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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666573/psychosocial-stress-and-immunity-what-can-we-learn-from-pig-studies
#1
Ulrike Gimsa, Margret Tuchscherer, Ellen Kanitz
Psychosocial stress may impair immune functions and provoke the development of pathologies. The underlying communication between the brain and the immune system is being studied predominantly in rodents. However, pigs offer several advantages as preclinical models for humans because pigs are more similar to humans than rodents in many anatomical and physiological characteristics. Unlike in rodents, the main stress-induced glucocorticoid in humans and pigs is cortisol with a similar circadian rhythm. In this study, we summarize data on short-term and long-term effects of social stress in pigs for their immunity and neuroendocrine regulation with consequences for their health and well-being...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664655/short-term-assessment-of-hsct-effects-on-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-axis-in-pediatric-thalassemic-patients
#2
Amir Ali Hamidieh, Fariba Mohseni, Maryam Behfar, Zohreh Hamidi, Kamran Alimoghaddam, Mohamad Pajouhi, Bagher Larijani, Mohammad-Reza Mohajeri-Tehrani, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh
BACKGROUND: Beta thalassemia major (BTM) and its treatment by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may have deleterious effects on the endocrine systems. We assessed endocrine complications of HSCT in pediatric patients for 3 months. METHODS: In 20 (6 female) pediatric major thalassemic patients (mean age of 10.8 ± 3.9 years old), prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), T4, T3, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), IGF-1, testosterone (in males) or estradiol (in females) were measured as a batch at the Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) laboratories before HSCT and 1 and 3 months afterwards...
February 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663690/cranial-pair-0-the-nervus-terminalis
#3
Angel Peña-Melian, Juan Pablo Cabello-de la Rosa, Maria Jose Gallardo-Alcañiz, Julia Vaamonde-Gamo, Fernanda Relea-Calatayud, Lucia Gonzalez-Lopez, Patricia Villanueva-Anguita, Alicia Flores-Cuadrado, Daniel Saiz-Sanchez, Alino Martinez-Marcos
Originally discovered in elasmobranchs by Fritsh in 1878, the nervus terminalis has been found in virtually all species, including humans. After more than one-century debate on its nomenclature, it is nowadays recognized as cranial pair zero. The nerve mostly originates in the olfactory placode, although neural crest contribution has been also proposed. Developmentally, the nervus terminalis is clearly observed in human embryos; subsequently, during the fetal period loses some of its ganglion cells, and it is less recognizable in adults...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663559/sex-differences-in-hippocampal-mineralocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-response-to-acute-mate-pair-separation-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#4
Farrah N Madison, Andrew J Kesner, Beau A Alward, Gregory F Ball
Mate separation has been shown to mediate changes in physiological and behavioral processes via activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in both mammalian and avian species. In order to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with changes in the HPA axis in response to social stress, we investigated the effects of mate pair separation on circulating corticosterone concentrations as well as gene expression levels of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of both male and female zebra finches, a species that forms strong pair bonds...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663392/sushi-repeat-containing-protein-x-linked-2-a-novel-phylogenetically-conserved-hypothalamo-pituitary-protein
#5
Mehwish Anwer, Tamuna Bolkvadze, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Noora Puhakka, Tuomas Rauramaa, Ville Leinonen, Erwin A van Vliet, Dick F Swaab, Annakaisa Haapasalo, Stina Leskelä, Nea Bister, Tarja Malm, Synnöve Carlson, Eleonora Aronica, Asla Pitkänen
Sushi repeat-containing protein X-linked 2 (SRPX2) is a novel protein associated with language development, synaptic plasticity, tissue remodeling, and angiogenesis. We investigated the expression and spatial localization of SRPX2 in normal mouse, rat, monkey, and human brain using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Antibody specificity was determined using in vitro siRNA based silencing of SRPX2. Cell type-specific expression was verified by double-labeling with oxytocin or vasopressin. Western blot was used to detect SRPX2 protein in rat and human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663325/a-new-approach-to-the-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-targeting-the-receptor-for-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone
#6
Joaquin J Jimenez, Gina M DelCanto, Petra Popovics, Aymee Perez, Ailin Vila Granda, Irving Vidaurre, Ren-Zhi Cai, Ferenc G Rick, Ronan T Swords, Andrew V Schally
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is secreted by the hypothalamus and acts on the pituitary gland to stimulate the release of growth hormone (GH). GHRH can also be produced by human cancers, in which it functions as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. We have previously shown that synthetic antagonistic analogues of GHRH are able to successfully suppress the growth of 60 different human cancer cell lines representing over 20 cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of GHRH and its receptors in leukaemias has never been examined...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663134/profound-seasonal-changes-in-brain-size-and-architecture-in-the-common-shrew
#7
Javier Lázaro, Moritz Hertel, Chet C Sherwood, Marion Muturi, Dina K N Dechmann
The seasonal changes in brain size of some shrews represent the most drastic reversible transformation in the mammalian central nervous system known to date. Brain mass decreases 10-26% from summer to winter and regrows 9-16% in spring, but the underlying structural changes at the cellular level are not yet understood. Here, we describe the volumetric differences in brain structures between seasons and sexes of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) in detail, confirming that changes in different brain regions vary in the magnitude of change...
