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Tumor-derived exosomes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228644/exosomes-in-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-prostate-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Jun Pan, Meng Ding, Kai Xu, Chunhua Yang, Li-Jun Mao
Exosomes are small vesicular bodies released by a variety of cells. Exosomes contain miRNAs, mRNAs and proteins with the potential to regulate signaling pathways in recipient cells. Exosomes deliver nucleic acids and proteins to mediate the communication between cancer cells and stroma cells. In this review, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the role of exosomes in prostate cancer. The tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance of prostate cancer are associated with the cargos of exosomes such as miRNAs, lncRNAs and proteins...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223442/exosomes-derived-from-imatinib-resistant-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-cells-mediate-a-horizontal-transfer-of-drug-resistant-trait-by-delivering-mir-365
#2
Qing-Hua Min, Xiao-Zhong Wang, Jing Zhang, Qing-Gen Chen, Shu-Qi Li, Xiao-Qing Liu, Jing Li, Jing Liu, Wei-Ming Yang, Yu-Huan Jiang, Yan-Mei Xu, Jin Lin, Qiu-Fang Gao, Fan Sun, Lei Zhang, Bo Huang
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant disorder of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Majority of patients can be effectively treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib, but a portion of patients will develop drug resistance. Accumulated evidences have identified exosomes in cancer as promoters of tumor progression. Herein, we found that exosomes derived from imatinib resistant CML cells can be internalized into sensitive CML cells and confer drug-resistance traits. We also demonstrated a significant higher level of miR-365 in exosomes derived from drug-resistant CML cells compared with those from sensitive ones using microarray and qRT-PCR...
December 6, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221185/tgf%C3%AE-1-in-fibroblasts-derived-exosomes-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-ovarian-cancer-cells
#3
Wenqian Li, Xiaoxue Zhang, Ji Wang, Mengchen Li, Canhui Cao, Jiahong Tan, Ding Ma, Qinglei Gao
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), a major component of the tumor microenvironment, play an important role in interacting with neoplastic cells to promote ovarian cancer progression. Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles that mediate the cross-talk between different cell types. An increasing number of studies have focused on the fact that tumor cell-derived exosomes influence stromal cells. However, the mechanism by which CAF-derived exosomes modulate cancer cells in ovarian cancer remains obscure. To investigate the role of CAF exosomes in ovarian cancer, we examined the exosomal content of paired primary, metastatic and normal fibroblasts from seven stage IIIC ovarian cancer patients by ELISA...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221141/plasma-derived-extracellular-vesicle-proteins-as-a-source-of-biomarkers-for-lung-adenocarcinoma
#4
Jody Vykoukal, Nan Sun, Clemente Aguilar-Bonavides, Hiroyuki Katayama, Ichidai Tanaka, Johannes F Fahrmann, Michela Capello, Junya Fujimoto, Mitzi Aguilar, Ignacio I Wistuba, Ayumu Taguchi, Edwin J Ostrin, Samir M Hanash
Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been implicated as mediators of intercellular communication. Their release into the circulation has the potential to inform about tumor status. In-depth proteomic characterization of plasma-derived EVs has been limited by challenges in isolating EVs from protein-abundant biological fluids. We implemented a novel single-step density gradient flotation workflow for efficient and rapid isolation of highly enriched circulating EVs from plasma. Mass-spectrometry analysis of plasma EVs from subjects with lung adenocarcinoma and matched controls resulted in the identification of 640 proteins...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218268/blood-based-tumor-biomarkers-in-lung-cancer-for-detection-and-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Hirva Mamdani, Shahid Ahmed, Samantha Armstrong, Tony Mok, Shadia I Jalal
The therapeutic landscape of lung cancer has expanded significantly over the past decade. Advancements in molecularly targeted therapies, strategies to discover and treat resistance mutations, and development of personalized cancer treatments in the context of tumor heterogeneity and dynamic tumor biology have made it imperative to obtain tumor samples on several different occasions through the course of patient treatment. While this approach is critical to the delivery of optimal cancer treatment, it is fraught with a number of barriers including the need for invasive procedures with associated complications, access to limited amount of tissue, logistical delays in obtaining the biopsy, high healthcare cost, and in many cases inability to obtain tissue because of technically difficult location of the tumor...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216623/exosomal-microrna-mir-1246-promotes-cell-proliferation-invasion-and-drug-resistance-by-targeting-ccng2-in-breast-cancer
#6
Xiu Juan Li, Zhao Jun Ren, Jin Hai Tang, Qiao Yu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Treatment of breast cancer remains a clinical challenge. This study aims to validate exosomal microRNA-1246 (miR-1246) as a serum biomarker for breast cancer and understand the underlying mechanism in breast cancer progression. METHODS: The expression levels of endogenous and exosomal miRNAs were examined by real time PCR, and the expression level of the target protein was detected by western blot. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy were used to characterize exosomes and to study their uptake and transfer...
