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myosin light chain

Stephanie E Wallace, Ellen S Regalado, Limin Gong, Alexandra L Janda, Dong-Chuan Guo, Claudio F Russo, Richard J Kulmacz, Nadine Hanna, Guillaume Jondeau, Catherine Boileau, Pauline Arnaud, Kwanghyuk Lee, Suzanne M Leal, Matias Hannuksela, Bo Carlberg, Tami Johnston, Christian Antolik, Ellen M Hostetler, Roberto Colombo, Dianna M Milewicz
PURPOSE: Heritable thoracic aortic disease can result from null variants in MYLK, which encodes myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK). Data on which MYLK missense variants are pathogenic and information to guide aortic disease management are limited. METHODS: Clinical data from 60 cases with MYLK pathogenic variants were analyzed (five null and two missense variants), and the effect of missense variants on kinase activity was assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-three individuals (39%) experienced an aortic event (defined as aneurysm repair or dissection); the majority of these events (87%) were aortic dissections...
June 20, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Augusto C Montezano, Livia De Lucca Camargo, Patrik Persson, Francisco J Rios, Adam P Harvey, Aikaterini Anagnostopoulou, Roberto Palacios, Ana Caroline P Gandara, Rheure Alves-Lopes, Karla B Neves, Maria Dulak-Lis, Chet E Holterman, Pedro Lagerblad de Oliveira, Delyth Graham, Christopher Kennedy, Rhian M Touyz
BACKGROUND: NADPH Oxidase 5 (Nox5) is a calcium-sensitive superoxide-generating Nox. It is present in lower forms and higher mammals, but not in rodents. Nox5 is expressed in vascular cells, but the functional significance remains elusive. Given that contraction is controlled by calcium and reactive oxygen species, both associated with Nox5, we questioned the role of Nox5 in pro-contractile signaling and vascular function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transgenic mice expressing human Nox5 in a vascular smooth muscle cell-specific manner (Nox5 mice) and Rhodnius prolixus , an arthropod model that expresses Nox5 endogenoulsy, were studied...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Chen Huang, Pei Wu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Yun-Yun Zeng, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Lin Feng
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxin contaminants of animal feed worldwide and brings significant threats to the animal production. However, studies concerning the effect of DON on fish intestine are scarce. This study explored the effects of DON on intestinal physical barrier in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1440 juvenile grass carp (12.17 ± 0.01 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of DON (27, 318, 636, 922, 1243 and 1515 μg/kg diet) for 60 days...
June 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jianqing Liang, Jie Fan, Manna Wang, Zubiao Niu, Zhengrong Zhang, Long Yuan, Yanhong Tai, Zhaolie Chen, Santai Song, Xiaoning Wang, Xiaoqing Liu, Hongyan Huang, Qiang Sun
Cell-in-cell (CIC) structures, characterized by enclosure of one or more cells within another cell, were extensively documented in human cancers. Although elevated CIC formation was found in cancers with CDKN2A inactivation, a causal link between them remains to be established. We reported here that inhibiting CDKN2A expression effectively promoted homotypic CIC formation, whereas ectopic overexpression of p16INK4a or p14ARF, two proteins encoded by CDKN2A gene, significantly suppressed CIC formation in MCF7 cells...
June 5, 2018: Oncogenesis
Xingbing Wang, Xu Ye, Jingjuan Ji, Jian Wang, Bo Xu, Qian Zhang, Jing Ming, Xin Liu
Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in human bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM‑MSCs). The activation of TLRs is important in the proliferation, differ-entiation, migration and hematopoiesis‑supporting functions of BM‑MSCs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in various biological functions by mediating mRNA degradation or inhibiting the translation of target genes. Our previous study confirmed that TLRs regulate the migration ability of BM‑MSCs. It was also identified that multiple miRNAs were regulated by TLRs...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Elizabeth Ntantie, Michaela J Allen, Jerrine Fletcher, Augustine T Nkembo, Nazarius S Lamango, Offiong F Ikpatt
Migratory cells form extracellular matrix attachments called focal-adhesions. Focal adhesion assembly and disassembly are regulated by the Rho family of small GTPases. We previously reported that polyisoprenylated cysteinyl amide inhibitors (PCAIs) suppress Rho protein levels, disrupting F-actin cytoskeleton remodeling in the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. In this study, we investigated whether these observations effect focal adhesion formation, which involves cell surface receptors known as integrins and several signaling/adaptor proteins such as vinculin, α-actinin, Rock kinases and phospho-Myosin Light Chain-2 (p-MLC-2), that foster the linkage of the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
Brigitte Picard, Mohammed Gagaoua, Marwa Al-Jammas, Leanne De Koning, Albéric Valais, Muriel Bonnet
Tenderness and intramuscular fat content are key attributes for beef sensory qualities. Recently some proteomic analysis revealed several proteins which are considered as good biomarkers of these quality traits. This study focuses on the analysis of 20 of these proteins representative of several biological functions: muscle structure and ultrastructure, muscle energetic metabolism, cellular stress and apoptosis. The relative abundance of the proteins was measured by Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA) in five muscles known to have different tenderness and intramuscular lipid contents: Longissimus thoracis (LT), Semimembranosus (SM), Rectus abdominis (RA), Triceps brachii (TB) and Semitendinosus (ST)...