April 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662440/electrophysiological-properties-of-melanin-concentrating-hormone-and-orexin-neurons-in-adolescent-rats
#8
Victoria Linehan, Michiru Hirasawa
Orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons have complementary roles in various physiological functions including energy balance and the sleep/wake cycle. in vitro electrophysiological studies investigating these cells typically use post-weaning rodents, corresponding to adolescence. However, it is unclear whether these neurons are functionally mature at this period and whether these studies can be generalized to adult cells. Therefore, we examined the electrophysiological properties of orexin and MCH neurons in brain slices from post-weaning rats and found that MCH neurons undergo an age-dependent reduction in excitability, but not orexin neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662095/%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-system-mediates-reward-processing-in-humans
#9
Lauri Nummenmaa, Tiina Saanijoki, Lauri Tuominen, Jussi Hirvonen, Jetro J Tuulari, Pirjo Nuutila, Kari Kalliokoski
The endogenous μ-opioid receptor (MOR) system regulates motivational and hedonic processing. We tested directly whether individual differences in MOR are associated with neural reward responses to food pictures in humans. We scanned 33 non-obese individuals with positron emission tomography (PET) using the MOR-specific radioligand [11 C]carfentanil. During a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan, the subjects viewed pictures of appetizing versus bland foods to elicit reward responses. MOR availability was measured in key components of the reward and emotion circuits and used to predict BOLD-fMRI responses to foods...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660734/interpretation-of-serum-gonadotropin-levels-in-hyperprolactinemia
#10
Ali Abbara, Sophie A Clarke, Alexander Nesbitt, Sabreen Ali, Alexander N Comninos, Emma Hatfield, Niamh Martin, Amir Sam, Karim Meeran, Waljit S Dhillo
<br>Background/Aims: Hyperprolactinemia is a common cause of amenorrhea due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Prolactin is hypothesized to impede the reproductive axis through an inhibitory action at the hypothalamus. However, limited data exists to aid the interpretation of serum gonadotropins in the context of hyperprolactinemia. METHODS: Serum gonadotropin values were reviewed in 243 patients with elevated serum monomeric prolactin due to discrete etiologies at a tertiary reproductive endocrine centre between 2012 and 2015...
April 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660453/tgf-%C3%AE-1-down-regulation-in-the-mediobasal-hypothalamus-attenuates-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-protects-against-diet-induced-obesity
#11
Natália F Mendes, Joana M Gaspar, José C Lima-Júnior, Jose Donato, Lício A Velloso, Eliana P Araújo
BACKGROUND: The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats induces hypothalamic inflammation and impairs the function of the melanocortin system, leading to a defective regulation of caloric intake and whole-body energy expenditure. In mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), TGF-β1 expression was increased and NF-κB signaling was activated in proopiomelanocortin neurons, which plays an important role in the obesity-associated hypothalamic inflammation scenario. However, whether excessive hypothalamic TGF-β1 impairs energy homeostasis remains unclear...
April 13, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660399/cacybp-sip-a-hsp90-binding-chaperone-in-cellular-stress-response
#12
Agnieszka Góral, Katarzyna Bartkowska, Rouzanna L Djavadian, Anna Filipek
CacyBP/SIP interacts with Hsp90 and is able to protect proteins from denaturation and/or aggregation induced by elevated temperature. In this work we studied the influence of different stress factors on CacyBP/SIP level in HEp-2 cells. We have found that H2 O2 and radicicol treatment resulted in a significant increase (up to 40-50%) in the CacyBP/SIP level. We have also found that HEp-2 cells overexpressing CacyBP/SIP were more resistant to stress-induced death. Further studies have revealed that the Hsf1 transcription factor binds to the CacyBP/SIP gene promoter and up-regulates CacyBP/SIP expression under stress conditions...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659364/-association-between-central-diabetes-insipidus-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Claudia Palumbo, Nora Nicolaci, Andrés A La Manna, Natalia Branek, María N Pissano
Central diabetes insipidus is a rare disease of the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis. It is very unusually found in the adult with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is manifested by a polydipsic polyuric syndrome, which must be distinguished from the poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given the similarity of both entities and the unusual nature of their coexistence, their suspicion is difficult. The case of a 72-year-old male with type 2 diabetes mellitus with poor insulin control (fasting hyperglycemia greater than 180 mg/dl) who had a long-standing polyuric syndrome is here presented...
