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Tumor-derived exosomes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691234/drug-induced-senescent-multiple-myeloma-cells-elicit-nk-cell-proliferation-by-direct-or-exosome-mediated-il-15-trans-presentation
#1
Cristiana Borrelli, Biancamaria Ricci, Elisabetta Vulpis, Cinzia Fionda, Maria Rosaria Ricciardi, Maria Teresa Petrucci, Laura Masuelli, Agnese Peri, Marco Cippitelli, Alessandra Zingoni, Angela Santoni, Alessandra Soriani
Treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) cells with sub-lethal doses of genotoxic drugs leads to senescence and results in increased NK cell recognition and effector functions. Herein we demonstrated that doxorubicin- and melphalan-treated senescent cells display increased expression of IL15, a cytokine involved in NK cell activation, proliferation, and maturation. IL15 up-regulation was evident at the mRNA and protein level, both in MM cell lines and malignant plasma cells (PCs) from patients' bone marrow (BM) aspirates...
April 24, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686713/human-umbilical-cord-msc-derived-exosomes-suppress-the-development-of-ccl-4-induced-liver-injury-through-antioxidant-effect
#2
Wenqian Jiang, Youwen Tan, Mengjie Cai, Ting Zhao, Fei Mao, Xu Zhang, Wenrong Xu, Zhixin Yan, Hui Qian, Yongmin Yan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been increasingly applied into clinical therapy. Exosomes are small (30-100 nm in diameter) membrane vesicles released by different cell types and possess the similar functions with their derived cells. Human umbilical cord MSC-derived exosomes (hucMSC-Ex) play important roles in liver repair. However, the effects and mechanisms of hucMSC-Ex on liver injury development remain elusive. Mouse models of acute and chronic liver injury and liver tumor were induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) injection, followed by administration of hucMSC-Ex via the tail vein...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685921/role-of-exosomes-as-a-proinflammatory-mediator-in-the-development-of-ebv-associated-lymphoma
#3
Hiroshi Higuchi, Natsuko Yamakawa, Ken-Ichi Imadome, Takashi Yahata, Ryutaro Kotaki, Jun Ogata, Masatoshi Kakizaki, Koji Fujita, Jun Lu, Kazuaki Yokoyama, Kazuki Okuyama, Ai Sato, Masako Takamatsu, Natsumi Kurosaki, Syakira Mohamad Alba, Azran Azhim, Ryouichi Horie, Toshiki Watanabe, Toshio Kitamura, Kiyoshi Ando, Takao Kashiwagi, Toshimitsu Matsui, Akinao Okamoto, Hiroshi Handa, Masahiko Kuroda, Naoya Nakamura, Ai Kotani
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes various diseases in the elderly including B-cell lymphoma such as Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here, we show that EBV acts in trans on non-infected macrophages in the tumor through exosome secretion and augments the development of lymphomas. In a humanized mouse model, the different formation of lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) between two EBV strains (Akata and B95-8) was evident. Furthermore, injection of Akata derived exosomes affected LPD severity possibly through the regulation of macrophage phenotype in vivo...
