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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029348/dysregulation-of-sleep-behavioral-states-in-narcolepsy
#1
Sarah F Schoch, Esther Werth, Rositsa Poryazova, Thomas E Scammell, Christian R Baumann, Lukas L Imbach
Study Objectives: Patients with narcolepsy suffer from poor maintenance of wakefulness and fragmented night sleep, but the underlying mechanism of sleep boundary dysregulation remains little understood. The goal of this study was to quantify abnormal sleep-wake regulation in narcolepsy patients. Methods: Using a model-based approach (state space analysis), we analyzed overnight EEG recordings in ten patients with narcolepsy type 1 and age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects...
October 5, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029017/region-specific-suppression-of-hypothalamic-responses-to-insulin-to-adapt-to-elevated-maternal-insulin-secretion-during-pregnancy
#2
S R Ladyman, D R Grattan
As part of the adaptation of maternal glucose regulation during pregnancy to ensure glucose provision to the fetus, maternal insulin concentrations become elevated. However, increased central actions of insulin, such as suppression of appetite, would be maladaptive during pregnancy. We hypothesized that central nervous system targets of insulin become less responsive during pregnancy to prevent overstimulation by the increased circulating insulin concentrations. To test this hypothesis, we have measured insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt (pAkt) in specific hypothalamic nuclei as an index of hypothalamic insulin responsiveness...
September 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024187/diversity-of-oxytocin-neurons-beyond-magno-and-parvocellular-cell-types
#3
REVIEW
Ferdinand Althammer, Valery Grinevich
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), which is evolutionarily conserved among different species throughout the animal kingdom, is a key modulator of a variety of socio-emotional behaviors such as fear, trust and empathy. OT cells in the mammalian hypothalamus have been traditionally divided into two distinct types - magnocellular (magnOT) and parvocellular (parvOT) or preautonomic neurons. This distinction is based on OT cell sizes and shapes, projections, electrophysiological activity and functions...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024175/mapping-the-sequence-of-brain-events-in-response-to-disgusting-food
#4
Jesus Pujol, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Ramón Coronas, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Mercedes Rigla, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Joan Deus, Ramón Novell, Assumpta Caixàs
Warning signals indicating that a food is potentially dangerous may evoke a response that is not limited to the feeling of disgust. We investigated the sequence of brain events in response to visual representations of disgusting food using a dynamic image analysis. Functional MRI was acquired in 30 healthy subjects while they were watching a movie showing disgusting food scenes interspersed with the scenes of appetizing food. Imaging analysis included the identification of the global brain response and the generation of frame-by-frame activation maps at the temporal resolution of 2 s...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024132/expression-of-isotocin-is-male-specifically-upregulated-by-gonadal-androgen-in-the-medaka-brain
#5
Junpei Yamashita, Yukika Kawabata, Kataaki Okubo
Oxytocin, a mammalian neuropeptide primarily synthesized in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, mediates a variety of physiological and behavioral processes ranging from parturition and lactation to affiliation and prosociality. Multiple studies in rodents have shown that the expression of the oxytocin gene (Oxt) is stimulated by estrogen, while androgen has no apparent effect. However, this finding is not consistent across all studies, and no study has examined sex steroid regulation of Oxt or its orthologs in other animals...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024103/functional-interleukin-6-receptor-%C3%AE-is-located-to-tanycytes-at-the-base-of-the-third-ventricle
#6
Fredrik Anesten, Cristiano Santos, Edwin Gidestrand, Erik Schéle, Vilborg Pálsdóttir, Teodor Swedung-Wettervik, Björn Meister, Karolina Patrycja Skibicka, John-Olov Jansson
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) (-) /(-) mice develop mature onset obesity, while intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of IL-6 decreases obesity in rodents. Moreover, levels of IL-6 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported to be inversely correlated with obesity in humans. Tanycytes lining the base of the 3(rd) ventricle in the hypothalamus have recently been reported to be of importance for metabolism. In the present study, we investigated whether tanycytes could respond to IL-6 in the CSF. With immunohistochemistry using a well characterized antibody directed against the ligand binding receptor for IL-6, IL-6 receptor α (IL-6Rα), it was found that tanycytes, identified by the two markers vimentin and dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32), contained IL-6Rα...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023733/tonic-inhibition-of-brown-adipose-tissue-sympathetic-nerve-activity-via-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-rostral-raphe-pallidus
#7
Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Christopher J Madden, Shaun F Morrison