2018: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658936/two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry-methods-for-an-analysis-of-human-pituitary-adenoma-tissue-proteome
#14
Xianquan Zhan, Yuda Huang, Ying Long
Human pituitary adenoma (PA) is a common tumor that occurs in the human pituitary gland in the hypothalamus-pituitary-targeted organ axis systems, and may be classified as either clinically functional or nonfunctional PA (FPA and NFPA). NFPA is difficult for early stage diagnosis and therapy due to barely elevating hormones in the blood compared to FPA. Our long-term goal is to use proteomics methods to discover reliable biomarkers for clarification of PA molecular mechanisms and recognition of effective diagnostic, prognostic markers and therapeutic targets...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657029/the-hormone-fgf21-stimulates-water-drinking-in-response-to-ketogenic-diet-and-alcohol
#15
Parkyong Song, Christoph Zechner, Genaro Hernandez, José Cánovas, Yang Xie, Varun Sondhi, Martin Wagner, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Angela Horvath, Bettina Leber, Ming Chang Hu, Orson W Moe, David J Mangelsdorf, Steven A Kliewer
Alcohol and ketogenic diets increase water consumption. Here, we show that the hormone FGF21 is required for this drinking response in mice. Circulating levels of FGF21 are increased by alcohol consumption in humans and by both alcohol and ketogenic diets in mice. Pharmacologic administration of FGF21 stimulates water drinking behavior in mice within 2 hr. Concordantly, mice lacking FGF21 fail to increase water intake in response to either alcohol or a ketogenic diet. The effect of FGF21 on drinking is mediated in part by SIM1-positive neurons of the hypothalamus and is inhibited by β-adrenergic receptor antagonists...
April 12, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656870/distinct-accumbens-shell-output-pathways-promote-versus-prevent-relapse-to-alcohol-seeking
#16
Gabrielle D Gibson, Asheeta A Prasad, Philip Jean-Richard-Dit-Bressel, Joanna O Y Yau, E Zayra Millan, Yu Liu, Erin J Campbell, Jun Lim, Nathan J Marchant, John M Power, Simon Killcross, Andrew J Lawrence, Gavan P McNally
Contexts exert bi-directional control over relapse to drug seeking. Contexts associated with drug self-administration promote relapse, whereas contexts associated with the absence of self-administration protect against relapse. The nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) is a key brain region determining these roles of context. However, the specific cell types, and projections, by which AcbSh serves these dual roles are unknown. Here, we show that contextual control over relapse and abstinence is embedded within distinct output circuits of dopamine 1 receptor (Drd1) expressing AcbSh neurons...
April 6, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656045/distribution-and-morphology-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-in-the-hypothalamus-of-an-induced-ovulator-the-llama-lama-glama
#17
Rodrigo A Carrasco, Jaswant Singh, Gregg P Adams
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a decapeptide involved in the regulation of reproduction in all mammals, but the distribution of GnRH neurons within the brain varies widely among species. The objective of the present study was to characterize the number and distribution of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus and preoptic area of llamas, an induced ovulator. The brains of female llamas (n = 4) were fixed, frozen and sectioned serially every 50 microns in the transverse (coronal) plane. Every 10th section was stained for immunohistochemical detection of GnRH-positive neuron cell bodies and fibers by incubation with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine...
April 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655943/effects-of-a-histamine-h-4-receptor-antagonist-on-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-in-mice
#18
Kouichi Yamamoto, Rikuya Okui, Atsushi Yamatodani
Cancer chemotherapy often induces gastrointestinal symptoms such as anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. Antiemetic agents are effective in inhibiting nausea and vomiting, but patients still experience anorexia. We previously reported that chemotherapeutic agent-induced anorexia is associated with an increase of inflammatory cytokines. Other studies also reported that antagonism of the histamine H4 receptor is anti-inflammatory. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the H4 receptor in the development of chemotherapy-induced anorexia in mice...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655871/cloning-partial-sequencing-and-expression-analysis-of-the-neural-form-of-p450-aromatase-cyp19a1b-in-the-south-america-catfish-rhamdia-quelen
#19
Helena C Silva de Assis, Laia Navarro-Martín, Letícia S P Fernandes, Cibele C Cardoso, Daniela Parada Pavoni, Vance L Trudeau
Brain aromatase is a key enzyme exclusively expressed in fish radial glial cells that convert androgens into estrogens, thus controlling neuroendocrine functions and neurogenesis. As an important step in characterizing the neuroendocrine systems of Rhamdia quelen (jundiá), a partial cDNA sequence (1045 bp) of brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) was cloned and sequenced. At the nucleotide level the cDNA sequence was found to be 88% identical to cyp19a1b of two species of catfish, Ictalurus punctatus and Silurus meridionalis...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653158/mice-deficient-in-akap13-brx-develop-compulsive-like-behavior-and-increased-body-weight
#20
K Maravet Baig, Szu-Chi Su, Sunni L Mumford, Emma Giuliani, Sinnie Sin Man Ng, Charles Armstrong, Margaret F Keil, Kamaria Cayton Vaught, Nils Olsen, Elyse Pettiford, Irina Burd, James H Segars
OBJECTIVE: Hormonal contributions to the sex-dependent development of both obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obesity have been described, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. A-kinase anchoring protein 13 (AKAP13) significantly augments ligand-dependent activation of estrogen receptors alpha and beta. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are implicated in the development and exacerbation of OCD and obesity and have strong AKAP13 expression. The AKAP13 localization pattern observed in these key brain regions together with its effects on sex steroid action suggest a potential role for AKAP13 in compulsive-like behaviors...
April 10, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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