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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229860/distinct-contributions-of-the-thin-and-thick-filaments-to-length-dependent-activation-in-heart-muscle
#1
Xuemeng Zhang, Thomas Kampourakis, Ziqian Yan, Ivanka Sevrieva, Malcolm Irving, Yin-Biao Sun
The Frank-Starling relation is a fundamental auto-regulatory property of the heart that ensures the volume of blood ejected in each heartbeat is matched to the extent of venous filling. At the cellular level, heart muscle cells generate higher force when stretched, but despite intense efforts the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. We applied a fluorescence-based method, which reports structural changes separately in the thick and thin filaments of rat cardiac muscle, to elucidate that mechanism...
February 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228547/limch1-regulates-nonmuscle-myosin-ii-activity-and-suppresses-cell-migration
#2
Yu-Hung Lin, Yen-Yi Zhen, Kun-Yi Chien, I-Ching Lee, Wei-Chi Lin, Mei-Yu Chen, Li-Mei Pai
Nonmuscle myosin II (NM-II) is an important motor protein involved in cell migration. Incorporation of NM-II into actin stress fiber provides a traction force to promote actin retrograde flow and focal adhesion assembly. However, the components involved in regulation of NM-II activity are not well understood. Here, we identified a novel actin stress fiber-associated protein, LIM and calponin-homology domains 1 (LIMCH1), which regulates NM-II activity. The recruitment of LIMCH1 into contractile stress fibers revealed its localization complementary to actinin-1...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220794/flucrypyrim-a-novel-uterine-relaxant-has-antinociceptive-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-vivo
#3
Zhongtang Li, Limei Wang, Yue Cong, Lin Guo, Xiaohui Lin, Zuyin Yu, Xingan Wu, Junxing Dong, Rifang Yang, Yuwen Cong
Consequences of primary dsysmenorrhea (PD) can be severe. Increased prostaglandin production leads to uterine contraction and insufficient blood flow to the endometrium causing ischemia and pain symptoms. Protein tyrosine kinase/phosphatase activities contribute to the modulation of uterine contraction. In our previous study, we found the synthetic β-methoxyacrylates compound Fluacrypyrim (FAPM), significantly increased protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) activity, resulting in dephosphorylation of tyrosine kinases...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214148/muscle-characteristics-only-partially-explain-color-variations-in-fresh-hams
#4
K Stufft, J Elgin, B Patterson, S K Matarneh, R Preisser, H Shi, E M England, T L Scheffler, E W Mills, D E Gerrard
Fresh hams display significant lean color variation that persists through further processing and contributes to a less desirable cured product. In an attempt to understand the underlying cause of this color disparity, we evaluated the differences in muscle characteristics and energy metabolites across semimembranosus (SM) muscles differing in color variation. The L* (lightness) and a* (redness) values were highest and lowest (P<0.001), respectfully in the most caudal aspects of the muscle while the ultimate pH was the lowest (P<0...
December 24, 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212799/rho-mancing-to-sensitize-calcium-signaling-for-contraction-in-the-vasculature-role-of-rho-kinase
#5
T Szasz, R C Webb
Vascular smooth muscle contraction is an important physiological process contributing to cardiovascular homeostasis. The principal determinant of smooth muscle contraction is the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration, and phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) by activated myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in response to increased Ca(2+) is the main pathway by which vasoconstrictor stimuli induce crossbridge cycling of myosin and actin filaments. A secondary pathway for vascular smooth muscle contraction that is not directly dependent on Ca(2+) concentration, but rather mediating Ca(2+) sensitization, is the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212798/protein-kinase-c-as-regulator-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-function-and-potential-target-in-vascular-disorders
#6
H C Ringvold, R A Khalil
Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) plays an important role in maintaining vascular tone. In addition to Ca(2+)-dependent myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, protein kinase C (PKC) is a major regulator of VSM function. PKC is a family of conventional Ca(2+)-dependent α, β, and γ, novel Ca(2+)-independent δ, ɛ, θ, and η, and atypical ξ, and ι/λ isoforms. Inactive PKC is mainly cytosolic, and upon activation it undergoes phosphorylation, maturation, and translocation to the surface membrane, the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and other cell organelles; a process facilitated by scaffold proteins such as RACKs...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199848/discoidin-domain-receptor-1-mediates-myosin-dependent-collagen-contraction
#7
Nuno M Coelho, Pamma D Arora, Sander van Putten, Stellar Boo, Petar Petrovic, Alyna Xue Lin, Boris Hinz, Christopher A McCulloch
Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a tyrosine kinase collagen adhesion receptor that mediates cell migration through association with non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA). Because DDR1 is implicated in cancer fibrosis, we hypothesized that DDR1 interacts with NMIIA to enable collagen compaction by traction forces. Mechanical splinting of rat dermal wounds increased DDR1 expression and collagen alignment. In periodontal ligament of DDR1 knockout mice, collagen mechanical reorganization was reduced >30%. Similarly, cultured cells with DDR1 knockdown or expressing kinase-deficient DDR1d showed 50% reduction of aligned collagen...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192254/effect-of-dietary-phosphorus-deficiency-on-the-growth-immune-function-and-structural-integrity-of-head-kidney-spleen-and-skin-in-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#8
Kang Chen, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Yang Liu, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Lin Feng
This study evaluates the effects of dietary phosphorus on the growth, immune function and structural integrity (head kidney, spleen and skin) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) that were fed graded levels of available phosphorus (0.95-8.75 g/kg diet). Results indicated that phosphorus deficiency decreased the growth performance of young grass carp. In addition, the results first demonstrated that compared with the optimal phosphorus level, phosphorus deficiency depressed the lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and the complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR), whereas it up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and NF-κB p52 mRNA levels to decrease fish head kidney and spleen immune functions...