We sought to determine if body temperature and energy expenditure are influenced by a cholinergic input to neurons in the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa), the site of sympathetic premotor neurons controlling brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Nanoinjections of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) receptor agonist, oxotremorine, or the cholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine (NEOS), in the rRPa of anaesthetized rats decreased cold-evoked BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA, nadirs: -72%, and -95%), BAT temperature (TBAT, -0...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023516/hypothalamic-control-systems-show-differential-gene-expression-during-spontaneous-daily-torpor-and-fasting-induced-torpor-in-the-djungarian-hamster-phodopus-sungorus
#8
Ceyda Cubuk, Hanna Markowsky, Annika Herwig
Djungarian hamsters are able to use spontaneous daily torpor (SDT) during the winter season as well as fasting-induced torpor (FIT) at any time of the year to cope with energetically challenging environmental conditions. Torpor is a state of severely reduced metabolism with a pronounced decrease in body temperature, which enables animals to decrease their individual energy requirements. Despite sharing common characteristics, such as reduced body mass before first torpor expression and depressed metabolism and body temperature during the torpid state, FIT and SDT differ in several physiological properties including torpor bout duration, minimal body temperature, fuel utilization and circadian organization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021740/electroacupuncture-alleviates-surgical-trauma-induced-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-hyperactivity-via-microrna-142
#9
Jing Zhu, Zhejun Chen, Zehui Meng, Minda Ju, Mizhen Zhang, Gencheng Wu, Haidong Guo, Zhanzhuang Tian
Electroacupuncture (EA) could improve the hyperactivity of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis induced by hepatectomy. However, its underlying mechanism still remains largely unclear. Here, we found that hypothalamic corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) modulates the function of the HPA axis, while hepatectomy induced an HPA axis disorder and EA application could regulate the hypothalamic CRH. We first demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) target on CRH via bioinformatics analysis and screened them in the primary hypothalamic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019791/the-influence-of-dopaminergic-system-inhibition-on-biosynthesis-of-gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-and-gnrh-receptor-in-anoestrous-sheep-hierarchical-role-of-kisspeptin-and-rfamide-related-peptide-3-rfrp-3
#10
M Ciechanowska, M Łapot, E Paruszewska, W Radawiec, F Przekop
This study aimed to explain how prolonged inhibition of central dopaminergic activity affects the cellular processes governing gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and LH secretion in anoestrous sheep. For this purpose, the study included two experimental approaches: first, we investigated the effect of infusion of sulpiride, a dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonist (D2R), on GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) biosynthesis in the hypothalamus and on GnRHR in the anterior pituitary using an immunoassay. This analysis was supplemented by analysis of plasma LH levels by radioimmunoassay...
October 12, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019661/venlafaxine-in-embryos-stimulates-neurogenesis-and-disrupts-larval-behavior-in-zebrafish
#11
William Andrew Thompson, Victoria Arnold, Mathilakath M Vijayan
Venlafaxine, a widely prescribed antidepressant, is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor in humans, and this drug is prevalent in municipal wastewater effluents. While studies have shown that this drug affects juvenile fish behavior, little is known about the developmental impact on non-target aquatic animals. We tested the hypothesis that venlafaxine deposition in the egg, mimicking maternal transfer of this antidepressant, disrupts developmental programming using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018779/differential-tissue-specific-and-pathway-specific-anti-obesity-effects-of-green-tea-and-taeumjowitang-a-traditional-korean-medicine-in-mice
#12
Junil Kim, Sujin Park, Haein An, Ji-Young Choi, Myung-Sook Choi, Sang-Woon Choi, Seong-Jin Kim
BACKGROUND: Traditional medicines have been leveraged for the treatment and prevention of obesity, one of the fastest growing diseases in the world. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the effects of traditional medicine on obesity are not yet fully understood. METHODS: We produced the transcriptomes of epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), liver, muscle, and hypothalamus harvested from mice fed a normal diet, high-fat-diet alone, high-fat-diet together with green tea, or a high-fat-diet together with Taeumjowitang, a traditional Korean medicine...
September 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017795/long-term-effects-of-sleep-deprivation-on-neuronal-activity-in-four-hypothalamic-areas
#13
Karim Fifel, Johanna H Meijer, Tom Deboer
Lack of adequate sleep has become increasingly common in our 24/7 society. Unfortunately diminished sleep has significant health consequences including metabolic and cardiovascular disease and mental disorders including depression. The pathways by which reduced sleep adversely affects physiology and behavior are unknown. We found that 6h of sleep deprivation in adult male rats induces changes in neuronal activity in the lateral hypothalamus, the paraventricular nucleus, the arcuate nucleus and the mammillary bodies...
