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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945055/adjuvant-treatments-for-ependymomas
#1
E Alton Sartor, Patrick Y Wen
Ependymomas are rare primary central nervous system tumors occurring in children and young adults. They can be indolent or locally aggressive depending on location, histology, and extent of resection. Treatment involves maximal surgical resection and usually focal radiation therapy, depending on the presence of residual disease and tumor grade. Chemotherapy has been studied for both adults and children but do not have an established role in adjuvant therapy. In both age groups, treatment with mainly cisplatin based regimens can be considered in the setting of residual disease after surgery or for salvage therapy when surgery or further radiation is not indicated...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945001/organ-on-a-chip-technology-for-reproducing-multiorgan-physiology
#2
REVIEW
Seung Hwan Lee, Jong Hwan Sung
In the drug development process, the accurate prediction of drug efficacy and toxicity is important in order to reduce the cost, labor, and effort involved. For this purpose, conventional 2D cell culture models are used in the early phase of drug development. However, the differences between the in vitro and the in vivo systems have caused the failure of drugs in the later phase of the drug-development process. Therefore, there is a need for a novel in vitro model system that can provide accurate information for evaluating the drug efficacy and toxicity through a closer recapitulation of the in vivo system...
September 25, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944983/oral-prolonged-release-oxycodone-naloxone-for-managing-pain-and-opioid-induced-constipation-a-review-of-the-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Bart J Morlion, Stefan A Mueller-Lissner, Renato Vellucci, Wojciech Leppert, Benoît C Coffin, Sara L Dickerson, Tony O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Opioids provide effective relief from moderate-to-severe pain and should be prescribed as part of a multifaceted approach to pain management when other treatments have failed. Fixed-dose oxycodone/naloxone prolonged-release tablets (OXN PR) were designed to address the opioid class effect of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) by combining the analgesic efficacy of oxycodone with the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, which has negligible systemic availability when administered orally...
September 25, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944965/comparison-of-psoriasis-and-atopic-dermatitis-guidelines-an-argument-for-aggressive-atopic-dermatitis-management
#4
Mary E Lohman, Peter A Lio
The development of effective systemic treatments has revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. The availability of safe new treatments and the understanding of psoriasis as a systemic disease with comorbidities and effects on quality of life have driven the current aggressive treatment paradigm of psoriasis. Historically the morbidity of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been dismissed, given the perception of AD as "just" a rash. Differences in the guidelines for psoriasis and AD management may suggest variations in the current conceptualization of disease severity and effects on quality of life...
September 25, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944954/multicentre-cohort-study-to-define-and-validate-pathological-assessment-of-response-to-neoadjuvant-therapy-in-oesophagogastric-adenocarcinoma
#5
F Noble, M A Lloyd, R Turkington, E Griffiths, M O'Donovan, J R O'Neill, S Mercer, S L Parsons, R C Fitzgerald, T J Underwood
BACKGROUND: This multicentre cohort study sought to define a robust pathological indicator of clinically meaningful response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to 11 UK upper gastrointestinal cancer centres to determine the use of assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Records of consecutive patients undergoing oesophagogastric resection at seven centres between January 2000 and December 2013 were reviewed...
September 25, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944829/thymic-function-in-the-regulation-of-t-cells-and-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-modulation-of-cytokines-and-stress-signaling-review
#6
Fenggen Yan, Xiumei Mo, Junfeng Liu, Siqi Ye, Xing Zeng, Dacan Chen
The thymus is critical in establishing and maintaining the appropriate microenvironment for promoting the development and selection of T cells. The function and structure of the thymus gland has been extensively studied, particularly as the thymus serves an important physiological role in the lymphatic system. Numerous studies have investigated the morphological features of thymic involution. Recently, research attention has increasingly been focused on thymic proteins as targets for drug intervention. Omics approaches have yielded novel insights into the thymus and possible drug targets...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944782/perioperative-cerebrospinal-fluid-drainage-for-the-prevention-of-spinal-ischemia-after-endovascular-aortic-repair
#7
M Wortmann, D Böckler, P Geisbüsch
Endovascular treatment of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic diseases is accompanied by a risk of spinal ischemia in 1-19% of patients, depending on the entity and extent of the disease. The use of perioperative drainage of cerebrospinal fluid is one of the invasive measures to reduce the occurrence of this severe complication. This article reviews the incidence of spinal ischemia, its risk factors, the evidence for carrying out cerebrospinal fluid drainage and its modern use by means of an automated, pressure controlled system (LiquoGuard®7)...
