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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241183/leptin-suppresses-glutamate-induced-apoptosis-through-regulation-of-erk1-2-signaling-pathways-in-rat-primary-astrocytes
#1
Hyunju Park, So-Hee Ahn, Yieun Jung, Joo Chun Yoon, Youn-Hee Choi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Leptin is a hormone expressed by adipose tissue that regulates body energy homeostasis and weight loss by activating leptin receptors in the hypothalamus. Leptin receptors are also expressed in astrocytes. An anti-apoptosis effect of leptin in brain has recently been reported. However, the anti-apoptosis mechanism of leptin in the brain is unknown. METHODS: To investigate whether leptin exerts protective effects against glutamate-induced apoptosis in astrocytes, we performed cell viability assays and apoptosis assays using rat primary astrocytes...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241175/surgery-of-critically-located-intracranial-gliomas
#2
Tomokatsu Hori, Atsushi Ishida, Yasuo Aihara, Seigo Matsuo, Haruko Yoshimoto, Hideki Shiramizu
Management of deep-seated and midline gliomas originating from thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and brainstem presents significant challenges. Aggressive resection of such tumors is frequently impossible due to excessive morbidity and mortality rates; thus, combinations of both surgical and non-surgical treatment options should be always considered. In each individual case, there should be reasonable clinical judgment with regard to the optimal outcome providing the best possible prognosis for the patient, with high quality of life and minimal risk of complications...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240779/impact-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-on-hypothalamic-transcriptome-in-neonatal-sprague-dawley-rats
#3
Sanna Barrand, Tamsyn M Crowley, Ryan J Wood-Bradley, Kirstie A De Jong, James A Armitage
Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during early development has been shown to impact the formation of hypothalamic neurocircuitry, thereby contributing to imbalances in appetite and energy homeostasis and increasing the risk of obesity in subsequent generations. Early in postnatal life, the neuronal projections responsible for energy homeostasis develop in response to appetite-related peptides such as leptin. To date, no study characterises the genome-wide transcriptional changes that occur in response to exposure to high fat diet during this critical window...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238972/the-functional-anatomy-of-the-cerebrocerebellar-circuit-a-review-and-new-concepts
#4
REVIEW
Vincenzo Benagiano, Anna Rizzi, Loredana Lorusso, Paolo Flace, Matteo Saccia, Raffaele Cagiano, Domenico Ribatti, Luisa Roncali, Glauco Ambrosi
The cerebrocerebellar circuit is a feedback circuit that bidirectionally connects the neocortex and the cerebellum. According to the classic view, the cerebrocerebellar circuit is specifically involved in the functional regulation of the motor areas of the neocortex. In recent years, studies carried out in experimental animals by morphological and physiological methods, and in humans by magnetic resonance imaging, have indicated that the cerebrocerebellar circuit is also involved in the functional regulation of the non-motor areas of the neocortex, including the prefrontal, associative, sensory and limbic areas...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237551/dose-dependent-and-opposite-effects-of-orexin-a-on-prepulse-inhibition-response-in-sleep-deprived-and-non-sleep-deprived-rats
#5
Pınar Öz, H Kübra Gökalp, Tansu Göver, Tayfun Uzbay
Orexin is a novel neurotransmitter released from lateral hypothalamus, that is a crucial modulator in sleep/wakefulness system. Recent studies also suggest its possible role in the neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia. Our study consists of two experiments, where we investigate the effect of orexin A (OXA), one of two isoforms of orexin that can pass blood brain barrier, on the prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reflex. The first experiment tested the effect of OXA on PPI response of non-sleep-deprived rats via intraperitoneal injection 30min before testing...
