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myosin light chain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339048/agr2-ameliorates-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-via-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-mediated-mlck-p-mlc-pathway-activation
#1
Xiaolin Ye, Mei Sun
Intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Anterior gradient protein 2 homologue (AGR2) assists in maintaining intestinal homeostasis in dextran sulphate sodium-induced mouse ileocolitis; however, it is unclear whether it modulates intestinal barrier function. Our study aimed to investigate the protective role of AGR2 in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced intestinal epithelial barrier injury. Caco-2 cell monolayers were pre-transfected with an AGR2 plasmid and then exposed to TNF-α...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320305/intermolecular-interactions-of-myosin-subfragment-1-induced-by-the-n-terminal-extension-of-essential-light-chain-1
#2
D S Logvinova, O P Nikolaeva, D I Levitsky
We applied dynamic light scattering (DLS) to compare aggregation properties of two isoforms of myosin subfragment 1 (S1) containing different "essential" (or "alkali") light chains, A1 or A2, which differ by the presence of an N-terminal extension in A1. Upon mild heating (up to 40°C), which was not accompanied by thermal denaturation of the protein, we observed a significant growth in the hydrodynamic radius of the particles for S1(A1), from ~18 to ~600-700 nm, whereas the radius of S1(A2) remained unchanged and equal to ~18 nm...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303576/nonmuscle-nm-myosin-heavy-chain-phosphorylation-regulates-the-formation-of-nm-myosin-filaments-adhesome-assembly-and-smooth-muscle-contraction
#3
Wenwu Zhang, Susan J Gunst
The molecular function of nonmuscle (NM) isoforms of myosin II in smooth muscle (SM) tissues, and their possible role in contraction are largely unknown. We evaluated the function of NM myosin during contractile stimulation of canine tracheal SM tissues. Stimulation with ACh caused NM myosin filament assembly, as assessed by a Triton solubility assay and a proximity ligation assay to measure interactions between NM myosin monomers. ACh stimulated the phosphorylation of NM myosin heavy chain (HC) on Ser1943 in tracheal SM tissues, which can regulate NM myosin IIA filament assembly in vitro...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300193/interplay-of-myosin-phosphatase-and-protein-phosphatase-2a-in-the-regulation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-phosphorylation-and-nitric-oxide-production
#4
Róbert Bátori, Bálint Bécsi, Dénes Nagy, Zoltán Kónya, Csaba Hegedűs, Zsuzsanna Bordán, Alexander Verin, Beáta Lontay, Ferenc Erdődi
The inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) at Thr497 (eNOS(pThr497)) by protein kinase C or RhoA-activated kinase is a major regulatory determinant of eNOS activity. The signalling mechanisms involved in the dephosphorylation of eNOS(pThr497) have not yet been clarified. This study identifies myosin phosphatase (MP) holoenzyme consisting of protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit (PP1c) and MP target subunit-1 (MYPT1) as an eNOS(pThr497) phosphatase. In support of this finding are: (i) eNOS and MYPT1 interacts in various endothelial cells (ECs) and in in vitro binding assays (ii) MYPT1 targets and stimulates PP1c toward eNOS(pThr497) substrate (iii) phosphorylation of MYPT1 at Thr696 (MYPT1(pThr696)) controls the activity of MP on eNOS(pThr497)...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298335/hyperglycemia-and-hyperinsulinemia-induced-insulin-resistance-causes-alterations-in-cellular-bioenergetics-and-activation-of-inflammatory-signaling-in-lymphatic-muscle
#5
Yang Lee, James D Fluckey, Sanjukta Chakraborty, Mariappan Muthuchamy
Insulin resistance is a well-known risk factor for obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and associated cardiovascular diseases, but its mechanisms are undefined in the lymphatics. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels from MetSyn or LPS-injected rats exhibited impaired intrinsic contractile activity and associated inflammatory changes. Hence, we hypothesized that insulin resistance in lymphatic muscle cells (LMCs) affects cell bioenergetics and signaling pathways that consequently alter contractility. LMCs were treated with different concentrations of insulin or glucose or both at various time points to determine insulin resistance...