April 22, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683453/a-blood-based-test-for-the-detection-of-ros1-and-ret-fusion-transcripts-from-circulating-ribonucleic-acid-using-digital-polymerase-chain-reaction
#4
Hestia S Mellert, Kristin E Alexander, Leisa P Jackson, Gary A Pestano
We have developed novel methods for the isolation and characterization of tumor-derived circulating ribonucleic acid (cRNA) for blood-based liquid biopsy. Robust detection of cRNA recovered from blood represents a solution to a critical unmet need in clinical diagnostics. The test begins with the collection of whole blood into blood collection tubes containing preservatives that stabilize cRNA. Cell-free, exosomal, and platelet-associated RNA is isolated from plasma in this test system. The cRNA is reverse transcribed to complementary DNA (cDNA) and amplified using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR)...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681222/exosome-function-and-role-in-cancer-metastasis-and-drug-resistance
#5
Chengcheng Zhang, Qing Ji, Yue Yang, Qi Li, Zhongqi Wang
As a kind of nanometric lipidic vesicles, exosomes have been presumed to play a leading role in the regulation of tumor microenvironment through exosomes-mediated transfer of proteins and genetic materials. Tumor-derived exosomes are recognized as a critical determinant of the tumor progression. Intriguingly, some current observations have identified that exosomes are essential for several intercellular exchanges of proteins, messenger RNAs, noncoding RNAs (including long noncoding RNAs and microRNAs) as well as to the process of cancer metastasis and drug resistance...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679665/comparison-of-exosomes-and-ferritin-protein-nanocages-for-the-delivery-of-membrane-protein-therapeutics
#6
Eunji Cho, Gi-Hoon Nam, Yeonsun Hong, Yoon Kyoung Kim, Dong-Hwee Kim, Yoosoo Yang, In-San Kim
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted by most cell types that play an important role in intercellular communication. Due to the characteristic of transferring their biomacromolecules, exosomes have potential as a new alternative for delivering protein therapeutics. Here, we investigate whether exosomes provide crucial advantages over other nanoparticles, in particular protein nanocage formulations, as a delivery system for membrane protein therapeutics. We characterized membrane-scaffold-based exosomes and protein-scaffold-based ferritin nanocages, both harboring SIRPα (signal regulatory protein α), an antagonist of CD47 on tumor cells...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678180/emerging-role-of-exosome-derived-long-non-coding-rnas-in-tumor-microenvironment
#7
REVIEW
Zhenqiang Sun, Shuaixi Yang, Quanbo Zhou, Guixian Wang, Junmin Song, Zhen Li, Zhiyong Zhang, Jizhong Xu, Kunkun Xia, Yuan Chang, Jinbo Liu, Weitang Yuan
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released by many cell types and have been attributed for their roles in many diseases including cancer. Exosomes secreted by tumor cells and stromal cells are critical mediators of intercellular communication in tumor microenvironments. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are selectively sorted into exosomes and can regulate cancer onset and progression in a variety of ways. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of exosomal lncRNAs and their dysregulation in multiple types of cancer...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676587/a-potential-role-for-exosomal-tctp-export-in-vascular-remodeling-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#8
Elisabet Ferrer, Benjamin J Dunmore, Dhiya Hassan, Mark L Ormiston, Stephen Moore, John Deighton, Lu Long, Xu Dong Yang, Duncan J Stewart, Nicholas W Morrell
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of pulmonary vascular cells. Increased expression of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), a pro-survival and anti-apoptotic mediator, has recently been demonstrated in patients with hereditary PAH (HPAH) although its role in the pathobiology of PAH remains unclear. Silencing of TCTP in blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) isolated from control subjects led to significant changes in morphology, cytoskeletal organization, increased apoptosis and decreased directionality during migration...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674765/clinical-and-functional-significance-of-intracellular-and-extracellular-microrna-25-3p-in-osteosarcoma
#9
Aki Yoshida, Tomohiro Fujiwara, Koji Uotani, Takuya Morita, Masahiro Kiyono, Suguru Yokoo, Joe Hasei, Eiji Nakata, Toshiyuki Kunisada, Toshifumi Ozaki
Although there is considerable evidence indicating that the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) in malignant tumors plays a role in tumor development, the overall function of miRNAs and their clinicopathological significance are not well understood. In this retrospective analysis of 45 biopsy specimens from osteosarcoma (OS) patients, we investigated the functional and clinical significance of miR-25-3p in OS, which we previously identified as a highly expressed miRNA in OS patients' serum. We observed that miR-25-3p dysregulation in human OS tissues was negatively correlated with the clinical prognosis, whereas the expression level of its target gene, Dickkopf WNT Signaling Pathway Inhibitor 3 (DKK3), was positively correlated with the clinical prognosis...
