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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142953/absence-of-hiv-associated-nephropathy-among-antiretroviral-naive-adults-with-persistent-albuminuria-in-western-kenya
#1
M K Koech, M O G Owiti, W D Owino-Ong'or, A K Koskei, M J Karoney, V D D'Agati, C M Wyatt
Introduction: HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) has been strongly linked to African ancestry. However, studies have demonstrated wide variability in the prevalence of HIVAN in different sub-Saharan African populations. Accurate assessment of the disease burden is important because antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasingly available and may prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Methods: We prospectively screened ART-naïve, afebrile, nonhypertensive, and nondiabetic adults attending a large HIV care program in Western Kenya for the presence of albuminuria (dipstick albumin ≥ trace or urine albumin to creatinine ratio [UACR] ≥ 30 mg/g)...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110758/apol1-renal-risk-variants-fertile-soil-for-hiv-associated-nephropathy
#2
REVIEW
Jeffrey B Kopp, Jurgen Heymann, Cheryl A Winkler
Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variants are potent risk factors for glomerular disease, but one or more additional factors are required for expression of glomerular disease. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the most potent susceptibility factor for APOL1 nephropathy that has been identified to date. APOL1 variants are associated with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), a podocyte disease, but not with HIV-immune complex disease, primarily a disease of the mesangium...
November 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021661/successful-renal-transplant-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-hiv-associated-nephropathy
#3
Anshuman Sood, David Hakim, Abhishek Bose
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a pathological state of the kidneys due to longstanding, uncontrolled HIV infection. With the rapid progression of HIVAN to end-stage kidney failure, there is a significant potential for renal transplantation to improve the quality of life in these patients. Numerous studies have been recently published documenting renal transplantation as a primary treatment for HIVAN. With the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, allograft and patient survival rates of HIV-infected persons are nearly identical to those who are HIV negative...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868299/tubuloreticular-inclusions-in-the-absence-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-hiv-infection-a-report-of-three-pediatric-cases
#4
Ayah Elmaghrabi, Elizabeth Brown, Ei Khin, Jared Hassler, Allen R Hendricks
Tubuloreticular inclusions (TRIs) are subcellular structures located within the cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum. Formation of TRIs has been linked to the exposure of excess interferon (IFN), either from endogenous or exogenous sources. In renal disease, TRIs have been most commonly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Case reports of patients with renal biopsies showing TRIs without underlying SLE or HIV are infrequent in adults, and to our knowledge none have been reported in children...
May 2017: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578979/hiv-associated-kidney-diseases-clarifying-concordance-between-renal-failure-in-hiv-infection-and-histopathologic-manifestations-at-kidney-biopsy
#5
REVIEW
Carla L Ellis
Patients with HIV infection have a wide spectrum of renal diseases. Some are known to be the direct effect of the viral infection while others are renal diseases that also occur in uninfected populations. HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is considered to be a subtype of primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis that is distinct in HIV infected patients. It is more frequent in the African-American population and associated with mutations of the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene. HIV associated immune complex kidney disease (HIVICD) encompasses a spectrum of HIV associated renal diseases characterized by the presence of immune complex deposition within glomeruli...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217815/hiv-and-kidney-a-dangerous-liaison
#6
REVIEW
Alessia Bertoldi, Elisa De Crignis, Anna Miserocchi, Isabella Bon, Giuseppina Musumeci, Serena Longo, Vanessa D'Urbano, Gaetano La Manna, Leonardo Calza, Maria Carla Re
Kidney disease represents an important health concern among HIV-infected individuals, with an estimated prevalence ranging between 2.4 and 17%. The widespread use of antiretroviral drugs has changed the epidemiology of kidney disease in the HIV positive population, drastically reducing the percentage of patients affected by HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), a complication characterized by apoptosis and de-differentiation of renal epithelial cells and podocytes. However, impaired kidney function remains an important issue among HIV-infected patients because of their long-term exposure to antiretroviral drugs and the growing burden of traditional risk factors associated with chronic renal disease...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159470/hedgehog-pathway-plays-a-vital-role-in-hiv-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-podocyte
#7
Xiqian Lan, Hongxiu Wen, Kang Cheng, Andrei Plagov, Seyedeh Shadafarin Marashi Shoshtari, Ashwani Malhotra, Pravin C Singhal
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is characterized by heavy proteinuria, rapidly progressive renal failure, and distinct morphological features in the kidney. HIV-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critically important for the progression of kidney injury. In this study, we tested the role of hedgehog pathway in the HIV-induced EMT and fibrosis of kidney. We used the Tg26 mice, the abundantly used HIVAN mouse model, to investigate the activation of hedgehog pathway by HIV. Western blotting and real time PCR results showed that renal tissue expression of hedgehog pathway related molecules, including hedgehog homologous (Shh, Ihh, Dhh), PTCH, and Gli1, were increased in HIVAN (Tg26) mice; while immunofluorescent staining displayed localization PTCH expression in podocytes...
