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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334687/cognitive-deficits-in-methamphetamine-users-how-strong-is-the-evidence
#1
Lisa Proebstl, Felicia Kamp, Gabi Koller, Michael Soyka
Methamphetamine use has spread in many European countries and the United States. The current review provides a summary and critical analysis of research on cognitive deficits associated with methamphetamine, also known as "crystal meth." The literature search performed for this review led us to the hypothesis that methamphetamine use is associated with persistent changes in brain metabolism that result in various impairments, such as deficits in memory, attention, and concentration. The dopaminergic system in particular seems to be affected...
January 15, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334556/decoding-grade-b-pancreatic-fistula-a-clinical-and-economical-analysis-and-subclassification-proposal
#2
Laura Maggino, Giuseppe Malleo, Claudio Bassi, Valentina Allegrini, Matthew T McMillan, Alex Borin, Bofeng Chen, Jeffrey A Drebin, Brett L Ecker, Douglas L Fraker, Major K Lee, Salvatore Paiella, Robert E Roses, Roberto Salvia, Charles M Vollmer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe characteristics and management approaches for grade B pancreatic fistula (B-POPF) and investigate whether it segregates into distinct subclasses. BACKGROUND: The 2016 ISGPS refined definition of B-POPF is predicated on various postoperative management approaches, ranging from prolonged drainage to interventional procedures, but the spectrum of clinical severity within this entity is yet undefined. METHODS: Pancreatectomies performed at 2 institutions from 2007 to 2016 were reviewed to identify B-POPFs and their treatment strategies...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334537/isolated-central-nervous-system-chloroma-as-a-presenting-sign-of-relapsed-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#3
Jessica L Heath, Waitman K Aumann, Charles M Maxfield, Daniel S Wechsler
Central nervous system (CNS) chloromas are an exceedingly rare presentation of CNS relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We report a relapsed ALL patient who presented with 2 separate chloromas and cerebrospinal fluid lymphoblastocytosis, and outline a treatment plan of systemic chemotherapy and CNS-directed radiation therapy. A review of the literature indicates that multiagent chemotherapy combined with CNS radiotherapy is effective, with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation used in half of reported cases...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334526/airborne-particulate-matter-human-exposure-health-effects
#4
Jonathan E Thompson
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is estimated to cause millions of premature deaths annually. This work conveys known routes of exposure to PM and resultant health effects. METHODS: Review of available literature. RESULTS: Estimates for daily PM exposure are provided. Known mechanisms by which insoluble particles are transported and removed from the body are discussed. Biological effects of PM, including immune response, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity are reported...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334494/state-based-review-of-maternal-deaths-the-ohio-experience
#5
Cynthia Shellhaas, Elizabeth Conrey
Ohio established a Pregnancy-Associated Mortality Review system in 2010 to ensure that all maternal deaths are identified and preventive actions developed. The need for detailed and reliable information to supplement vital statistics data has led to the development of state-based and urban-based maternal death reviews. Although processes vary from state to state, in general, an expert panel is convened to review individual cases and make recommendations for systems change. This article describes the development and operation of Ohio's state-based maternal death review including interventions developed and actions taken based on review data...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334493/understanding-severe-maternal-morbidity-hospital-based-review
#6
Sarah J Kilpatrick
Cases of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) share similarities to maternal deaths, including increasing in frequency and having similar rates of preventability. This article will review steps to organizing and implementing standard reviews of all cases of SMM. These steps include create multidisciplinary SMM review committee; identify potential SMM cases and confirm true SMM; identify the morbidity; abstract and summarize data; present case to review committee for discussion; determine events leading to morbidity; determine opportunities to improve outcome; assess provider, system and patient factors in cases with opportunities to improve outcome; make recommendations; and effect change and evaluate improvement...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334336/engineering-mechanical-microenvironment-of-macrophage-and-its-biomedical-applications
#7
Jing Li, Yuhui Li, Bin Gao, Chuanguang Qin, Yining He, Feng Xu, Hui Yang, Min Lin
Macrophages are the most plastic cells in the hematopoietic system and can be widely found in almost all tissues. Recently studies have shown that mechanical cues (e.g., matrix stiffness and stress/strain) can significantly affect macrophage behaviors. Although existing reviews on the physical and mechanical cues that regulate the macrophage's phenotype are available, engineering mechanical microenvironment of macrophages in vitro as well as a comprehensive overview and prospects for their biomedical applications (e...