April 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672851/human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-protection-by-melatonin
#10
REVIEW
Keywan Mortezaee
Despite great scientific breakthroughs toward understanding the identity of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mechanistically, there are still no clinically efficient therapeutic methods for this cancer. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a multi-tasking hormone that has long been known for its anti-cancer activity against various human cancers including HCC, which is a focus of this review. PubMed database was searched for relevant articles with the keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), melatonin, apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, autophagy, oxidative stress, tumor immunity, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) focusing on just human cell lines and English language articles...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668670/exosomes-released-by-gastric-cancer-cells-induce-transition-of-pericytes-into-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#11
Xiaofei Ning, Hongran Zhang, Cong Wang, Xiuqi Song
BACKGROUND Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are functionally and structurally essential for tumor progression. There are 3 main origins of CAFs: mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transition cells, and tissue-resident cells. Pericytes retain characteristics of progenitor cells and can differentiate into other cells under normal physiological conditions and into myofibroblasts under pathological conditions. Exosomes play an important role in intercellular communication by transferring membrane components and nucleic acids between different cells...
April 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652798/the-double-face-of-exosome-carried-micrornas-in-cancer-immunomodulation
#12
REVIEW
Romina Alfonsi, Ludovica Grassi, Michele Signore, Désirée Bonci
In recent years many articles have underlined the key role of nanovesicles, i.e., exosomes, as information carriers among biological systems including cancer. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) are key players in the dynamic crosstalk between cancer cells and the microenvironment while promote immune system control evasion. In fact, tumors are undoubtedly capable of silencing the immune response through multiple mechanisms, including the release of exosomes. TEXs have been shown to boost tumor growth and promote progression and metastatic spreading via suppression or stimulation of the immune response towards cancer cells...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643475/tumor-derived-exosomal-lnc-sox2ot-promotes-emt-and-stemness-by-acting-as-a-cerna-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#13
Zhonghu Li, Peng Jiang, Jie Li, Minjie Peng, Xin Zhao, Xi Zhang, Kai Chen, Yujun Zhang, Hui Liu, Lang Gan, Huaqiang Bi, Ping Zhen, Jin Zhu, Xiaowu Li
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) or exosomes have recently been shown to play vital regulatory or communication roles in cancer biology. However, the roles and mechanisms of exosomal lncRNAs in tumor invasion or metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the detailed roles and mechanisms of tumor-generated exosomes in progression and metastasis of PDAC in vitro and in vivo. We identified a lncRNA-Sox2ot from exosomes of highly invasive PDAC cells, and analyzed the expression of Sox2ot in the plasma samples and found that the plasma exosomal Sox2ot expression was high and correlated with TNM stage and overall survival rate of PDAC patients...
April 12, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642618/the-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-bone-metastasis
#14
REVIEW
Michela Rossi, Giulia Battafarano, Matteo D'Agostini, Andrea Del Fattore
Multiple types of cancer have the specific ability to home to the bone microenvironment and cause metastatic lesions. Despite being the focus of intense investigation, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the metastasis of disseminated tumor cells still remain largely unknown. Bone metastases severely impact quality of life since they are associated with pain, fractures, and bone marrow aplasia. In this review, we will summarize the recent discoveries on the role of extracellular vesicles (EV) in the regulation of bone remodeling activity and bone metastasis occurrence...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628792/the-emerging-role-of-plasma-exosomes-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-therapies-of-patients-with-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Theresa L Whiteside
Exosomes, small (30-150nm) extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin, are present in all body fluids of cancer patients. Tumor-derived exosomes, TEX, emerge as potentially promising non-invasive biomarkers of tumor progression and of immune cell dysfunction in cancer. Exosomes isolated from plasma by size exclusion chromatography can be fractionated into TEX and non-TEX by immune capture on beads. Profiling of molecular and genetic contents of TEX shows that levels if immunosuppressive proteins, such as PD-L1, carried by TEX associate with disease progression...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627574/exosomes-secreted-by-placental-stem-cells-selectively-inhibit-growth-of-aggressive-prostate-cancer-cells
#16
Taylor C Peak, Prakash Praharaj, Gati K Panigrahi, Michael Doyle, Yixin Su, Isabel R Schlaepfer, Ravi Singh, Donald J Vander Griend, Julie Alickson, Ashok Hemal, Anthony Atala, Gagan Deep
The current paradigm in the development of new cancer therapies is the ability to target tumor cells while avoiding harm to noncancerous cells. Furthermore, there is a need to develop novel therapeutic options against drug-resistant cancer cells. Herein, we characterized the placental-derived stem cell (PLSC) exosomes (PLSCExo ) and evaluated their anti-cancer efficacy in prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines. Nanoparticle tracking analyses revealed the size distribution (average size 131.4 ± 0.9 nm) and concentration of exosomes (5...