February 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191820/vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-glycocalyx-mediates-shear-stress-induced-contractile-responses-via-a-rho-kinase-rock-myosin-light-chain-phosphatase-mlcp-pathway
#9
Hongyan Kang, Jiajia Liu, Anqiang Sun, Xiao Liu, Yubo Fan, Xiaoyan Deng
The vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are exposed to interstitial flow induced shear stress that may be sensed by the surface glycocalyx, a surface layer composed primarily of proteoglycans and glycoproteins, to mediate cell contraction during the myogenic response. We, therefore, attempted to elucidate the signal pathway of the glycocalyx mechanotransduction in shear stress regulated SMC contraction. Human umbilical vein SMCs (HUVSMCs) deprived of serum for 3-4 days were exposed to a step increase (0 to 20 dyn/cm(2)) in shear stress in a parallel plate flow chamber, and reduction in the cell area was quantified as contraction...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169288/omega-3-and-omega-6-dpa-equally-inhibit-the-sphingosylphosphorylcholine-induced-ca-2-sensitization-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-contraction-via-inhibiting-rho-kinase-activation-and-translocation
#10
Ying Zhang, Min Zhang, Bochao Lyu, Hiroko Kishi, Sei Kobayashi
We previously reported that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA), effectively inhibits sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC)-induced Ca(2+)-sensitization of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contraction which is a major cause of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular vasospasm, and EPA is utilized clinically to prevent cerebrovascular vasospasm. In this study, we clearly demonstrate that docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), which exists in two forms as omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) PUFA, strongly inhibits SPC-induced contraction in VSM tissue and human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs), with little effect on Ca(2+)-dependent contraction...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167239/6-gingerol-protects-intestinal-barrier-from-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-damage-via-inhibition-of-p38-mapk-to-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling
#11
Yanli Li, Bin Xu, Ming Xu, Dapeng Chen, Yongjian Xiong, Mengqiao Lian, Yuchao Sun, Zeyao Tang, Li Wang, Chunling Jiang, Yuan Lin
Intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury caused by severe trauma, intestinal obstruction, and operation is one of the tough challenges in clinic. 6-Gingerol (6G), a main active ingredient of ginger, is found to have anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-cancer activities. The present study was designed to characterize the potential protective effects of 6G on rat intestinal I/R injury and reveal the correlated mechanisms. Rat intestinal I/R model was established with clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and 6G was intragastrically administered for three consecutive days before I/R injury...
February 4, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154894/actin-dynamics-in-the-regulation-of-endothelial-barrier-functions-and-neutrophil-recruitment-during-endotoxemia-and-sepsis
#12
REVIEW
Michael Schnoor, Alexander García Ponce, Eduardo Vadillo, Rosana Pelayo, Jan Rossaint, Alexander Zarbock
Sepsis is a leading cause of death worldwide. Increased vascular permeability is a major hallmark of sepsis. Dynamic alterations in actin fiber formation play an important role in the regulation of endothelial barrier functions and thus vascular permeability. Endothelial integrity requires a delicate balance between the formation of cortical actin filaments that maintain endothelial cell contact stability and the formation of actin stress fibers that generate pulling forces, and thus compromise endothelial cell contact stability...
