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Public health policy

Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Robin Room, Norman Giesbrecht, Thomas K Greenfield
The emergent and growing body of research on alcohol's harm to others (AHTO), or secondhand effects of drinking, has important implications for prevention, intervention, and policy. Those victimized by other drinkers tend to favor effective alcohol policies more than their nonvictimized peers, but often a community's impulse will be to combat AHTO by targeting and stigmatizing individual heavy drinkers, rather than taking a public health approach to reducing harm. Here we discuss opportunities and challenges in selecting ways of reducing AHTO...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Karuna D Sagili, Srinath Satyanarayana, Sarabjit S Chadha, Nevin C Wilson, Ajay M V Kumar, Patrick K Moonan, John E Oeltmann, Vineet K Chadha, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Smita Ghosh, Terrence Q Lo, Tyson Volkmann, Matthew Willis, Kalpita Shringarpure, Ravichandra Chinnappa Reddy, Prahlad Kumar, Sreenivas A Nair, Raghuram Rao, Mohammed Yassin, Perry Mwangala, Rony Zachariah, Jamhoih Tonsing, Anthony D Harries, Sunil Khaparde
BACKGROUND: The Global Fund encourages operational research (OR) in all its grants; however very few reports describe this aspect. In India, Project Axshya was supported by a Global Fund grant to improve the reach and visibility of the government Tuberculosis (TB) services among marginalised and vulnerable communities. OR was incorporated to build research capacity of professionals working with the national TB programme and to generate evidence to inform policies and practices. OBJECTIVES: To describe how Project Axshya facilitated building OR capacity within the country, helped in addressing several TB control priority research questions, documented project activities and their outcomes, and influenced policy and practice...
2018: Global Health Action
Sarah E Ali-Khan, Antoine Jean, Emily MacDonald, E Richard Gold
Mounting evidence indicates that worldwide, innovation systems are increasing unsustainable. Equally, concerns about inequities in the science and innovation process, and in access to its benefits, continue. Against a backdrop of growing health, economic and scientific challenges global stakeholders are urgently seeking to spur innovation and maximize the just distribution of benefits for all. Open Science collaboration (OS) - comprising a variety of approaches to increase open, public, and rapid mobilization of scientific knowledge - is seen to be one of the most promising ways forward...
2018: MNI Open Res
Ingela Fredriksson, Susanna Geidne, Charli Eriksson
AIMS: The aim of this paper is to advocate for the importance of meaningful leisure time for young people from a health-promotion perspective using experiences from two youth centres in multicultural neighbourhoods in Sweden. METHODS: In this practice-based study, data were collected between 2012 and 2014 at two youth centres in multicultural, socially deprived suburbs in Sweden using surveys with 12- to 16-year-old adolescents ( n = 207), seven individual interviews with staff and three cooperation partners in the neighbourhoods, and six group interviews with adolescents (50% girls)...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
E Fosse, M K Helgesen, S Hagen, S Torp
AIMS: The gradient in health inequalities reflects a relationship between health and social circumstance, demonstrating that health worsens as you move down the socio-economic scale. For more than a decade, the Norwegian National government has developed policies to reduce social inequalities in health by levelling the social gradient. The adoption of the Public Health Act in 2012 was a further movement towards a comprehensive policy. The main aim of the act is to reduce social health inequalities by adopting a Health in All Policies approach...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Vineeta Tanwar, Aashish Katapadi, Jeremy M Adelstein, Jacob A Grimmer, Loren E Wold
Purpose: Environmental stressors are disturbing our ecosystem at an accelerating rate. An increasingly relevant stressor are air pollutants, whose levels are increasing worldwide with threats to human health. These air pollutants are associated with increased mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases. In this review we discuss environmental stressors focusing mainly on the various types of air pollutants, their short-term and long-term cardiovascular effects, and providing the epidemiological evidence associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Physiology
Pamela Kaufman, Julie Kang, Ryan David Kennedy, Pippa Beck, Roberta Ferrence
This paper investigates the impacts of smoke-free housing policies on compliance, enforcement and smoking behavior. From 2012 to 2014, we studied two affordable housing providers in Canada with comprehensive smoke-free policies: Waterloo Regional Housing that required new leases to be non-smoking and exempted existing leases, and Yukon Housing Corporation that required all leases (existing and new) to be non-smoking. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted with 31 housing and public health staff involved in policy development and implementation, and qualitative interviews with 56 tenants...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Miya Narushima, Jian Liu, Naomi Diestelkamp
The Active Ageing Framework has been adapted as a global strategy in ageing policies, practices and research over the last decade. Lifelong learning, however, has not been fully integrated into this discourse. Using survey data provided by 416 adults (aged 60 years and above) enrolled in non-formal general-interest courses in a public continuing education programme in Canada, this study examined the association between older adults' duration of participation in the courses and their level of psychological wellbeing, while taking their age, gender, self-rated health and vulnerability level into consideration...