January 15, 2018: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334323/development-of-functional-agricultural-products-utilizing-the-new-health-claim-labeling-system-in-japan
#8
Mari Maeda-Yamamoto, Toshio Ohtani
In April 2015, Consumer Affairs Agency of Japan launched a new food labeling system known as "Foods with Function Claims (FFC)." Under this system, the food industry independently evaluates scientific evidence on foods and describes their functional properties. As of May 23, 2017, 1023 FFC containing 8 fresh foods have been launched. Meanwhile, to clarify the health-promoting effects of agricultural products, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO) implemented the "Research Project on Development of Agricultural Products" and demonstrated the risk reduction of osteoporosis of β-cryptoxanthin rich Satsuma mandarins and the anti-allergic effect of the O-methylated catechin rich tea cultivar Benifuuki...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334198/enzyme-based-glucose-sensor-from-invasive-to-wearable-device
#9
REVIEW
Hyunjae Lee, Yongseok Joseph Hong, Seungmin Baik, Taeghwan Hyeon, Dae-Hyeong Kim
Blood glucose concentration is a key indicator of patients' health, particularly for symptoms associated with diabetes mellitus. Because of the large number of diabetic patients, many approaches for glucose measurement have been studied to enable continuous and accurate glucose level monitoring. Among them, electrochemical analysis is prominent because it is simple and quantitative. This technology has been incorporated into commercialized and research-level devices from simple test strips to wearable devices and implantable systems...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334187/surveying-the-landscape-of-optogenetic-methods-for-detection-of-protein-protein-interactions
#10
REVIEW
Matthew D Wiens, Robert E Campbell
Mapping the protein-protein interaction (PPi) landscape is of critical importance to furthering our understanding how cells and organisms function. Optogenetic methods, that is, approaches that utilize genetically encoded fluorophores or fluorogenic enzyme reactions, uniquely enable the visualization of biochemical phenomena in live cells with high spatial and temporal accuracy. Applying optogenetic methods to the detection of PPis requires the engineering of protein-based systems in which an optical signal undergoes a substantial change when the two proteins of interest interact...
January 15, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334121/the-multipotency-to-commitment-transition-mct-in-c-elegans-implications-for-reprogramming-from-cells-to-organs
#11
REVIEW
Erik A Spickard, Pradeep M Joshi, Joel H Rothman
In animal embryos, cells transition from a multipotential state, with the capacity to adopt multiple fates, into an irreversible, committed state of differentiation. This multipotency-to-commitment transition (MCT) is evident from experiments in which cell fate is reprogrammed by transcription factors for cell-type-specific differentiation, as has been observed extensively in C. elegans. Although factors that direct differentiation into each of the three germ layer types cannot generally reprogram cells after the MCT in this animal, transcription factors for endoderm development are able to do so in multiple differentiated cell types...
January 15, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333935/association-between-human-papilloma-virus-hpv-vaccination-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#12
Angela Meggiolaro, Giuseppe Migliara, Giuseppe La Torre
INTRODUCTION: The vaccination against Humanpapilloma Virus (HPV) is an effective strategy to prevent high-risk HPV infection and subsequent cervical carcinogenesis. Although the safety profile has been ascertained, the relation with the development of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorders (AD) appears still controversial. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of chronic neurological impairment in young people, typically striking females. The main purpose of this review was to assess the association between HPV vaccination and MS...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333911/the-challenge-of-pediatric-uveitis-tertiary-referral-center-experience-in-the-united-states
#13
Mariantonia Ferrara, Laura Eggenschwiler, Andrew Stephenson, Alyssa Montieth, Nakhoul Nakhoul, Rafael Araùjo-Miranda, C Stephen Foster
PURPOSE: To describe the distribution, clinical findings, visual outcomes, treatment, and complications of children with uveitis at a tertiary referral ophthalmic center. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. We reviewed the medical records of all patients ≤16 years with uveitis referred to Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution from March 2005 to July 2016. RESULTS: Of 286 included children, 62.24% were female. Mean age of onset was 8...
January 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333888/primary-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-of-the-ciliary-body
#14
Hayyam Kiratli, Abdullah Ağın, Berrin Büyükeren, Figen Söylemezoğlu
PURPOSE: To report an unusual case of an eye with primary ciliary body lymphoma which came to enucleation allowing detailed histopathological examination. METHODS: A 50-year-old man presented with a painful loss of vision in the left eye. The clinical, imaging, and immunohistopathological features of this case were reviewed. RESULTS: The vision in the left eye was light perception. There were keratic precipitates, an irregular and thickened iris with neovascularization...