December 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212193/microrna-expression-profiling-in-exosomes-derived-from-gastric-cancer-stem-like-cells
#7
Zhan-Peng Sun, An-Qi Li, Wen-Huan Jia, Sen Ye, Grace Van Eps, Jian-Min Yu, Wei-Jun Yang
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have been identified as the initial cell in formation of cancer. Quiescent CSCs can "hide out" from traditional cancer therapy which may produce an initial response but are often unsuccessful in curing patients. Thus, levels of CSC in patients may be used as an indicator to measure the chance of recurrence of cancer after therapy. The goals of our work are to develop specific exosomal miRNA clusters for gastric CSCs that can potentially predict which patients are at high risk for developing gastric cancer (GC) in order to diagnose GC at an early stage...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209566/tumor-derived-exosomes-educate-dendritic-cells-to-promote-tumor-metastasis-via-hsp72-hsp105-tlr2-tlr4-pathway
#8
Yingying Shen, Danfeng Guo, Lixia Weng, Shoujie Wang, Zeyu Ma, Yunshan Yang, Pingli Wang, Jianli Wang, Zhijian Cai
How the tumor microenvironment educates dendritic cells (DCs) to promote tumorigenesis remains largely unknown, and the role of tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) in tumorigenesis is controversial. Here, we report that in addition to the activation of DCs, TEXs induce DCs to produce increased interleukin-6 (IL-6), which dramatically promotes tumor invasion by increasing signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent matrix metalloproteinases 9 transcription activity in tumor cells. HSP72 and HSP105 on the TEX surface induce IL-6 secretion of DCs in a TLR2- and TLR4-dependent manner...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198150/the-effect-of-tumor-derived-exosomes-on-immune-regulation-and-cancer-immunotherapy
#9
Theresa L Whiteside
Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) carry both immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory receptor/ligands that in part mimic the profiles of the parent tumor cells. Operating as an intercellular communication system, TEX deliver protumor or antitumor signals to immune and nonimmune cells reprogramming their functions. Mechanisms responsible for cellular reprogramming include cell surface signaling and/or uptake of TEX by recipient cells. Once internalized, TEX transfer mRNA, miRNA and proteins that promote transcriptional/translational activities...
December 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198089/-exosomes-as-mediators-of-intercellular-communication-the-cancer-and-telomerase-connection
#10
REVIEW
Orit Uziel, Anna Gutkin, Einat Beery, Meir Lahav
Exosomes, nano-vesicles secreted from all types of cells in the human body, function as inter-cell communicators. This role of exosomes is fulfilled by their specific content, dependent on the origin of donor cells from which they are secreted. Exosomes contain a plethora of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and micro RNA), proteins and lipids. These molecules are packed in the donor cells into the exosomes which are subsequently secreted and transferred through various body fluids into the target cells which may be located far from the donor cells...