December 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234440/morinda-officinalis-polysaccharides-stimulate-hypothalamic-gnrh-secretion-in-varicocele-progression
#6
Zhu Zhu, Feng Huang, Feng Wang, Yonghong Zhang, Xiaozhen Zhao, Wei Wang
Varicoceles (VCs) are the predominant cause of male infertility and are a risk factor for chronic venous disease. Morinda officinalis (M. officinalis) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to tonify the kidney and strengthen yang. In this study, we evaluated the effects of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from M. officinalis (MOPs) on gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH) secretion in a classic experimental left VC (ELV) rat model. Intragastric administration of MOPs at a dose ranging from 50 mg kg-1 to 100 mg kg-1 facilitated improvements in sperm parameters and seminiferous epithelial structures, modulated serum hormone profiles, and stimulated GnRH synthesis and release in the hypothalamus...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234425/systems-pharmacological-approach-to-the-effect-of-bulsu-san-promoting-parturition
#7
Su Yeon Suh, Won G An
Bulsu-san (BSS) has been commonly used in oriental medicine for pregnant women in East Asia. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the effect of BSS on ease of parturition using a systems-level in silico analytic approach. Research results show that BSS is highly connected to the parturition related pathways, biological processes, and organs. There were numerous interactions between most compounds of BSS and multiple target genes, and this was confirmed using herb-compound-target network, target-pathway network, and gene ontology analysis...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233861/restoration-of-metabolic-inflammation-related-ghrelin-resistance-by-weight-loss
#8
Farhana Naznin, Koji Toshinai, Tm Zaved Waise, Tadashi Okada, Hideyuki Sakoda, Masamitsu Nakazato
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic inflammation in the central and peripheral organs contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. Long-term HFD blunts signaling by ghrelin, a gastric-derived orexigenic peptide, in the vagal afferent nerve via a mechanism involving in situ activation of inflammation. This study was undertaken to investigate whether ghrelin resistance is associated with progressive development of metabolic inflammation. In mice, ghrelin's orexigenic activity was abolished 2 to 4 weeks after the commencement of HFD (60% of energy from fat), consistent with the timing of accumulation and activation of macrophages and microglia in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233519/inhibition-of-central-de-novo-ceramide-synthesis-restores-insulin-signaling-in-hypothalamus-and-enhances-%C3%AE-cell-function-of-obese-zucker-rats
#9
Mélanie Campana, Lara Bellini, Claude Rouch, Latif Rachdi, Nicolas Coant, Noémie Butin, Cécile L Bandet, Erwann Philippe, Kelly Meneyrol, Nadim Kassis, Julien Dairou, Eric Hajduch, Benoit Colsch, Christophe Magnan, Hervé Le Stunff
OBJECTIVES: Hypothalamic lipotoxicity has been shown to induce central insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose homeostasis; nevertheless, elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms remains incomplete. Here, we aimed to determine the role of de novo ceramide synthesis in hypothalamus on the onset of central insulin resistance and the dysregulation of glucose homeostasis induced by obesity. METHODS: Hypothalamic GT1-7 neuronal cells were treated with palmitate...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230807/a-comparative-study-of-the-neural-stem-cell-niche-in-the-adult-hypothalamus-of-human-mouse-rat-and-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#10
Giuliana Pellegrino, Claire Trubert, Jérémy Terrien, Fabien Pifferi, Danièle Leroy, Anne Loyens, Martine Migaud, Marc Baroncini, Claude-Alain Maurage, Christian Fontaine, Vincent Prévot, Ariane Sharif
The adult brain contains niches of neural stem cells that continuously add new neurons to selected circuits throughout life. Two niches have been extensively studied in various mammalian species including humans, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Recently, studies conducted mainly in rodents have identified a third neurogenic niche in the adult hypothalamus. In order to evaluate whether a neural stem cell niche also exists in the adult hypothalamus in humans, we performed multiple immunofluorescence labeling to assess the expression of a panel of neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC) markers (Sox2, nestin, vimentin, GLAST, GFAP) in the human hypothalamus and compared them with the mouse, rat and a non-human primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230328/circadian-rhythm-disturbances-in-mood-disorders-insights-into-the-role-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#11
REVIEW
Chelsea A Vadnie, Colleen A McClung
Circadian rhythm disturbances are a common symptom among individuals with mood disorders. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), in the ventral part of the anterior hypothalamus, orchestrates physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms. The SCN consists of self-sustaining oscillators and receives photic and nonphotic cues, which entrain the SCN to the external environment. In turn, through synaptic and hormonal mechanisms, the SCN can drive and synchronize circadian rhythms in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral tissues...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230167/changes-in-the-cholinergic-catecholaminergic-orexinergic-and-serotonergic-structures-forming-part-of-the-sleep-systems-of-adult-mice-exposed-to-intrauterine-alcohol
#12
Oladiran I Olateju, Adhil Bhagwandin, Amadi O Ihunwo, Paul R Manger
We examined the effect of chronic prenatal alcohol exposure on certain neuronal systems involved with the sleep-wake cycle of C57BL/6J mice exposed to prenatal alcohol once they had reached 56 days post-natal. Pregnant mice were exposed to alcohol, through oral gavage, on gestational days 7-16, with recorded blood alcohol concentration (BAC)s averaging 1.84 mg/ml (chronic alcohol group, CA). Two control groups, an oral gavage sucrose control group (chronic alcohol control group, CAc) and a non-treated control group (NTc), were also examined...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229861/appetite-suppressive-role-of-medial-septal-glutamatergic-neurons
#13
Patrick Sweeney, Changhong Li, Yunlei Yang
Feeding behavior is controlled by diverse neurons and neural circuits primarily concentrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain in mammals. In this study, by using chemo/optogenetic techniques along with feeding assays, we investigate how neurons within the medial septal complex (MSc), a brain area implicated in emotion and cognition, contribute to food intake. We find that chemo/optogenetic activation of MSc glutamatergic neurons profoundly reduces food intake during both light and dark periods of the rodent light cycle...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229849/obligatory-role-of-hypothalamic-neuroestradiol-during-the-estrogen-induced-lh-surge-in-female-ovariectomized-rhesus-monkeys
#14
Brian P Kenealy, Kim L Keen, James P Garcia, Lucille K Kohlenberg, Ei Terasawa
Negative and positive feedback effects of ovarian 17β-estradiol (E2) regulating release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are pivotal events in female reproductive function. While ovarian feedback on hypothalamo-pituitary function is a well-established concept, the present study shows that neuroestradiol, locally synthesized in the hypothalamus, is a part of estrogen's positive feedback loop. In experiment 1, E2 benzoate-induced LH surges in ovariectomized female monkeys were severely attenuated by systemic administration of the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228949/a-mathematical-model-for-histamine-synthesis-release-and-control-in-varicosities
#15
Janet Best, H F Nijhout, Srimal Samaranayake, Parastoo Hashemi, Michael Reed
BACKGROUND: Histamine (HA), a small molecule that is synthesized from the amino acid histidine, plays an important role in the immune system where it is associated with allergies, inflammation, and T-cell regulation. In the brain, histamine is stored in mast cells and other non-neuronal cells and also acts as a neurotransmitter. The histamine neuron cell bodies are in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus of the hypothalamus and these neurons send projections throughout the central nervous system (CNS), in particular to the cerebral cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus, retina, and spinal cord...