October 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017335/oxytocin-levels-in-community-collected-saliva-samples-transported-by-dry-versus-wet-ice
#14
Lois C Howland, Rita H Pickler, Brent A Sullenbarger, Cynthia D Connelly
Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide produced primarily in the hypothalamus, is associated with both critical physiological and psychological processes, particularly stress and feelings of affiliation. Increasingly, researchers are seeking ways to reliably incorporate OT as an outcome biomarker in clinical research. Previously, OT levels were measured in plasma or urine. Recently, researchers have measured this biomarker in saliva, particularly when conducting research in clinical and community settings. In spite of increased interest in the use of salivary OT in clinical research, procedures for handling, transport, and analysis of specimens vary...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016993/a-positron-emission-tomography-study-of-norepinephrine-transporter-occupancy-and-its-correlation-with-symptom-response-in-depressed-patients-treated-with-quetiapine-xr
#15
Lakshmi N Yatham, Vesna Sossi, Yu-Shin Ding, Nasim Vafai, Shyam Sundar Arumugham, Taj Dhanoa, Raymond W Lam, David J Bond, Joseph Puyat
Background: Quetiapine is effective in treating depressive symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD), but the mechanisms underlying its antidepressants effects are unknown. Norquetiapine, a metabolite of quetiapine, has high affinity for norepinephrine transporter (NET) which might account for its therapeutic efficacy. Method: In this study, we used positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-MRB to estimate NET density and assess the relationship between NET occupancy by quetiapine XR and improvement in depression in patients with MDD (n=5) and BD (n=5)...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993837/gaba-receptors-and-the-pharmacology-of-sleep
#16
W Wisden, X Yu, N P Franks
Current GABAergic sleep-promoting medications were developed pragmatically, without making use of the immense diversity of GABAA receptors. Pharmacogenetic experiments are leading to an understanding of the circuit mechanisms in the hypothalamus by which zolpidem and similar compounds induce sleep at α2βγ2-type GABAA receptors. Drugs acting at more selective receptor types, for example, at receptors containing the α2 and/or α3 subunits expressed in hypothalamic and brain stem areas, could in principle be useful as hypnotics/anxiolytics...
October 10, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993631/establishment-of-a-repeated-social-defeat-stress-model-in-female-mice
#17
Aki Takahashi, Jia-Ru Chung, Song Zhang, Hongxing Zhang, Yael Grossman, Hossein Aleyasin, Meghan E Flanigan, Madeline L Pfau, Caroline Menard, Dani Dumitriu, Georgia E Hodes, Bruce S McEwen, Eric J Nestler, Ming-Hu Han, Scott J Russo
Numerous studies have employed repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) to study the neurobiological mechanisms of depression in rodents. An important limitation of RSDS studies to date is that they have been conducted exclusively in male mice due to the difficulty of initiating attack behavior directed toward female mice. Here, we establish a female mouse model of RSDS by inducing male aggression toward females through chemogenetic activation of the ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl)...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993246/vitamin-d-and-the-paraventricular-nucleus-relevance-for-type-2-diabetes
#18
Keisha Harrison, Stephanie Sisley
Vitamin D deficiency is linked to type 2 diabetes and we recently showed this may be through action of vitamin D in the paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the hypothalamus of the brain. This review focuses on the known roles of the PVN in glucose control and how previously discovered actions of vitamin D in other tissues may translate to action in the PVN. Specifically, we focus on the role of insulin and inflammation in the hypothalamus and how these may be modified through vitamin D action.
October 6, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993142/ghrelin-upregulates-the-phosphorylation-of-the-glun2b-subunit-of-the-nmda-receptor-by-activating-ghsr1a-and-fyn-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#19
Liza Berrout, Masako Isokawa
Ghrelin and its receptor GHSR1a have been shown to exert numerous physiological functions in the brain, in addition to the well-established orexigenic role in the hypothalamus. Earlier work indicated that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of the GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and enhanced synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. In the present study, we report that the exogenous application of ghrelin increased GluN2B phosphorylation. This increase was independent of GluN2B subunit activity or NMDAR channel activity...
October 6, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992226/arginine-vasotocin-and-neuropeptide-y-vary-with-seasonal-life-history-transitions-in-garter-snakes
#20
Ashley R Lucas, Daelyn Y Richards, Lucy M Ramirez, Deborah I Lutterschmidt
Transitions between life-history stages are often accompanied by dramatic behavioral switches that result from a shift in motivation to pursue one resource over another. While the neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate such behavioral transitions are poorly understood, arginine vasotocin (AVT) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are excellent candidates because they modulate reproductive and feeding behavior, respectively. We asked if seasonal changes in AVT and NPY are concomitant with the seasonal migration to and from the feeding grounds in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis)...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
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