November 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197582/label-free-quantitative-proteomic-profiling-of-colon-cancer-cells-identifies-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-alpha-as-antitumor-target-of-citrus-limon-derived-nanovesicles
#11
Stefania Raimondo, Laura Saieva, Marta Cristaldi, Francesca Monteleone, Simona Fontana, Riccardo Alessandro
We have previously isolated exosome-like nanoparticles from Citrus-limon juice, able to inhibit in vitro and in vivo tumor cell growth. In order to deeply understand the mechanism underlying nanovesicle effects, we performed a proteomic profile of treated colorectal cancer cells. Among the proteins differentially expressed after nanovesicle treatment, we found a significant downregulation of the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1 (ACACA) and we demonstrated that silencing ACACA in cancer cells leads to a reduction of cell growth...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197065/exosomes-from-heat-stressed-tumor-cells-inhibit-tumor-growth-by-converting-regulatory-t-cells-to-th17-cells-via-il-6
#12
Danfeng Guo, Yinghu Chen, Shoujie Wang, Lei Yu, Yingying Shen, Haijun Zhong, Yunshan Yang
Exosomes derived from heat-stressed tumor cells (HS-TEXs), which contain abundant heat shock protein (HSP) 70, strongly induce antitumor immune responses. HSP70-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) promotes IL-17 expression and causes rejection of established prostate tumors. However, it remains unclear whether HS-TEXs exhibit antitumor effects by converting regulatory T cells (Tregs) into Th17 cells. In this study, we found that compared with TEXs, HS-TEXs were more potent in stimulating secretion of IL-6 from dendritic cells...
December 2, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187456/analysis-of-the-mirna-profiles-of-melanoma-exosomes-derived-under-normoxic-and-hypoxic-culture-conditions
#13
Michal Wozniak, Lukasz Peczek, Liliana Czernek, Markus Düchler
BACKGROUND/AIM: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) transported in melanoma-derived exosomes function as intercellular messengers supporting tumor survival and progression. Hypoxia increases melanoma phenotypic plasticity, drug resistance, and metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined the miRNA profiles in exosomes derived from melanoma cells grown under hypoxic and normoxic conditions by microarray analyses and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in order to analyze the potential influence of vesicle-transported miRNAs on cancer-related pathways and transcriptional programs...
December 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185191/delivery-of-exogenous-mir-124-to-glioblastoma-multiform-cells-by-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-decreases-cell-proliferation-and-migration-and-confers-chemosensitivity
#14
S Sharif, M H Ghahremani, M Soleimani
MicroRNAs (miRs) are potential therapeutic targets in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), but the difficulties associated with their delivery to tumor target cells have hampered their widespread use. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can migrate to the sites of cancers, including GBM and exert anti-tumor effects. In this study, it is shown that Wharton's jelly-MSCs (WJ-MSCs) have the ability to deliver exogenous miRs to GBM cells and the functional impact of this delivery is characterized. It is found that the labeled miR-124, as an example for miR of interest, can be successfully delivered with WJ-MSCs to U87 GBM cells via dependent or exosome-independent processes...
November 28, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163790/a-combination-of-circulating-mirnas-for-the-early-detection-of-ovarian-cancer
#15
Akira Yokoi, Yusuke Yoshioka, Akihiro Hirakawa, Yusuke Yamamoto, Mitsuya Ishikawa, Shun-Ichi Ikeda, Tomoyasu Kato, Kaoru Niimi, Hiroaki Kajiyama, Fumitaka Kikkawa, Takahiro Ochiya
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer mortality, due to the difficulty of early detection. Current screening methods lack sufficient accuracy, and it is still challenging to propose a new early detection method that improves patient outcomes with less-invasiveness. Although many studies have suggested the utility of circulating microRNAs in cancer detection, their potential for early detection remains elusive. Here, we develop novel predictive models using a combination of 8 circulating serum miRNAs...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160412/exosomes-promote-cetuximab-resistance-via-the-pten-akt-pathway-in-colon-cancer-cells
#16
S Zhang, Y Zhang, J Qu, X Che, Y Fan, K Hou, T Guo, G Deng, N Song, C Li, X Wan, X Qu, Y Liu