April 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626470/exosomal-mir-675-from-metastatic-osteosarcoma-promotes-cell-migration-and-invasion-by-targeting-caln1
#17
Liangzhi Gong, Qiyuan Bao, Chuanzhen Hu, Jun Wang, Qi Zhou, Li Wei, Lei Tong, Weibin Zhang, Yuhui Shen
Exosomal microRNAs(miRNAs) transfer from tumor to stromal cells is reportedly associated with cancer progression and metastasis in various epithelial cancers. However, the role of exosomal miRNA in the metastasis of osteosarcoma(OS) -the most common bone malignancy-still largely remains unknown. In this study, we purified exosomes with a median size close to 100 nm from cell culture media as well as patient serum, and proved that exosomes derived from the metastatic, but not the non-metastatic OS cells increase the migration and invasion of non-malignant fibroblast cells (hFOB1...
April 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616188/the-origin-and-functions-of-exosomes-in-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Chitra Rajagopal, K B Harikumar
Exosomes are nanovesicles having a maximum size of 150 nm and is a newly emerging focus in various fields of research. Its role in cargo trafficking along with its differential expression is associated with the disrupted homeostasis and provides an opportunity to defend against different diseases like cancer. Furthermore, exosomes are rich in cargos, which contain proteins and nucleic acids that directly reflect the metabolic state of the cells from which it originates. This review summarizes recent studies on tumor-derived exosomes with an overview about biogenesis, their functions and potential of using as diagnostic and prognostic markers...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614830/role-of-stromal-paracrine-signals-in-proliferative-diseases-of-the-aging-human-prostate
#19
REVIEW
Kenichiro Ishii, Sanai Takahashi, Yoshiki Sugimura, Masatoshi Watanabe
Androgens are essential for the development, differentiation, growth, and function of the prostate through epithelial-stromal interactions. However, androgen concentrations in the hypertrophic human prostate decrease significantly with age, suggesting an inverse correlation between androgen levels and proliferative diseases of the aging prostate. In elderly males, age- and/or androgen-related stromal remodeling is spontaneously induced, i.e., increased fibroblast and myofibroblast numbers, but decreased smooth muscle cell numbers in the prostatic stroma...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614511/tumor-derived-exosomal-long-noncoding-rnas-as-promising-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-prostate-cancer
#20
Yu-Hui Wang, Jia Ji, Bi-Cheng Wang, Hao Chen, Zhong-Hua Yang, Kun Wang, Chang-Liang Luo, Wu-Wen Zhang, Fu-Bing Wang, Xiao-Lian Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Exosomal circulating long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in blood are emerging as clinically useful and non-invasive biomarkers for tumor diagnosis. However, normal cells can also secrete exosomes, so it is a prerequisite to obtain tumor-derived exosomes for better understanding of their diagnostic impacts in cancer. In this study, a dual-antibody-functionalized immunoaffinity system was established to isolate exosomes and investigate their lncRNAs expression pattern and clinical significance in prostate cancer (PCa)...
March 26, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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