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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225852/tryptophan-overloading-activates-brain-regions-involved-with-cognition-mood-and-anxiety
#1
Luana C A Silva, Milena B Viana, José S Andrade, Melyssa A Souza, Isabel C Céspedes, Vânia D'Almeida
Tryptophan is the only precursor of serotonin and mediates serotonergic activity in the brain. Previous studies have shown that the administration of tryptophan or tryptophan depletion significantly alters cognition, mood and anxiety. Nevertheless, the neurobiological alterations that follow these changes have not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a tryptophan-enriched diet on immunoreactivity to Fos-protein in the rat brain. Sixteen male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups that either received standard chow diet or a tryptophan-enriched diet for a period of thirty days...
February 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224417/neuroanatomical-circuitry-between-kidney-and-rostral-elements-of-brain-a-virally-mediated-transsynaptic-tracing-study-in-mice
#2
Ye-Ting Zhou, Zhi-Gang He, Tao-Tao Liu, Mao-Hui Feng, Ding-Yu Zhang, Hong-Bing Xiang
The identity of higher-order neurons and circuits playing an associative role to control renal function is not well understood. We identified specific neural populations of rostral elements of brain regions that project multisynaptically to the kidneys in 3-6 days after injecting a retrograde tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 into kidney of 13 adult male C57BL/6J strain mice. PRV-614 infected neurons were detected in a number of mesencephalic (e.g. central amygdala nucleus), telencephalic regions and motor cortex...
February 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224319/fine-morphological-evaluation-of-hypothalamus-in-patients-with-hyperphagia
#3
Yoshikazu Ogawa, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Teiji Tominaga
BACKGROUND: Various metabolic diseases induced by eating disorders are some of the most serious and difficult problems for modern public healthcare. However, little is known about hyperphagia, partly because of the lack of a clear definition. Several basic studies have analyzed eating habits using endocrinological or neurophysiological approaches, which have suggested a controlled balance between the hunger and satiety centers in the central nervous system. However, more detailed neuro-radiologic evaluations have not been achieved for the hypothalamus, and evaluations were limited only to the floor of the third ventricles...
February 21, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222022/central-and-peripheral-control-of-food-intake
#4
M M I Abdalla
The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake...
January 1, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221079/cue-induced-food-seeking-after-punishment-is-associated-with-increased-fos-expression-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-and-basolateral-and-medial-amygdala
#5
Erin J Campbell, David J Barker, Helen M Nasser, Konstantin Kaganovsky, Christopher V Dayas, Nathan J Marchant
In humans, relapse to unhealthy eating habits following dieting is a significant impediment to obesity treatment. Food-associated cues are one of the main triggers of relapse to unhealthy eating during self-imposed abstinence. Here we report a behavioral method examining cue-induced relapse to food seeking following punishment-induced suppression of food taking. We trained male rats to lever press for food pellets that were delivered after a 10-s conditional stimulus (CS) (appetitive). Following training, 25% of reinforced lever presses resulted in the presentation of a compound stimulus consisting of a novel CS (aversive) and the appetitive CS followed by a pellet and footshock...
February 20, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219987/a-unique-angiotensin-sensitive-neuronal-population-coordinates-neuroendocrine-cardiovascular-and-behavioral-responses-to-stress
#6
Annette D de Kloet, Lei Wang, Soledad Pitra, Helmut Hiller, Justin A Smith, Yalun Tan, Dani Nguyen, Karlena M Cahill, Colin Sumners, Javier E Stern, Eric G Krause
Stress elicits neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses that mitigate homeostatic imbalance and ensure survival; however, chronic engagement of such responses promotes psychological, cardiovascular and metabolic impairments. Over recent years, the renin-angiotensin system has emerged as a key mediator of stress responding and its related pathologies, but the neuronal circuits that orchestrate these interactions are not known. These studies combine the use of the Cre-recombinase/loxP system in mice with optogenetics to structurally and functionally characterize angiotensin type-1a receptor-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the goal being to determine the extent of their involvement in the regulation of stress responses...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219717/effects-of-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-glucose-uptake-in-the-rat-brain
#7
I Miederer, K Uebbing, J Röhrich, S Maus, N Bausbacher, K Krauter, V Weyer-Elberich, B Lutz, M Schreckenberger, R Urban
Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive component of the plant Cannabis sativa and acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors in the brain. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of THC on the cerebral glucose uptake in the rat brain. 21 male Sprague Dawley rats (12-13 w) were examined and received five different doses of THC ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg. For data acquisition a Focus 120 small animal PET scanner was used and 24.1-28.0 MBq of [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose were injected...
