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Chronic disease intervention

Jan Steffel, Peter Verhamme, Tatjana S Potpara, Pierre Albaladejo, Matthias Antz, Lien Desteghe, Karl Georg Haeusler, Jonas Oldgren, Holger Reinecke, Vanessa Roldan-Schilling, Nigel Rowell, Peter Sinnaeve, Ronan Collins, A John Camm, Hein Heidbüchel
The current manuscript is the Executive Summary of the second update to the original Practical Guide, published in 2013. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and have emerged as the preferred choice, particularly in patients newly started on anticoagulation. Both physicians and patients are becoming more accustomed to the use of these drugs in clinical practice. However, many unresolved questions on how to optimally use these agents in specific clinical situations remain...
March 19, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Jan Steffel, Peter Verhamme, Tatjana S Potpara, Pierre Albaladejo, Matthias Antz, Lien Desteghe, Karl Georg Haeusler, Jonas Oldgren, Holger Reinecke, Vanessa Roldan-Schilling, Nigel Rowell, Peter Sinnaeve, Ronan Collins, A John Camm, Hein Heidbüchel
The current manuscript is the second update of the original Practical Guide, published in 2013 [Heidbuchel et al. European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2013;15:625-651; Heidbuchel et al. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2015;17:1467-1507]. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and have emerged as the preferred choice, particularly in patients newly started on anticoagulation...
March 17, 2018: European Heart Journal
Jin Zhang, Jianhua Liu, Xiaosong Qin
Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of chronic kidney disease, and represents the most common and serious complication of diabetes. The exact pathogenesis is complex and not elucidated. Several factors and mechanisms contribute to the development and outcome of diabetic nephropathy. An early diagnosis and intervention may slow down disease progression. A variety of biological markers associated with diabetic nephropathy were found in recent years, which was important for predicting the occurrence and development of the disease...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Arthur H Owora
Contradictory evidence exists on the role of Major depression disorder (MDD) as a predictor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, particularly regarding the effect of MDD presence versus pattern of illness. The objective of this study was to examine whether MDD status and pattern of illness differentially predict HIV disease progression. Retrospective cohort data from a six-year follow-up of HIV patients at an outpatient clinic were analyzed. MDD trajectories were identified by latent class growth analysis and generalized linear mixed models were used to examine their relation to low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts (<200 cells/μL) during follow-up...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anthony S Wierzbicki, Timothy M Reynolds, Adie Viljoen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A number of novel trials have assessed the efficacy of new lipid-lowering therapies in cardiovascular disease (CVD). RECENT FINDINGS: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin-9 inhibitors reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 50-55%. A CVD outcome trial in patients with acute coronary syndromes with evolocumab achieved a LDL-C of 0.8 mmol/l (31 mg/dl) and a 20% relative risk reduction in CVD events in 2.2 years. Cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and can lower LDL-C...
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
M Saffari, A H Pakpour, F Al Zaben, H G Koenig
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a serious and prevalent disease which may negatively influence health related quality of life (HRQOL) and fatigue. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between demographic variables, HRQOL, and fatigue. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 418 Iranian patients with CHB (average age 44.1 years, majority males). Participants completed a multidimensional fatigue inventory, chronic liver disease questionnaire, Euro quality of life-five dimensions questionnaire, and demographic information...
April 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Parisa Shabibi, Mohammad Sadegh Abedzadeh Zavareh, Kourosh Sayehmiri, Mostafa Qorbani, Omid Safari, Babak Rastegarimehr, Morteza Mansourian
Background and Objective: Diabetes is a chronic disease in which patients require lifelong self-care behaviors. The present study offset to determine the effect of educational intervention based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on promoting self-care behaviors of type 2 diabetes patients in Ilam, Iran 2014. Methods: A quasi-experimental research was conducted based on HBM in which 70 type 2 diabetic patients from Ilam, western Iran in 2014 were selected by multi-stage random sampling...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Pei-Chun Fan, Tien-Hsing Chen, Cheng-Chia Lee, Tsung-Yu Tsai, Yung-Chang Chen, Chih-Hsiang Chang
Acute kidney injury (AKI), a common and crucial complication of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), is associated with increased mortality and adverse outcomes. This study aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model for incident AKI after PCI for ACS. We included 82,186 patients admitted for ACS and receiving PCI between 1997 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database and randomly divided them into a training cohort (n = 57,630) and validation cohort (n = 24,656) for risk model development and validation, respectively...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Gaëlle Cheisson, Sophie Jacqueminet, Emmanuel Cosson, Carole Ichai, Anne-Marie Leguerrier, Bogdan Nicolescu-Catargi, Alexandre Ouattara, Igor Tauveron, Paul Valensi, Dan Benhamou
In diabetic patients undergoing surgery, we recommend assessing glycaemic control preoperatively by assessing glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and recent capillary blood sugar (glucose) levels, and to adjust any treatments accordingly before surgery, paying particular attention to specific complications of diabetes. Gastroparesis creates a risk of stasis and aspiration of gastric content at induction of anaesthesia requiring the use of a rapid sequence induction technique. Cardiac involvement can be divided into several types...
March 17, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Nkem Nweze, Afshin Parsikia, Rakesh Ahuja, Amit R T Joshi
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the apocrine sweat glands. Although the mainstay of surgical treatment is excision, the disease has a high tendency to recur, for reasons that are not well understood. We sought to better characterize the natural history of this disease, focusing on patients who required operative intervention. Two hundred and fourteen patients with axillary HS underwent 293 surgical procedures. We divided the cohort into two groups based on recurrence and then compared them to identify the factors most associated with recurrent axillary HS...