April 2018: Ageing and Society
Oliver Stevens, Jamie I Forrest
Chemsex is a growing public health concern in urban centres, and few interventions exist to mitigate the significant sexual, drug-related, and social harms potentially experienced by people who participate in chemsex. In much of the world, these immediate harms are further compounded by the criminalisation and stigmatisation of both homosexuality and drug use, preventing participants fully engaging with treatment services or provision of health care. Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men participating in chemsex fall between the traditional definitions of key populations and consequently are poorly provided for by existing drug and sexual health frameworks...
March 19, 2018: Sexual Health
Ping Guo, Mendwas Dzingina, Alice M Firth, Joanna M Davies, Abdel Douiri, Suzanne M O'Brien, Cathryn Pinto, Sophie Pask, Irene J Higginson, Kathy Eagar, Fliss E M Murtagh
INTRODUCTION: Provision of palliative care is inequitable with wide variations across conditions and settings in the UK. Lack of a standard way to classify by case complexity is one of the principle obstacles to addressing this. We aim to develop and validate a casemix classification to support the prediction of costs of specialist palliative care provision. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Phase I: A cohort study to determine the variables and potential classes to be included in a casemix classification...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Shahin Sayed, William Cherniak, Mark Lawler, Soo Yong Tan, Wafaa El Sadr, Nicholas Wolf, Shannon Silkensen, Nathan Brand, Lai Meng Looi, Sanjay A Pai, Michael L Wilson, Danny Milner, John Flanigan, Kenneth A Fleming
Insufficient awareness of the centrality of pathology and laboratory medicine (PALM) to a functioning health-care system at policy and governmental level, with the resultant inadequate investment, has meant that efforts to enhance PALM in low-income and middle-income countries have been local, fragmented, and mostly unsustainable. Responding to the four major barriers in PALM service delivery that were identified in the first paper of this Series (workforce, infrastructure, education and training, and quality assurance), this second paper identifies potential solutions that can be applied in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
March 14, 2018: Lancet
Xiaojun Liu, Anran Tan, Samuel D Towne, Zhaoxun Hou, Zongfu Mao
OBJECTIVE: General practitioners (GPs) are highly underutilised in China with many patients going directly to hospitals when seeking routine care. Multiple countries around the world have successfully used GPs in routine care, and as such, China may benefit from the use of GPs. This study examines the status of, and factors associated with, knowledge related to GPs among outpatient populations from China's tertiary hospitals. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional survey study...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Michaela K Nichols, Melissa K Andrew, Todd F Hatchette, Ardith Ambrose, Guy Boivin, William Bowie, Ayman Chit, Gael Dos Santos, May ElSherif, Karen Green, Francois Haguinet, Scott A Halperin, Barbara Ibarguchi, Jennie Johnstone, Kevin Katz, Phillipe Lagacé-Wiens, Joanne M Langley, Jason LeBlanc, Mark Loeb, Donna MacKinnon-Cameron, Anne McCarthy, Janet E McElhaney, Allison McGeer, Andre Poirier, Jeff Powis, David Richardson, Anne Schuind, Makeda Semret, Vivek Shinde, Stephanie Smith, Daniel Smyth, Grant Stiver, Geoffrey Taylor, Sylvie Trottier, Louis Valiquette, Duncan Webster, Lingyun Ye, Shelly A McNeil
BACKGROUND: Ongoing assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is critical to inform public health policy. This study aimed to determine the VE of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) for preventing influenza-related hospitalizations and other serious outcomes over three consecutive influenza seasons. METHODS: The Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN) conducted active surveillance for influenza in adults ≥16 years (y) of age during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons in hospitals across Canada...