February 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218618/brain-nuclear-receptors-and-body-weight-regulation
#8
Yong Xu, Bert W O'Malley, Joel K Elmquist
Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essential roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Understanding the role and the underlying mechanisms of NRs in the context of energy balance control may facilitate the identification of novel targets to treat obesity...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213803/first-experiences-with-neuropsychological-effects-of-oxytocin-administration-in-childhood-onset-craniopharyngioma
#9
Anika Hoffmann, Jale Özyurt, Kristin Lohle, Julia Reichel, Christiane M Thiel, Hermann L Müller
PURPOSE: The hypothalamic hormone oxytocin plays a major role in regulation of behavior and body composition. Quality of survival is frequently impaired in childhood craniopharyngioma patients due to sequelae such as behavioral deficits and severe obesity caused by tumor or treatment-related hypothalamic lesions. METHODS: In our pilot cross-sectional study, we analyzed emotion recognition abilities and oxytocin concentrations in saliva and urine before and after single nasal administration of 24 IU oxytocin in 10 craniopharyngioma patients...
February 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213613/an-atf4-atg5-signaling-in-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-regulates-fat-mass-via-affecting-energy-expenditure
#10
Yuzhong Xiao, Yalan Deng, Feixiang Yuan, Tingting Xia, Hao Liu, Zhigang Li, Zhixue Liu, Hao Ying, Yi Liu, Qiwei Zhai, Shanghai Chen, Feifan Guo
Although many biological functions of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) have been identified, a role of hypothalamic ATF4 in the regulation of energy homeostasis is poorly understood. Here, we showed that hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons specific ATF4 knockout (PAKO) mice are lean and have higher energy expenditure. Furthermore, PAKO mice were resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and leptin resistance. Moreover, the expression of autophagy protein 5 (ATG5) was increased or decreased by ATF4 knockdown or over-expression, respectively, and ATF4 inhibited the transcription of ATG5 by binding to the basic zipper-containing protein (bZIP) sites on its promoter...
February 17, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213302/disrupting-effects-of-azocyclotin-to-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal-axis-and-reproduction-of-xenopus-laevis
#11
Shuying Li, Meng Li, Wenjun Gui, Qiangwei Wang, Guonian Zhu
Over the past few decades, the hazards associated with the extensive use of organictin compounds have become an issue of extreme concern, while at present the effects of these substances on amphibians remain poorly understood. In the present study, we chose azocyclotin, one of common use acaricides in China. We focused on sexual development and steroidogenesis disrupting effects of azocyclotin in the Xenopus laevis. Tadpoles were exposed to azocyclotin (0.05 and 0.5μg/L) for long-term (4 months) study. Results showed that exposure to azocyclotin caused developmental toxicity, including decreased survival, body weight, body length, gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and female phenotype...
February 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213131/nerp-2-regulates-gastric-acid-secretion-and-gastric-emptying-via-the-orexin-pathway
#12
Cherl Namkoong, Koji Toshinai, T M Zaved Waise, Hideyuki Sakoda, Kazuki Sasaki, Yoichi Ueta, Min-Seon Kim, Naoto Minamino, Masamitsu Nakazato
Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide (NERP)-2 is derived from a distinct region of VGF, a neurosecretory protein originally identified as a product of a nerve growth factor-responsive gene in rat PC12 cells. Colocalization of NERP-2 with orexin-A in the lateral hypothalamus increases orexin-A-induced feeding and energy expenditure in both rats and mice. Orexigenic and anorectic peptides in the hypothalamus modulate gastric function. In this study, we investigated the effect of NERP-2 on gastric function in rats...
February 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212946/divergent-effects-of-brain-interleukin-1%C3%A3-in-mediating-fever-lethargy-anorexia-and-conditioned-fear-memory
#13
Tamzyn L Baartman, Tanya Swanepoel, Ruth M Barrientos, Helen P Laburn, Duncan Mitchell, Lois M Harden
The influence of brain interleukin-1 (IL-1ß) on memory processes includes both detrimental and beneficial effects. To further explore the dynamics of brain IL-1ß in mediating learning and memory during acute sickness, we injected species-homologous rat IL-1ß (100ng/5μl) or vehicle (0.1% bovine serum albumin, 5μl) directly into the cisterna magna (i.c.m.) of male Sprague-Dawley rats. We measured, in parallel, body temperature, food intake, body mass, cage activity, as well as learning and memory using contextual fear conditioning...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210220/mri-based-classification-models-in-prediction-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-in-late-life-depression
#14
Aleksandra K Lebedeva, Eric Westman, Tom Borza, Mona K Beyer, Knut Engedal, Dag Aarsland, Geir Selbaek, Asta K Haberg
Objective: Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with development of different types of dementia. Identification of LLD patients, who will develop cognitive decline, i.e., the early stage of dementia would help to implement interventions earlier. The purpose of this study was to assess whether structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in LLD patients can predict mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia 1 year prior to the diagnosis. Methods: LLD patients underwent brain MRI at baseline and repeated clinical assessment after 1-year...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202701/chronobiology-differs-between-men-and-women-with-cluster-headache-clinical-phenotype-does-not
#15
Nunu Lund, Mads Barloese, Anja Petersen, Bryan Haddock, Rigmor Jensen
OBJECTIVE: To describe differences between the sexes in the phenotype of cluster headache (CH) in a large, well-characterized clinical CH population. METHODS: Patients from the Danish CH survey aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with CH according to International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition, completed questionnaires and structured interviews. RESULTS: A total of 351 patients with CH participated, with a male:female ratio of 2:1...