Cetuximab is widely used in patients with metastatic colon cancer expressing wildtype KRAS. However, acquired drug resistance limits its clinical efficacy. Exosomes are nanosized vesicles secreted by various cell types. Tumor cell-derived exosomes participate in many biological processes, including tumor invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. In this study, exosomes derived from cetuximab-resistant RKO colon cancer cells induced cetuximab resistance in cetuximab-sensitive Caco-2 cells. Meanwhile, exosomes from RKO and Caco-2 cells showed different levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and phosphor-Akt...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156694/pdac-derived-exosomes-enrich-the-microenvironment-in-mdscs-in-a-smad4-dependent-manner-through-a-new-calcium-related-axis
#17
Daniela Basso, Elisa Gnatta, Andrea Padoan, Paola Fogar, Sara Furlanello, Ada Aita, Dania Bozzato, Carlo-Federico Zambon, Giorgio Arrigoni, Chiara Frasson, Cinzia Franchin, Stefania Moz, Thomas Brefort, Thomas Laufer, Filippo Navaglia, Sergio Pedrazzoli, Giuseppe Basso, Mario Plebani
Tumor genetics and escape from immune surveillance concur in the poor prognosis of PDAC. In this study an experimental model was set up to verify whether SMAD4, deleted in about 55% PDAC and associated with poor prognosis, is involved in determining immunosuppression through Exosomes (Exo). Potential mechanisms and mediators underlying SMAD4-dependent immunosuppression were evaluated by studying intracellular calcium (Fluo-4), Exo-miRNAs (microarray) and Exo-proteins (SILAC). Two PDAC cell lines expressing (BxPC3-SMAD4+) or not-expressing (BxPC3) SMAD4 were used to prepare Exo-enriched conditioned media, employed in experiments with blood donors PBMCs...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156509/the-role-of-exosomes-on-colorectal-cancer-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Lidia Ruiz-López, Isabel Blancas, José M Garrido, Nuria Mut-Salud, Marta Moya-Jódar, Antonio Osuna, Fernando Rodríguez-Serrano
Exosomes are extracellular microvesicles released from cells, which are involved in many biological and pathological processes, mainly due to their role in intercellular communication. Exosomes derived from colorectal cancer (CRC) cells are related to oncogenesis, tumor cell survival, chemo-resistance and metastasis. The role of the exosomes in these processes involves the transfer of proteins, RNAs or mutant versions of proto-oncogenes to the target cells. In recent years, great efforts have been made to identify useful biomarkers in CRC exosomes for diagnosis, prediction of prognosis and treatment response...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151977/pfkfb3-promotes-proliferation-migration-and-angiogenesis-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#19
Miao Gu, Li Li, Zhenxin Zhang, Jing Chen, Wei Zhang, Jie Zhang, Liang Han, Mingming Tang, Bo You, Qicheng Zhang, Yiwen You
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a squamous epithelial cancer, arising from the nasopharynx epithelium. It has high morbidity and mortality. PFKFB3 as a glycolytic activator has been implicated in the progression of multiple types of tumor. PFKFB3 can be contributed to the progression and metastasis of cancer. However, whether PFKFB3 is associated with the progression of NPC remains unknown. We postulated that PFKFB3 promotes proliferation, migration and angiogenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In this study, we found that PFKFB3 was significantly up-regulated in NPC tissues and cell lines compared with normal control...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145073/target-induced-proximity-ligation-triggers-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-and-transcription-mediated-amplification-to-detect-tumor-derived%C3%A2-exosomes-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-with-high-sensitivity
#20
Wanli Liu, Jianpei Li, Yixian Wu, Shan Xing, Yanzhen Lai, Ge Zhang
Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) are extracellular vesicles that are continuously released into the blood by tumor cells and carry specific surface markers of the original tumor cells. Substantial evidence has implicated TEXs as attractive diagnostic markers for cancer. However, the detection of TEXs in blood at an early tumor stage is challenging due to their very low concentration. Here, we established a method called PLA-RPA-TMA assay that allows TEXs to be detected with high sensitivity and specificity. Based on two proximity ligation assay (PLA) probes that recognize a biomarker on a TEX, we generated a unique surrogate DNA signal for the specific biomarker, which was synchronously amplified twice by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) coupled with transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), and then the products of the RPA-TMA reaction were quantitatively detected using a gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric assay...
November 9, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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