March 13, 2018: Vaccine
Simon Deeming, Penny Reeves, Shanthi Ramanathan, John Attia, Michael Nilsson, Andrew Searles
BACKGROUND: The question of how to measure, assess and optimise the returns from investment in health and medical research (HMR) is a highly policy-relevant issue. Research Impact Assessment Frameworks (RIAFs) provide a conceptual measurement framework to assess the impact from HMR. The aims of this study were (1) to elicit the views of Medical Research Institutes (MRIs) regarding objectives, definitions, methods, barriers, potential scope and attitudes towards RIAFs, and (2) to investigate whether an assessment framework should represent a retrospective reflection of research impact or a prospective approach integrated into the research process...
March 16, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Oren Schwartz, Itzik Malka, Cara H Olsen, Israel Dudkiewicz, Tarif Bader
Introduction: Integration of females in combat units poses a unique challenge for army commanders around the world. The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed up-to-date situation report regarding overuse injuries among combat female warriors in the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) in order to enable evidence-based decision-making, prevention policy, and further research of this highly significant military public health issue. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted including 2,519 females recruited to combat duties during the year of 2013...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Karishma S Furtado, Elizabeth L Budd, Xiangji Ying, Anna J deRuyter, Rebecca L Armstrong, Tahna L Pettman, Rodrigo S Reis, Pauline Sung-Chan, Zhaoxin Wang, Tahnee Saunders, Leonardo A Becker, Jianwei Shi, Long Sum Tabitha Mui, Ross C Brownson
Implementation of evidence-based practices can improve efficiency and effectiveness of public health efforts. Few studies have explored the political contextual factors that impact implementation of evidence-based non-communicable disease prevention (EBNCDP). This study aimed to do so in Australia, Brazil, China and the United States. Investigators conducted 10-13 qualitative, semi-structured interviews of public health practitioners working in functionally similar public health organizations in each country (total N = 50)...
March 14, 2018: Health Education Research
Shuai Yang, Yu Wang, Wengang Ao, Yun Bai, Chuan Li
Based on the consumption of fossil energy, the CO₂ emissions of Chongqing are calculated and analyzed from 1997 to 2015 in this paper. Based on the calculation results, the consumption of fossil fuels and the corresponding CO₂ emissions of Chongqing in 2020 are predicted, and the supporting data and corresponding policies are provided for the government of Chongqing to reach its goal as the economic unit of low-carbon emission in the '13th Five-Year Plan'. The results of the analysis show that there is a rapid decreasing trend of CO₂ emissions in Chongqing during the '12th Five-Year Plan', which are caused by the adjustment policy of the energy structure in Chongqing...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Gwyn Bevan, Alice Evans, Sabina Nuti
This paper explores what motivates improved health care performance. Previously, many have thought that performance would either improve via choice and competition or by relying on trust and altruism. But neither assumption is supported by available evidence. So instead we explore a third approach of reciprocal altruism with sanctions for unacceptably poor performance and rewards for high performance. These rewards and sanctions, however, are not monetary, but in the form of reputational effects through public reporting of benchmarking of performance...
March 16, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
Sylvina Alvarado, Ernesto Paya, María Teresa Valenzuela, Rodolfo Villena
INTRODUCTION: Special vaccines recommendation patients are a growing population. The Ministry of Health has developed a special vaccination program for these cases, through which our hospital manages vaccine forms by an established flowchart. OBJECTIVE: To describe the special vaccines model of management results in the period between March 2015 and September 2016, and the clinical and demographics characterization of the pediatric population benefited with this program in Dr...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
J South, A M Connolly, J A Stansfield, P Johnstone, G Henderson, K A Fenton
There is a strong evidence-based rationale for community capacity building and community empowerment as part of a strategic response to reduce health inequalities. Within the current UK policy context, there are calls for increased public engagement in prevention and local decision-making in order to give people greater control over the conditions that determine health. With reference to the challenges and opportunities within the English public health system, this essay seeks to open debate about what is required to mainstream community-centred approaches and ensure that the public is central to public health...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
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