February 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202438/effect-of-food-deprivation-or-short-term-western-diet-feeding-on-bdnf-protein-expression-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-paraventricular-and-ventromedial-nuclei
#16
Kaitlyn Elizabeth Gilland, Edward A Fox
Mutations in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene are associated with human obesity and BDNF has potent inhibitory effects on eating and body weight. Little is known about the effects of energy-balance manipulations on BDNF protein in the hypothalamus, though this brain region is critical for regulation of feeding and body weight and has high levels of BDNF. Here we investigated the effects of negative and positive energy status on BDNF protein levels in the arcuate (ARC), paraventricular (PVN), and ventromedial (VMH) hypothalamic nuclei, and the ectorhinal cortex...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202248/possible-role-of-adrenoceptors-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-in-corticotropin-releasing-factor-induced-sympatho-adrenomedullary-outflow-in-rats
#17
Shoshiro Okada, Naoko Yamaguchi
AIMS: A functional interaction between the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system and noradrenergic neurons in the brain has been suggested. In the present study, we investigated the interrelationship between the central CRF-induced elevation of plasma catecholamines and adrenoceptor activation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) using urethane-anesthetized rats. MAIN METHODS: In rats under urethane anesthesia, a femoral venous line was inserted for infusion of saline, and a femoral arterial line was inserted for collecting blood samples...
February 9, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199332/photoperiod-regulate-gonad-development-via-kisspeptin-kissr-in-hypothalamus-and-saccus-vasculosus-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#18
Liang Chi, Xian Li, Qinghua Liu, Ying Liu
Atlantic salmon exhibit seasonal reproduction. However, the mechanisms governing this are still unclear. Generally speaking, kisspeptin has been recognized as a regulator of reproduction. Here, we report a relationship between kisspeptin, GnRH and photoperiod in Atlantic salmon. The results demonstrated that the expression of the Atlantic salmon kisspeptin-receptor (skissr) was not always consistent with the expression pattern of Atlantic salmon GnRH3 (sGnRH3) during all developmental processes. Kisspeptin may exert its influence primarily in the early and later stages of gonad development by promoting the secretion of sGnRH3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198523/diversity-among-posterior-thalamoperforating-branches-originated-from-p1-segment-systematic-review
#19
Cezary Grochowski, Ryszard Maciejewski
BACKGROUND: The P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) begins at the termination of the basilar artery and ends at the origin of posterior communicating artery (PCoM), within the interpeduncular cistern. Perforating branches arising from this segment are called posterior thalamoperforating arteries and the main and biggest artery among those is called thalamoperforating artery (TPA). Perforating branches are a crucial component of cerebrovascular system supplying the posterior part of the thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, perforated substance, posterior part of internal capsule and the nucleus of III and IV cranial nerve...
February 15, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197776/effects-of-melanocortin-4-receptor-agonists-and-antagonists-on-expression-of-genes-related-to-reproduction-in-spotted-scat-scatophagus-argus
#20
Dong-Neng Jiang, Jian-Tao Li, Ya-Xiong Tao, Hua-Pu Chen, Si-Ping Deng, Chun-Hua Zhu, Guang-Li Li
Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) function related to reproduction in fish has not been extensively investigated. Here, we report on gene expression changes by real-time PCR following treatment with Mc4r agonists and antagonists in the spotted scat (Scatophagus argus). Using in vitro incubated hypothalamus, the Mc4r nonselective agonist NDP-MSH ([Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone; 10(-6) M) and selective agonist THIQ (N-[(3R)-1, 2, 3, 4-Tetrahydroisoquinolinium-3-ylcarbonyl]- (1R)-1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-[4-cyclohexyl-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl) piperidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethylamine; 10(-7) M) significantly increased the expression of gnrh (Gonadotropin releasing hormone), while the Mc4r nonselective antagonist SHU9119 (Ac-Nle-[Asp-His-DPhe/DNal(2')-Arg-Trp-Lys]-NH2; 10(-6) M) and selective antagonist Ipsen 5i (compound 5i synthesized in Ipsen Research Laboratories; 10(-6) M) significantly inhibited gnrh expression after 3 h of incubation...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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