March 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Han-Yun Tseng, Shu-Han Yu, Chun-Yi Lee, Wen-Hao Huang, Seng-Loong Huang, Chi-Shin Wu, Yen-Feng Chiu, Chao A Hsiung
BACKGROUND: Sedative-hypnotic medication use has been related to severe adverse events and risks. This study investigated the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the use of sedatives and hypnotics among community-dwelling elderly persons aged 65 years and over in Taiwan. METHODS: A representative sample of community-dwelling adults was recruited. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected for assessing physical, mental, and cognitive functioning and disorders...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Ruth Pearson, Madhura Killedar, Janka Petravic, Jakub J Kakietek, Nick Scott, Kelsey L Grantham, Robyn M Stuart, David J Kedziora, Cliff C Kerr, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Meera Shekhar, David P Wilson
BACKGROUND: Child stunting due to chronic malnutrition is a major problem in low- and middle-income countries due, in part, to inadequate nutrition-related practices and insufficient access to services. Limited budgets for nutritional interventions mean that available resources must be targeted in the most cost-effective manner to have the greatest impact. Quantitative tools can help guide budget allocation decisions. METHODS: The Optima approach is an established framework to conduct resource allocation optimization analyses...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Yan Yan, Li Liu, Jing Zeng, Liang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to improve the management quality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rural areas. METHODS: Two hundred forty discharged COPD patients were divided into an intervention group and a control group. In the intervention group, 120 patients established contact with doctors through the network consulting room, namely doctor's mobile platform, and were managed through video, voice, and text by the doctors, and kept in close contact with the doctors after discharge (education, consultation), and received electronic prescriptions, and drugs were sent to the door by online retailers...
March 20, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Massimiliano Polastri, Vittoria Comellini, Angela Maria Grazia Pacilli, Stefano Nava
Magnetotherapy (MT) is a therapeutic treatment based on the use of magnetic fields (MF) that can have an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. MT represents a possible treatment or an ancillary therapeutic intervention for a wide range of diseases and it is often used in the field of physiotherapeutic practices. A crucial point in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, to counteract muscular depletion and respiratory symptoms, is represented by physiotherapy. Nevertheless, the knowledge about the application of MF as a therapeutic option in COPD patients is very limited...
March 20, 2018: COPD
C Herrmann-Lingen
BACKGROUND: Depression is a frequent comorbidity in chronic heart failure. It can be triggered by the experience of suffering from heart disease, but it can also play a causal role in accelerated development and poor prognosis of heart failure. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelationships between heart failure and depression and the psychophysiological and behavioral mechanisms involved in this association. The effects of comorbid depression on quality of life in patients with heart failure were also examined and therapeutic options reviewed...
March 20, 2018: Der Internist
Vienna R Brown, Sarah N Bevins
Classical swine fever (CSF) is caused by CSF virus (CSFV) which can be the source of substantial morbidity and mortality events in affected swine. The disease can take one of several forms (acute, chronic, or prenatal) and depending on the virulence of the inoculating strain may result in a lethal infection irrespective of the form acquired. Because of the disease-free status of the United States and the high cost of a viral incursion, a summary of US vulnerabilities for viral introduction and persistence is provided...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Benjamin W Chrisinger, Michael J Kallan, Eliza D Whiteman, Amy Hillier
Food shopping decisions are pathways between food environment, diet and health outcomes, including chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. The choices of where to shop and what to buy are interrelated, though a better understanding of this dynamic is needed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's nationally representative Food Acquisitions and Purchase Survey food-at-home dataset was joined with other databases of retailer characteristics and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) of purchases. We used linear regression models with general estimating equations to assess relationships between trip, store, and shopper characteristics with trip HEI scores...
March 16, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Chinonso N Igwesi-Chidobe, Andre P Kengne, Isaac O Sorinola, Emma L Godfrey
Background: Physical activity improves physiological, cognitive and psychosocial functioning in chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study reviewed papers on the effects and patients' experiences of physical activity interventions for chronic NCDs in Africa. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of clinical and qualitative studies by searching eight bibliographic databases and grey literature until 19 April 2017. The mixed-methods appraisal and Cochrane Collaboration's tools were used for quality and risk of bias assessments...
March 15, 2018: International Health
Irina Tammenmaa-Aho, Rosie Asher, Karla Soares-Weiser, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) remains a troublesome adverse effect of conventional antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication. It has been proposed that TD could have a component of central cholinergic deficiency. Cholinergic drugs have been used to treat TD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cholinergic drugs (arecoline, choline, deanol, lecithin, meclofenoxate, physostigmine, RS 86, tacrine, metoxytacrine, galantamine, ipidacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, eptastigmine, metrifonate, xanomeline, cevimeline) for treating antipsychotic-induced TD in people with schizophrenia or other chronic mental illness...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Julia Ae Walters, Daniel J Tan, Clinton J White, Richard Wood-Baker
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend that patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should be treated with systemic corticosteroid for seven to 14 days. Intermittent systemic corticosteroid use is cumulatively associated with adverse effects such as osteoporosis, hyperglycaemia and muscle weakness. Shorter treatment could reduce adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of short-duration (seven or fewer days) and conventional longer-duration (longer than seven days) systemic corticosteroid treatment of adults with acute exacerbations of COPD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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