March 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295256/visualization-of-stimulus-specific-heterogeneous-activation-of-individual-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-aortic-tissues
#6
Satoshi Komatsu, Toshio Kitazawa, Mitsuo Ikebe
Intercellular communication among autonomic nerves, endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a central role in an uninterrupted regulation of blood flow through vascular contractile machinery. Impairment of this communication is linked to development of vascular diseases such as hypertension, cerebral/coronary vasospasms, aortic aneurism, and erectile dysfunction. Although the basic concept of the communication as a whole has been studied, the spatiotemporal correlation of ECs/VSMCs in tissues at the cellular level is unknown...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288171/the-acceleration-of-cardiomyogenesis-in-embryonic-stem-cells-in-vitro-by-serum-depletion-does-not-increase-the-number-of-developed-cardiomyocytes
#7
Katarzyna Anna Radaszkiewicz, Dominika Sýkorová, Lucia Binó, Jana Kudová, Markéta Bébarová, Jiřina Procházková, Hana Kotasová, Lukáš Kubala, Jiří Pacherník
The differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells into various lineages in vitro represents an important tool for studying the mechanisms underlying mammalian embryogenesis. It is a key technique in studies evaluating the molecular mechanisms of cardiomyogenesis and heart development and also in embryotoxicology. Herein, modest modifications of the basic protocol for ES cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes were evaluated in order to increase the yield and differentiation status of developed cardiomyocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285136/homocysteine-ameliorates-the-endothelium-independent-hypoxic-vasoconstriction-via-the-suppression-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-akt-pathway-in-porcine-coronary-arteries
#8
Yuan-Ming An, Han Feng, Xing-Zhong Zhang, Xin Cong, Qian Zhao, Li-Ling Wu, Dou Dou
OBJECTIVE: Endothelium-independent coronary vasoconstriction induced by continuous hypoxia contributes to the development of ischemic heart diseases. Acute elevation of homocysteine (Hcy) has a potent of vasodilation. The present study aims to investigate the role of Hcy in endothelium-independent hypoxic coronary vasoconstriction and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vessel tension of isolated porcine coronary arteries was measured by organ chamber study and the protein expression were detected by western blot...
April 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284018/chemical-shift-assignments-of-the-first-and-second-rrms-of-nrd1-a-fission-yeast-mapk-target-rna-binding-protein
#9
Ayaho Kobayashi, Teppei Kanaba, Ryosuke Satoh, Yutaka Ito, Reiko Sugiura, Masaki Mishima
Negative regulator differentiation 1 (Nrd1), a fission yeast RNA binding protein, modulates cytokinesis and sexual development and contributes to stress granule formation in response to environmental stresses. Nrd1 comprises four RRM domains and binds and stabilizes Cdc4 mRNA that encodes the myosin II light chain. Nrd1 binds the Cpc2 fission-yeast RACK1 homolog, and the interaction promotes Nrd1 localization to stress granules. Interestingly, Pmk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates Thr40 in the unstructured N-terminal region and Thr126 in the first RRM domain of Nrd1...
March 11, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280468/rok-and-arteriolar-myogenic-tone-generation-molecular-evidence-in-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Ahmed F El-Yazbi, Khaled S Abd-Elrahman
The myogenic response is an inherent property of resistance arteries that warrants a relatively constant blood flow in response to changes in perfusion pressure and protect delicate organs from vascular insufficiencies and excessive blood flow. This fundamental phenomenon has been extensively studied aiming to elucidate the underlying mechanisms triggering smooth muscle contraction in response to intraluminal pressure elevation, particularly, Rho-associated kinase (ROK)-mediated Ca(2+)-independent mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279687/airborne-particulate-matter-in-vitro-exposure-induces-cytoskeleton-remodeling-through-activation-of-the-rock-mypt1-mlc-pathway-in-a549-epithelial-lung-cells
#11
Yolanda I Chirino, Claudia María García-Cuellar, Carlos García-García, Ernesto Soto-Reyes, Álvaro Román Osornio-Vargas, Luis A Herrera, Alejandro López-Saavedra, Javier Miranda, Raúl Quintana-Belmares, Irma Rosas Pérez, Yesennia Sánchez-Pérez
Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM10) is considered a risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which PM10 is associated with cancer, but there is evidence that its exposure can lead to an acquired invasive phenotype, apoptosis evasion, inflammasome activation, and cytoskeleton remodeling in lung epithelial cells. Cytoskeleton remodeling occurs through actin stress fiber formation, which is partially regulated through ROCK kinase activation, we aimed to investigate if this protein was activated in response to PM10 exposure in A549 lung epithelial cells...
March 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272166/inhibition-of-myosin-light-chain-kinase-enhances-the-clearance-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-lung-inflammation-possibly-by-accelerating-neutrophil-apoptosis
#12
Wei Shi, Chengyun Xu, Musaddique Hussain, Fugen Wu, Meiping Lu, Xiling Wu, Lanfang Tang, Ximei Wu, Junsong Wu
Neutrophils are a population of inflammatory cell involved in acute lung injury (ALI), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced prolonged neutrophil survival and delayed neutrophil apoptosis hinder the alleviation of lung inflammation. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) involved the RhoA/Rho kinase signaling pathway responsible for the cytoskeletal arrangement, and previous studies have revealed that inhibition of MLCK induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In this study, glycogen-induced neutrophils isolated from rats or mice were incubated with ML-7, a MLCK specific inhibitor, and LPS-induced ALI mice administrated with ML-7 were investigated, to demonstrate the roles of MLCK in neutrophils apoptosis as well as the possibility of which contributing to the clearance of inflammation...
March 7, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260704/diversity-and-plasticity-in-signaling-pathways-that-regulate-smooth-muscle-responsiveness-paradigms-and-paradoxes-for-the-myosin-phosphatase-the-master-regulator-of-smooth-muscle-contraction
#13
Masumi Eto, Toshio Kitazawa
A hallmark of smooth muscle cells is their ability to adapt their functions to meet temporal and chronic fluctuations in their demands. These functions include force development and growth. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the functional plasticity of smooth muscles, the major constituent of organ walls, is fundamental to elucidating pathophysiological rationales of failures of organ functions. Also, the knowledge is expected to facilitate devising innovative strategies that more precisely monitor and normalize organ functions by targeting individual smooth muscles...