March 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811066/transmembrane-tnf-%C3%AE-facilitates-hiv-1-infection-of-podocytes-cultured-from-children-with-hiv-associated-nephropathy
#8
Jinliang Li, Jharna R Das, Pingtao Tang, Zhe Han, Jyoti K Jaiswal, Patricio E Ray
Studies have shown that podocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells from patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) express HIV-1 transcripts, suggesting that productive infection of renal epithelial cells precipitates development of HIVAN. However, podocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells do not express CD4 receptors, and it is unclear how these cells become productively infected in vivo We investigated the mechanisms underlying the infection by HIV-1 of podocytes cultured from the urine of children with HIVAN...
March 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736906/refinement-of-the-hivan1-susceptibility-locus-on-chr-3a1-a3-via-generation-of-sub-congenic-strains
#9
Natalia Papeta, Ami Patel, Vivette D D'Agati, Ali G Gharavi
HIV-1 transgenic mice on the FVB/NJ background (TgFVB) represent a validated model of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). A major susceptibility locus, HIVAN1, was previously mapped to chromosome 3A1-A3 in a cross between TgFVB and CAST/EiJ (CAST) strains, and introgression of a 51.9 Mb segment encompassing HIVAN1 from CAST into TgFVB resulted in accelerated development of nephropathy. We generated three sub-congenic strains carrying CAST alleles in the proximal or distal regions of the HIVAN1 locus (Sub-II, 3...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695357/update-on-current-management-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-patients-with-hiv-infection
#10
REVIEW
Nina E Diana, Saraladevi Naicker
The prevalence of HIV-associated chronic kidney disease (CKD) varies geographically and depends on the definition of CKD used, ranging from 4.7% to 38% globally. The incidence, however, has decreased with the use of effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). A wide variety of histological patterns are seen in HIV-associated kidney diseases that include glomerular and tubulointerstitial pathology. In resource-rich settings, there has been a plateau in the incidence of end-stage renal disease secondary to HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN)...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621665/interstitial-nephritis-caused-by-hiv-infection-by-itself-a-case-report
#11
Asako Doi, Kentaro Iwata, Shigeo Hara, Yukihiro Imai, Toshikazu Hasuike, Hiroaki Nishioka
Interstitial nephritis is a common cause of renal dysfunction. It is primarily caused by drugs, infections, or autoimmune disorders. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can develop interstitial nephritis, although it typically occurs because of the aforementioned etiologies and not as a direct consequence of HIV infection. Interstitial lesions may occur in patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). However, interstitial nephritis without the glomerular injuries characteristic of HIVAN, and without the risk factors described earlier, is very rare...