February 2, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148680/the-plasma-proteome-is-associated-with-anthropometric-status-of-undernourished-nepalese-school-aged-children
#13
Sun Eun Lee, Christine P Stewart, Kerry J Schulze, Robert N Cole, Lee S-F Wu, James D Yager, John D Groopman, Subarna K Khatry, Ramesh Kant Adhikari, Parul Christian, Keith P West
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition affects body growth, size, and composition of children. Yet, few functional biomarkers are known to be associated with childhood morphology. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study examined associations of anthropometric indicators of height, musculature, and fat mass with plasma proteins by using proteomics in a population cohort of school-aged Nepalese children. METHODS: Height, weight, midupper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps and subscapular skinfolds, upper arm muscle area (AMA), and arm fat area (AFA) were assessed in 500 children 6-8 y of age...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148652/calcium-signals-drive-cell-shape-changes-during-zebrafish-midbrain-hindbrain-boundary-formation
#14
Srishti U Sahu, Mike R Visetsouk, Ryan J Garde, Leah Hennes, Constance Kwas, Jennifer H Gutzman
One of the first morphogenetic events in the vertebrate brain is the formation of the highly conserved midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB). Specific cell shape changes occur at the point of deepest constriction of the MHB, the midbrain-hindbrain boundary constriction (MHBC), and are critical for proper MHB formation. These cell shape changes are controlled by non-muscle myosin II (NMII) motor proteins which are tightly regulated via the phosphorylation of their associated myosin regulatory light chains (MRLC)...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135003/modulation-of-skeletal-muscle-contraction-by-myosin-phosphorylation
#15
Rene Vandenboom
The striated muscle sarcomere is a highly organized and complex enzymatic and structural organelle. Evolutionary pressures have played a vital role in determining the structure-function relationship of each protein within the sarcomere. A key part of this multimeric assembly is the light chain-binding domain (LCBD) of the myosin II motor molecule. This elongated "beam" functions as a biological lever, amplifying small interdomain movements within the myosin head into piconewton forces and nanometer displacements against the thin filament during the cross-bridge cycle...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131772/in%C3%A2-vitro-actin-motility-velocity-varies-linearly-with-the-number-of-myosin-impellers
#16
Y Wang, T P Burghardt
Cardiac myosin is the motor powering the heart. It moves actin with 3 step-size varieties generated by torque from the myosin heavy chain lever-arm rotation under the influence of myosin essential light chain whose N-terminal extension binds actin. Proposed mechanisms adapting myosin mechanochemical characteristics on the fly sometimes involve modulation of step-size selection probability via motor strain sensitivity. Strain following the power stroke, hypothetically imposed by the finite actin detachment rate 1/ton, is shown to have no effect on unloaded velocity when multiple myosins are simultaneously strongly actin bound in an in vitro motility assay...
January 25, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125813/signal-transduction-underlying-the-inhibitory-mechanism-of-fluoxetine-on-electrical-field-stimulation-response-in-rat-ileal-smooth-muscle
#17
Phyu Phyu Khin, Tin Sandar Zaw, Uy Dong Sohn
Fluoxetine (FLX), a well-known antidepressant drug under the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, exerts its action by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin selectively. In some studies, it has been demonstrated that FLX relaxes the intestinal smooth muscle. In this study, we aimed at studying the signal transduction pathway underlying the muscle relaxation effect of FLX on electrically stimulated rat ileal muscle contraction. To investigate the possible mechanism involved, various antagonists were used...
January 27, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120209/differential-proteomics-analysis-of-endometriosis-in-blood-stasis-syndrome
#18
Yi Wen, Yan Wang, Ting-Ting Feng, Shao-Bin Wei
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the innate characters of 3 endometriosis (EMT) syndromes, blood stasis (BS), qi stagnation and blood stasis (QSBS) as well as Shen (Kidney) deficiency and blood stasis (KDBS) in terms of proteomics, lay a molecular biological basis for the differentiation of various blood stasis syndromes of EMT, establish a EMT microscopic syndrome differentiation and diagnosis system in terms of proteomics, discover the evolution principles and therapeutic targets of these EMT syndromes, and search their significant molecular markers and genetic intervention targets...
January 24, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118553/endothelial-tight-junctions-are-opened-in-cholinergic-evoked-salivation-in-vivo
#19
X Cong, Y Zhang, Q H He, T Wei, X M Zhang, J Z Zhang, R L Xiang, G Y Yu, L L Wu
Blood vessels provide the original supplies for the formation of primary saliva, which is regulated by the tight junctions (TJs) between endothelial cells. Previous studies have shown that blood flow increases with vasodilatation during cholinergic-evoked salivation. However, changes in vascular paracellular permeability and the role of endothelial TJs in salivation are unknown. Here, we established an in vivo paracellular permeability detection system and observed that the endothelial TJs were permeable to 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran while impermeable to 40- and 70-kDa FITC-dextran under an unstimulated condition in mouse submandibular glands (SMGs)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115646/response-of-novel-skeletal-muscle-biomarkers-in-dogs-to-drug-induced-skeletal-muscle-injury-or-sustained-endurance-exercise
#20
Katerina Vlasakova, Pamela Lane, Laura Michna, Nagaraja Muniappa, Frank D Sistare, Warren E Glaab
The skeletal muscle (SKM) injury biomarkers, skeletal troponin I (sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), and creatine kinase muscle isoform (Ckm) have been shown recently to be more sensitive and specific for monitoring drug-induced SKM injury than the conventional biomarkers, aspartate transaminase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) enzymatic assays in rat toxicology studies. To evaluate the utility of these SKM biomarkers across species, they were assessed in two dog models: a drug-induced injury study in Beagle dogs and a 160 km endurance exercise run completed by Alaskan sled dogs...
January 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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