2018: PeerJ
Jinfang Zhao, Ruifeng Zhao, Ling Cheng, Jun Yang, Liangru Zhu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Defects in mucus and intestinal epithelia can lead to intestinal inflammation in colitis. Reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ ) in the mucosa may contribute to inflammation. However, the roles of PPARγ in the intestinal barrier remain poorly understood. METHODS: Chronic colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 27 days. Three days before DSS treatment, mice were treated with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (Ro) orally at 20 mg kg-1  day-1 ...
April 27, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Yeryeon Jung, Keunyoung Kim, Yiying Bian, Thien Ngo, Ok-Nam Bae, Kyung-Min Lim, Jin-Ho Chung
Ginseng and its major active ingredients, ginsenosides are widely consumed for various health benefits including the prevention or treatment of cancer without any special precaution. Previously, we demonstrated that Rg3, one of ginsenosides with a potent anti-cancer activity, may cause contractile dysfunction, and structural damage against normal vascular smooth muscle through apoptotic cell death. However, mechanism underlying the vascular toxicity of Rg3 was not fully elucidated. Here we demonstrated that the vascular toxicity of Rg3 occurs through actin disruption and Bmf-initiated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, the mechanism which may be shared with its anti-cancer effects...
June 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jin Sug Kim, Gi-Ja Lee, Tae Won Lee, Chun Gyoo Ihm, Yu Ho Lee, Yang Gyun Kim, Ju-Young Moon, Sang Ho Lee, Ji-Hye Kim, Sung-Wook Kang, Su-Jin Chae, Hun-Kuk Park, Kyung Hwan Jeong
Objective: Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a profibrotic role in the kidneys. Although many pathways of Ang II have been discovered, the morphological and mechanical aspects have not been well investigated. We observed the changes in tubular epithelial cells (TECs) after Ang II treatment with or without Ang II receptor blockers (ARBs) using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Methods: TECs were stimulated with Ang II with or without telmisartan, PD123319, and blebbistatin...
2018: BioMed Research International
Bing Chen, Zhen Yang, Congwen Yang, Wenhan Qin, Jianteng Gu, Chuanmin Hu, An Chen, Jiaolin Ning, Bin Yi, Kaizhi Lu
Acute lung injury (ALI), with the hallmarks of vascular integrity disruption and neutrophil recruitment, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Enhanced actomyosin assembly contributes to endothelial cell contact dysfunction. However, the roles and mechanisms of actomyosin assembly in ALI are not totally clear. We investigated the dynamic alterations and roles of actomyosin in ALI in vivo and in vitro models induced by LPS. Pulmonary levels of E-cadherin, vascular endothelial-cadherin, occludin, myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, and thymosin β4 were decreased, and the number and activity of neutrophils and the levels of actomyosin, p-ρ-associated protein kinase, p-myosin light-chain kinase, and profilin1 were increased within 3 d after LPS administration, and then, those alterations were recovered within the next 4 d, which was consistent with the alterations of lung histology, vascular permeability, edema, and serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α...
June 7, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Piyali Guhathakurta, Ewa Prochniewicz, Benjamin D Grant, Kurt C Peterson, David D Thomas
We have used a novel time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay to detect small-molecule modulators of actin-myosin structure and function. Actin-myosin interactions play crucial roles in the generation of cellular force and movement. Numerous mutations and post-translational modifications of actin or myosin disrupt muscle function and cause life-threatening syndromes. Here we used a FRET biosensor to identify modulators that bind to the actin-myosin interface and alter the structural dynamics of this complex...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
X Wu, D Su
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes diarrhea in travelers, young children and piglets, but the precise pathogenesis of ETEC induced diarrhea is not fully known. Recent investigations have shown that tight junction (TJ) proteins and aquaporin 3 (AQP 3) are contributing factors in bacterial diarrhea. In this study, using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry analyses, we found that ETEC increases the protein abundance of TJ proteins (occludin, claudin-1, zonula occludens-1) in mice. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli induced the expression of TJ proteins in mice through pathways by involving myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC20) pathways; however, ETEC has little effect on the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway...