January 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333782/-research-advances-on-the-molecular-mechanism-of-autophagy-regulated-by-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#15
Zhao Yan, Yu Yang, Kou Yurong
Autophagy is an intracellular conservative degradation pathway. This event has been considered as a key step in host defense against bacterial infection. However, Porphyromonas gingivalis, as one of the evidence-sufficient periodontal pathogens, can utilize self-induced autophagy to achieve persistent intracellular survival and proliferation, which enable this organism to escape from host immune surveillance. This review focuses on molecular mechanism of P. gingivalis internalization and autophagy to illuminate its pathogenesis and to further explore the relationship between P...
December 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333778/-remineralization-effect-of-casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous-calcium-phosphate-for-enamel-demineralization-a-system-review
#16
Wang Xiaotong, Rao Nanquan, Xie Jing, Zhao Yuming, Ge Lihong
OBJECTIVE: This study  aims  to  assess  the  remineralization effect of casein phosphopeptide (CPP)-amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) on enamel demineralization by  performing  system review of  randomized  controlled  trials (RCT)  involving  the  treatment of enamel demineralization with  CPP-ACP. METHODS: The  study  was  developed  based  on  the 
Cochrane handbook  for  systematic  reviews of  interventions (Version 5...
December 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333729/immunoengineering-with-biomaterials-for-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy
#17
REVIEW
Yu-Qing Xie, Lixia Wei, Li Tang
Cancer immunotherapy has recently shown dramatic clinical success inducing durable response in patients of a wide variety of malignancies. Further improvement of the clinical outcome with immune related cancer treatment requests more exquisite manipulation of a patient's immune system with increased immunity against diseases while mitigating the toxicities. To meet this challenge, biomaterials applied to immunoengineering are being developed to achieve tissue- and/or cell-specific immunomodulation and thus could potentially enhance both the efficacy and safety of current cancer immunotherapies...
January 14, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333691/the-innate-immune-system-in-chronic-cardiomyopathy-a-european-society-of-cardiology-esc-scientific-statement-from-the-working-group-on-myocardial-function-of-the-esc
#18
REVIEW
Stefan Frantz, Ines Falcao-Pires, Jean-Luc Balligand, Johann Bauersachs, Dirk Brutsaert, Michele Ciccarelli, Dana Dawson, Leon J de Windt, Mauro Giacca, Nazha Hamdani, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Emilio Hirsch, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Manuel Mayr, Thomas Thum, Carlo G Tocchetti, Jolanda van der Velden, Gilda Varricchi, Stephane Heymans
Activation of the immune system in heart failure (HF) has been recognized for over 20 years. Initially, experimental studies demonstrated a maladaptive role of the immune system. However, several phase III trials failed to show beneficial effects in HF with therapies directed against an immune activation. Preclinical studies today describe positive and negative effects of immune activation in HF. These different effects depend on timing and aetiology of HF. Therefore, herein we give a detailed review on immune mechanisms and their importance for the development of HF with a special focus on commonalities and differences between different forms of cardiomyopathies...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333660/interventions-to-increase-attendance-for-diabetic-retinopathy-screening
#19
REVIEW
John G Lawrenson, Ella Graham-Rowe, Fabiana Lorencatto, Jennifer Burr, Catey Bunce, Jillian J Francis, Patricia Aluko, Stephen Rice, Luke Vale, Tunde Peto, Justin Presseau, Noah Ivers, Jeremy M Grimshaw
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of diabetic retinopathy screening (DRS) in reducing the risk of sight loss, attendance for screening is consistently below recommended levels. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the review was to assess the effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) interventions that seek to increase attendance for DRS in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Secondary objectives were:To use validated taxonomies of QI intervention strategies and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to code the description of interventions in the included studies and determine whether interventions that include particular QI strategies or component BCTs are more effective in increasing screening attendance;To explore heterogeneity in effect size within and between studies to identify potential explanatory factors for variability in effect size;To explore differential effects in subgroups to provide information on how equity of screening attendance could be improved;To critically appraise and summarise current evidence on the resource use, costs and cost effectiveness...
January 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333590/advantages-and-disadvantages-in-image-processing-with-free-software-in-radiology
#20
Katrin Muradas Mujika, Juan Antonio Juanes Méndez, Andrés Framiñan de Miguel
Currently, there are sophisticated applications that make it possible to visualize medical images and even to manipulate them. These software applications are of great interest, both from a teaching and a radiological perspective. In addition, some of these applications are known as Free Open Source Software because they are free and the source code is freely available, and therefore it can be easily obtained even on personal computers. Two examples of free open source software are Osirix Lite® and 3D Slicer®...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
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