2017: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260490/myosin-light-chain-kinase-mylk1-anatomy-interactions-functions-and-regulation
#14
REVIEW
A Y Khapchaev, V P Shirinsky
This review discusses and summarizes the results of molecular and cellular investigations of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK, MYLK1), the key regulator of cell motility. The structure and regulation of a complex mylk1 gene and the domain organization of its products is presented. The interactions of the mylk1 gene protein products with other proteins and posttranslational modifications of the mylk1 gene protein products are reviewed, which altogether might determine the role and place of MLCK in physiological and pathological reactions of cells and entire organisms...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259907/o-glcnacylation-promotes-migration-and-invasion-in-human-ovarian-cancer-cells-via-the-rhoa-rock-mlc-pathway
#15
Yichao Niu, Ye Xia, Jingyun Wang, Xiaofei Shi
O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification associated with the regulation of multiple cellular functions. The addition and removal of O‑Linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O‑GlcNAc) on target proteins is catalyzed by O‑GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O‑GlcNAcase (OGA), respectively. Accumulating evidence suggests that O-GlcNAcylation is associated with the malignancy of several types of human cancer. To investigate the effect of O-GlcNAcylation on ovarian cancer phenotypes, global O‑GlcNAc levels were decreased by OGT silencing through RNA interference and increased by inhibiting OGA activity with Thiamet‑G...
February 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251466/shortening-speed-dependent-force-potentiation-is-attenuated-but-not-eliminated-in-skeletal-muscles-without-myosin-phosphorylation
#16
William Gittings, Jordan Bunda, Rene Vandenboom
We investigated the influence of shortening speed on concentric force potentiation at different frequencies in muscles devoid of skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK(-/-)) and unable to phosphorylate myosin. EDL muscles from skMLCK(-/-) mice were activated in vitro (25 °C) across a range of stimulation frequencies (10-100 Hz) during shortening ramps at 0.10, 0.30, or 0.50 of maximum shortening velocity (Vmax) before and after a potentiating stimulus (PS). When collapsed across all frequencies, the PS increased relative (post/pre) concentric force to 1...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249988/curcumin-improves-intestinal-barrier-function-modulation-of-intracellular-signaling-and-organization-of-tight-junctions
#17
Jing Wang, Siddhartha S Ghosh, Shobha Ghosh
Association between circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and metabolic diseases (such as Type 2 Diabetes and atherosclerosis) has shifted the focus from high-fat high-cholesterol containing western type diet (WD)-induced changes in gut microbiota per se to release of gut bacteria-derived products (e.g., LPS) into circulation due to intestinal barrier dysfunction as the possible mechanism for the chronic inflammatory state underlying the development of these diseases. We demonstrated earlier that oral supplementation with curcumin attenuates WD-induced development of Type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248225/age-and-activity-related-differences-in-the-abundance-of-myosin-essential-and-regulatory-light-chains-in-human-muscle
#18
James N Cobley, Zulezwan Ab Malik, James P Morton, Graeme L Close, Ben J Edwards, Jatin G Burniston
Traditional methods for phenotyping skeletal muscle (e.g., immunohistochemistry) are labor-intensive and ill-suited to multixplex analysis, i.e., assays must be performed in a series. Addressing these concerns represents a largely unmet research need but more comprehensive parallel analysis of myofibrillar proteins could advance knowledge regarding age- and activity-dependent changes in human muscle. We report a label-free, semi-automated and time efficient LC-MS proteomic workflow for phenotyping the myofibrillar proteome...
April 8, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248222/on-the-rate-of-synthesis-of-individual-proteins-within-and-between-different-striated-muscles-of-the-rat
#19
Stuart Hesketh, Kanchana Srisawat, Hazel Sutherland, Jonathan Jarvis, Jatin Burniston
The turnover of muscle protein is responsive to different (patho)-physiological conditions but little is known about the rate of synthesis at the level of individual proteins or whether this varies between different muscles. We investigated the synthesis rate of eight proteins (actin, albumin, ATP synthase alpha, beta enolase, creatine kinase, myosin essential light chain, myosin regulatory light chain and tropomyosin) in the extensor digitorum longus, diaphragm, heart and soleus of male Wistar rats (352 ± 30 g body weight)...
March 15, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229860/distinct-contributions-of-the-thin-and-thick-filaments-to-length-dependent-activation-in-heart-muscle
#20
Xuemeng Zhang, Thomas Kampourakis, Ziqian Yan, Ivanka Sevrieva, Malcolm Irving, Yin-Biao Sun
The Frank-Starling relation is a fundamental auto-regulatory property of the heart that ensures the volume of blood ejected in each heartbeat is matched to the extent of venous filling. At the cellular level, heart muscle cells generate higher force when stretched, but despite intense efforts the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. We applied a fluorescence-based method, which reports structural changes separately in the thick and thin filaments of rat cardiac muscle, to elucidate that mechanism...
February 23, 2017: ELife
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