December 12, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228782/antioxidant-defence-in-the-brain-of-one-day-old-chickens-exposed-in-ovo-to-acrylamide
#16
M Batoryna, M W Lis, G Formicki
1. Acrylamide (ACR) is a potent neurotoxicant, although information on its toxic influence on the developing neural system is still limited. We examined the effect of in-ovo-injected ACR on the antioxidant system activity in the brain of new hatched chickens. This model eliminated the mother's contribution to embryonic development. It was also recognised as an adequate model for animal embryonic development. 2. ACR was injected on day 4 of embryogenesis- in doses of 1.25 and 2.50 mg per egg (n=40 eggs per group/120 eggs)...
December 12, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226314/sneezing-in-primary-headaches-with-cranial-autonomic-symptoms-pathophysiological-considerations-a-series-of-case-reports
#17
Sylvain Redon, Anne Donnet
OBJECTIVE: To report a case series of sneezing systematically occurring in two cases with migraine and cranial autonomic symptoms and two with cluster headache. BACKGROUND: Sneezing occurring systematically during cluster headache or migraine is a rare condition. Sneezing has been described as a specific trigger for migraine. METHODS: Case reports. CASE SERIES: We describe four patients with primary headaches, presenting systematic sneezing at a definite time of premonitory, postdromal, or headache phase...
December 11, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225213/fish-protein-hydrolysate-exhibits-anti-obesity-activity-and-reduces-hypothalamic-neuropeptide-y-and-agouti-related-protein-mrna-expressions-in-rats
#18
Takafumi Mizushige, Masaki Komiya, Moe Onda, Kenji Uchida, Kohsuke Hayamizu, Yukihito Kabuyama
Fish protein is a source of animal protein that is consumed worldwide. Although it has been reported that the intake of Alaska pollack protein (APP) reduces body fat accumulation and increases muscle weight in rats, the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. As a possibility, peptides released from APP in the gastrointestinal tract are important to the functions of APP. In the present study, we examined the effects of APP hydrolysate digested artificially with pepsin and pancreatin on white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225205/effect-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-on-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis-in-adolescent-rat
#19
Di Sun, Liting Zhou, Shuyue Wang, Te Liu, Jian Zhu, Yiyang Jia, Jin Xu, Huaiji Chen, Qi Wang, Feng Xu, Yuezhu Zhang, Lin Ye
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is extensively used in many personal care and consumer products, which has resulted in widespread human exposure. Limited studies have suggested that exposure to DEHP may affect thyroid function, but little is known about the effect and mechanisms of DEHP exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPTA). The present study was conducted to elucidate the potential mechanisms in which DEHP disrupts the function of the HPTA. Wistar rats were administered DEHP by gavage at 0, 5, 50, and 500 mg/kg/day for 28 days and then sacrificed within 24 h following the last dose...
December 9, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224968/adjunctive-treatment-with-brexpiprazole-and-escitalopram-reduces-behavioral-stress-responses-and-increase-hypothalamic-npy-immunoreactivity-in-a-rat-model-of-ptsd-like-symptoms
#20
Hagit Cohen, Joseph Zohar, Zeev Kaplan, Jørn Arnt
The study explored effects of brexpiprazole (partial D2/5-HT1A agonist, 5-HT2A and α1B/2C-adrenoceptor antagonist) in rats exposed to predator scent stress (PSS), a proposed model of PTSD-like phenotype. Brexpiprazole (3.0mg/kg, PO), escitalopram (5.0mg/kg, IP) and their combination were administered twice daily for 14 days, starting 14 days after exposure to PSS or sham-PSS, shortly after a situational stress reminder. One day after last treatment behavioral responsivity was assessed. Brexpiprazole+escitalopram-treated rats spent more time in open arms, entered open arms more often and exhibited a lower anxiety index in the elevated plus maze than vehicle-treated, PSS-exposed rats...
December 7, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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