2017: Gefässchirurgie: Zeitschrift Für Vaskuläre und Endovaskuläre Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944742/in-situ-delivery-of-corticosteroids-for-treatment-of-oral-diseases
#8
Viviana De Caro, Flavia Maria Sutera, Libero Italo Giannola
In many mucocutaneous disorders, corticosteroids therapy is currently central. Systemic therapy is restricted to severe disorders whereas topical applications are considered as the first-line treatment. The oral cavity environment, the medication form and other factors related to the delivery method are key factors for the therapy efficiency and effectiveness. Current marketed medications are not able to avoid wrong drug exposure and scarce patients' compliance. Innovative in situ delivery systems are able to prolong the drug retention time on the mucosa and to avoid the drawbacks of conventional formulations...
October 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944741/the-application-of-nanoparticles-for-neuroprotection-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#9
Lepei Chen, Xiaoling Gao
Stroke still represents one of the most common causes of death and disability worldwide. Acute ischemic stroke (AIS), caused by brain arterial occlusion resulting from a thrombus or embolus, is the most common form of stroke. However, current therapies in AIS are inadequate, and the only US FDA approved treatment is the thrombolytic drug Alteplase. Therefore, establishing effective therapeutic strategies for AIS is urgently needed. Using nanoparticle-based technologies to deliver neuroprotective agents to the ischemic area has attracted increasing attention of late...
October 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944733/performance-based-risk-sharing-arrangements-for-pharmaceutical-products-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review
#10
Justin S Yu, Lauren Chin, Jennifer Oh, Jorge Farias
BACKGROUND: Value for money is a growing necessity in today's U.S. health care system in which drug spending is expected to increase by an average rate of 6.7% yearly through 2025. In response to uncertainty about real-world clinical and economic outcomes for many drugs, health insurers and pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) have implemented various contracts and arrangements with drug manufacturers that can collectively be described as performance-based risk-sharing arrangements (PBRSAs)...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944731/the-fda-unapproved-drugs-initiative-an-observational-study-of-the-consequences-for-drug-prices-and-shortages-in-the-united-states
#11
Ravi Gupta, Sanket S Dhruva, Erin R Fox, Joseph S Ross
BACKGROUND: Hundreds of drug products are currently marketed in the United States without approval from the FDA. The 2006 Unapproved Drugs Initiative (UDI) requires manufacturers to remove these drug products from the market or obtain FDA approval by demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy. Once the FDA acts against an unapproved drug, fewer manufacturers remain in the market, potentially enabling drug price increases and greater susceptibility to drug shortages. There is a need for systematic study of the UDI's effect on prices and shortages of all targeted drugs...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944726/paying-for-cures-how-can-we-afford-it-managed-care-pharmacy-stakeholder-perceptions-of-policy-options-to-address-affordability-of-prescription-drugs
#12
Kai Yeung, Kangho Suh, Anirban Basu, Louis P Garrison, Aasthaa Bansal, Josh J Carlson
BACKGROUND: High-priced medications with curative potential, such as the newer hepatitis C therapies, have contributed to the recent growth in pharmaceutical expenditure. Despite the obvious benefits, health care decision makers are just beginning to grapple with questions of how to value and pay for curative therapies that may feature large upfront cost, followed by health benefits that are reaped over a patient's lifespan. Alternative policy options have been proposed to promote high value and financially sustainable use of these therapies...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944505/taxonomy-of-cns-tumours-a-series-of-three-short-reviews-on-the-who-2016-classification-and-beyond
#13
EDITORIAL
Pieter Wesseling, Thomas S Jacques
In May 2016, an update of the 4th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System (CNS) was officially released [1]. This revised 4th edition represents a paradigm shift as, for the first time, the definition of multiple CNS tumour entities is now partly based on particular genotypic characteristics. Additionally, compared to the 4th edition (published in 2007), some splitting and lumping of entities occurred because of new insights in the genetic underpinnings of CNS tumours and/or based on more recently published clinico-pathologic studies...
September 25, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944481/efficacy-of-dexmedetomidine-on-perioperative-morbidity-during-nasal-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#14
Se Hwan Hwang, Ho Seok Lee, Young Hoon Joo, Jae Hyun Seo, Jun Myung Kang
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this meta-analysis was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of dexmedetomidine on perioperative morbidity following nasal surgery and on the adverse effects of dexmedetomidine. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. REVIEW METHODS: Two authors independently searched scientific and medical databases from their inception of article collection to March 2017...
