koval, Paige Noble, Kim Broadhurst, Chantal Allamargot, Meng Wu, Stefan Strack, William H Thiel, Isabella M Grumbach
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to define the mechanisms by which mitochondria control vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and impact neointimal hyperplasia. APPROACH AND RESULTS: The multifunctional CaMKII (Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II) in the mitochondrial matrix of VSMC drove a feed-forward circuit with the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) to promote matrix Ca2+ influx. MCU was necessary for the activation of mitochondrial CaMKII (mtCaMKII), whereas mtCaMKII phosphorylated MCU at the regulatory site S92 that promotes Ca2+ entry...
March 29, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Michael P Walsh, Justin A MacDonald
Smooth muscle contraction is triggered primarily by activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase leading to phosphorylation of the regulatory light chains of myosin II. Numerous contractile stimuli also induce inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase thereby prolonging the contractile response. The phosphatase is a trimeric enzyme containing a catalytic subunit, a regulatory, myosin-binding subunit (MYPT1) and a third subunit of uncertain function. MYPT1 is phosphorylated at multiple sites by several kinases, which regulate phosphatase activity, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization...
March 26, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
Fang-Fang He, Dian Bao, Hua Su, Yu-Mei Wang, Chun-Tao Lei, Chun-Yun Zhang, Chen Ye, Hui Tang, Cheng Wan, Chao-Qun You, Jiao Zhang, Jing Xiong, Chun Zhang
The disturbance of podocyte motility is an essential pathogenic mechanisms of foot process effacement during proteinuric diseases, and myosin light chain (MLC) is a pivotal component in regulating the motility of podocytes. Inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to induce podocyte abnormalities by various mechanisms, however, whether aberrant cell motility contributes to the IL-6-induced podocyte injury remains unknown. Here, by wound healing, transwell, and cell migration assays, we confirmed that IL-6 accelerates the motility of podocyte...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
William J Pearce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Mona Chappellaz, Hayden Segboer, Annegret Ulke-Lemée, Cindy Sutherland, Huey-Miin Chen, Justin A MacDonald
The 20-kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II plays an important role in regulating smooth muscle contractile force. LC20 is phosphorylated canonically by myosin light chain kinase in a Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent manner at S19. The diphosphorylation of LC20 at T18 and S19 has been observed in smooth muscle tissues. Given that the phosphorylation of LC20 is positively correlated with tension development, the molar stoichiometry of LC20 phosphorylation is commonly profiled as a measure of smooth muscle contractility...
March 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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