2018: Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research
Fang Li, Fangfang Lang, Yidan Wang, Chunxiao Zhai, Chuanbei Zhang, Liping Zhang, Enkui Hao
Cyanidin, an anthocyanin pigment, demonstrates anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we examined the mechanistic role of cyanidin in endotoxin induced myocardial injury in inflammation and oxidative stress. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced myocardial injury model, cyanidin ameliorated cardiac injury (Lactate dehydrogenase or LDH, Creatine Kinase or CK, cardiac troponin I or cTnI and cardiac myosin light chains 1 or cMLC1), cell death (caspase 3 activity and PARP activity), and improved cardiac function (ejection fraction or EF and end diastolic left ventricular inner dimension or LVID)...
May 24, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yuanqing Dai, Dongjie Li, Xiong Chen, Xinji Tan, Jie Gu, Mingquan Chen, Xiaobo Zhang
BACKGROUND In developed countries, prostate cancer (PCa) is a frequently diagnosed cancer with the second highest fatality rate. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) stably expressed in cells and involved in a series of carcinomas. However, few research studies have reported on the role of circRNAs in PCa. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used qRT-PCR to detect the expression of circMYLK (circRNA ID: hsa_circ_0141940) and miR-29a in PCa tissues and cell lines. MTT, colony formation, and TUNEL assays were performed to analysis the cell viability of PCa cells...
May 25, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Yu-Chen Cheng, Min-Jen Tsao, Chen-Yang Chiu, Po-Chieh Kan, Ying Chen
Glioblastoma is a primary malignant brain tumor with a poor prognosis. An effective treatment for glioblastoma is needed. Magnolol is a natural compound from Magnolia officinalis suggested to have antiproliferative activity. The aim of this research was to investigate the anticancer effects of magnolol in glioma, with an emphasis on migration and the underlying mechanism. Magnolol decreased the expression of focal adhesion-related proteins and inhibited LN229 and U87MG glioma cell migration. The levels of phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC), phosphorylated myosin light chain kinase and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 were reduced in response to magnolol treatment...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Shannon R Dalton, Alice R Vienneau, Shana R Burstein, Rosalind J Xu, Sara Linse, Casey H Londergan
To investigate the cyanylated cysteine vibrational probe group's ability to report on binding-induced changes along a protein-protein interface, the probe group was incorporated at several sites in a peptide of the calmodulin (CaM) binding domain of skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase. Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to determine the binding thermodynamics between calmodulin and each peptide. For all probe positions, the binding affinity was nearly identical to that of the unlabeled peptide...
May 22, 2018: Biochemistry
Jun Yao, Jihong Wang, Yong Yao, Kelei Wang, Qianqian Zhou, Ying Tang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)‑133b in high‑glucose‑induced human retinal endothelial cells (hRECs), particularly regarding its potential targeting of ras homolog family member A (RhoA). To establish the high‑glucose‑induced diabetic retinopathy (DR) model, hRECs were cultured in high‑glucose medium for 1, 2 and 3 days. An Annexin allophycocyanin (APC)/7‑aminoactinomycin D (7‑AAD) staining assay was performed to measure the apoptosis of hRECs. Next, the cells were transfected with miR‑133b inhibitors or mimics, and the cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by MTT and Annexin‑APC/7‑AAD staining assays, respectively...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Swati Koli, Atul Prakash, Soumen Choudhury, Rajesh Mandil, Satish K Garg
Adverse effects of mercury on female reproduction are reported; however, its effect on myogenic activity of uterus and mechanism thereof is obscure. Present study was undertaken to unravel the mechanistic pathways of mercuric chloride (HgCl2 )-induced myometrial contraction in rats. Isometric tension in myometrial strips of rats following in vitro exposure to HgCl2 was recorded using data acquisition system-based physiograph. HgCl2 produced concentration-dependent (10 nM-100 μM) uterotonic effect which was significantly (p < 0...
May 21, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Youngin Kwon, Soo-Kyoung Choi, Seonhee Byeon, Young-Ho Lee
Inhibitor kappa B kinase 2 (IKK2) plays an essential role in the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB). Recently, it has been suggested that IKK2 acts as a myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and contributes to vasoconstriction in mouse aorta. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether IKK2 acts as a MLCK or regulates the activity of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). Pressure myograph was used to measure vascular tone in rat mesenteric arteries. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to identify phosphorylation levels of MLC (ser19), MYPT1 (thr853 and thr696) and CPI-17 (thr38)...
May 21, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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