September 25, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944450/review-dynamic-spatial-models-of-parasite-transmission-in-wildlife-their-structure-applications-and-remaining-challenges
#15
REVIEW
L A White, J D Forester, M E Craft
1.Individual differences in contact rate can arise from host, group, and landscape heterogeneity and can result in different patterns of spatial spread for diseases in wildlife populations with concomitant implications for disease control in wildlife of conservation concern, livestock, and humans. While dynamic disease models can provide a better understanding of the drivers of spatial spread, the effects of landscape heterogeneity have only been modelled in a few well-studied wildlife systems such as rabies and bovine tuberculosis...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944401/molecular-and-cellular-effects-of-traumatic-stress-implications-for-ptsd
#16
REVIEW
Matthew J Girgenti, Brendan D Hare, Sriparna Ghosal, Ronald S Duman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by hyperarousal and recurrent stressful memories after an emotionally traumatic event. Extensive research has been conducted to identify the neurobiological determinants that underlie the pathophysiology of PTSD. In this review, we examine evidence regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of PTSD focusing on two primary brain regions: the vmPFC and the amygdala. RECENT FINDINGS: This discussion includes a review of the molecular alterations related to PTSD, focusing mainly on changes to glucocorticoid receptor signaling...
September 25, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944311/integrating-genomic-information-and-signaling-dynamics-for-efficient-cancer-therapy
#17
Jacob Stewart-Ornstein, Galit Lahav
The field of cancer systems biology has made great strides in understanding oncogenic pathway signaling and enumerating mutations involved in oncogenesis. However, application of these datasets to patient stratification, and to the design of personalized therapy, is in its infancy. We review BRAF and BRCA mutant targeted therapy, where patient stratification has had critical, albeit mixed success. We contrast the work on genomic targeted therapy with orthogonal studies on the dynamics of signaling pathways for designing optimal treatment schedules...
February 2017: Current opinion in systems biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944298/hippocampal-diencephalic-cingulate-networks-for-memory-and-emotion-an-anatomical-guide
#18
Emma J Bubb, Lisa Kinnavane, John P Aggleton
This review brings together current knowledge from tract tracing studies to update and reconsider those limbic connections initially highlighted by Papez (1937) for their presumed role in emotion. These connections link hippocampal and parahippocampal regions with the mammillary bodies, the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the cingulate gyrus, all structures now strongly implicated in memory functions. An additional goal of this review is to describe the routes taken by the various connections within this network...
August 4, 2017: Brain and neuroscience advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944281/adenovirus-mediated-gene-delivery-potential-applications-for-gene-and-cell-based-therapies-in-the-new-era-of-personalized-medicine
#19
Cody S Lee, Elliot S Bishop, Ruyi Zhang, Xinyi Yu, Evan M Farina, Shujuan Yan, Chen Zhao, Zongyue Zheng, Yi Shu, Xingye Wu, Jiayan Lei, Yasha Li, Wenwen Zhang, Chao Yang, Ke Wu, Ying Wu, Sherwin Ho, Aravind Athiviraham, Michael J Lee, Jennifer Moriatis Wolf, Russell R Reid, Tong-Chuan He
With rapid advances in understanding molecular pathogenesis of human diseases in the era of genome sciences and systems biology, it is anticipated that increasing numbers of therapeutic genes or targets will become available for targeted therapies. Despite numerous setbacks, efficacious gene and/or cell-based therapies still hold the great promise to revolutionize the clinical management of human diseases. It is wildly recognized that poor gene delivery is the limiting factor for most in vivo gene therapies...
June 2017: Genes & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944276/verification-of-neonatal-tetanus-surveillance-systems-in-katsina-state-nigeria
#20
Shafique Sani Nass, Hadi Danawi, Loretta Cain, Monoj Sharma
BACKGROUND: The incidence and mortality rates of neonatal tetanus (NNT) remain underreported in Nigeria. The goal of the study was to compare the NNT prevalence and the mortality rates from the existing surveillance system and active surveillance of health facility records in 7 selected health facilities from 2010 to 2014 in Katsina State, Nigeria. METHODS: The study is a retrospective record review using extracted data from NNT records and analyzed using descriptive statistics...
January 2017: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
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