2016: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599995/impact-of-apol1-polymorphism-and-il-1%C3%AE-priming-in-the-entry-and-persistence-of-hiv-1-in-human-podocytes
#12
Joanna Mikulak, Ferdinando Oriolo, Federica Portale, Paolo Tentorio, Xiqian Lan, Moin A Saleem, Karl Skorecki, Pravin C Singhal, Domenico Mavilio
BACKGROUND: Patients of African ancestry with untreated HIV-1 infection and carrying the G1 or G2 kidney disease risk variants (Vs) at the APOL1 gene have a tenfold higher risk of developing HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) compared to those with the non-risk wild type (WT) G0 variant. However, the mechanistic contribution of the APOL1 allelic state to kidney injury in HIV-1 infection remains to be elucidated. RESULTS: Non-risk WT APOL1 is associated with lower intracellular levels of HIV-1 in conditionally immortalized human podocytes, while the over expression of G1 or G2 risk Vs significantly increases viral accumulation...
September 6, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477363/ajkd-atlas-of-renal-pathology-hiv-associated-nephropathy%C3%A2-hivan
#13
Agnes B Fogo, Mark A Lusco, Behzad Najafian, Charles E Alpers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469157/hiv-associated-renal-disease-an-overview
#14
Nicola Wearne, Ikechi G Okpechi
The cause of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in South Africa (SA) was worsened by the denial by key political players that HIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). South Africa continues to have the highest rate of HIV world-wide, which has had a huge impact on the development of both chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury. Fortunately, there is now an effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) roll-out program. SA is also dealing with a collision of epidemics of HIV, tuberculosis, and non-communicable disease, particularly hypertension and diabetes...
2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163710/hiv-infection-induced-transcriptional-program-in-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-activates-a-cxcr2-driven-cd4-t-cell-chemotactic-response
#15
Ping Chen, Zhengzi Yi, Weijia Zhang, Mary E Klotman, Benjamin K Chen
OBJECTIVE: Viral replication and interstitial inflammation play important roles in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated nephropathy. Cell-cell interactions between renal tubule epithelial cells (RTECs) and HIV-infected T cells can trigger efficient virus internalization and viral gene expression by RTEC. To understand how HIV replication initiates HIV-associated nephropathy, we studied the cellular response of RTECs to HIV, examining the transcriptional profiles of primary RTECs exposed to cell-free HIV or HIV-infected T cells...
July 31, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097894/the-podocyte-as-a-direct-target-for-treatment-of-glomerular-disease
#16
REVIEW
Sandeep K Mallipattu, John C He
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates more than 10% of adults in the United States, over 20 million Americans, have chronic kidney disease (CKD). A failure to maintain the glomerular filtration barrier directly contributes to the onset of CKD. The visceral epithelial cells, podocytes, are integral to the maintenance of this renal filtration barrier. Direct podocyte injury contributes to the onset and progression of glomerular diseases such as minimal change disease (MCD), focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS), diabetic nephropathy, and HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN)...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27007656/multiple-facets-of-hiv-associated-renal-disease
#17
D R da Silva, I C Gluz, J Kurz, G G Thomé, R Zancan, R N Bringhenti, P G Schaefer, M Dos Santos, E J G Barros, F V Veronese
HIV infection has a broad spectrum of renal manifestations. This study examined the clinical and histological manifestations of HIV-associated renal disease, and predictors of renal outcomes. Sixty-one (64% male, mean age 45 years) HIV patients were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical presentation and renal histopathology were assessed, as well as CD4 T-cell count and viral load. The predictive value of histological lesion, baseline CD4 cell count and viral load for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death were determined using the Cox regression model...
2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26786550/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-hiv-associated-immune-complex-kidney-disease
#18
John W Booth, Lisa Hamzah, Sophie Jose, Catherine Horsfield, Patrick O'Donnell, Stephen McAdoo, Emil A Kumar, Tabitha Turner-Stokes, Nadia Khatib, Partha Das, Claire Naftalin, Nicola Mackie, Ed Kingdon, Debbie Williams, Bruce M Hendry, Caroline Sabin, Rachael Jones, Jeremy Levy, Rachel Hilton, John Connolly, Frank A Post
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis and natural history of HIV-associated immune complex kidney disease (HIVICK) is not well understood. Key questions remain unanswered, including the role of HIV infection and replication in disease development and the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the prevention and treatment of disease. METHODS: In this multicentre study, we describe the renal pathology of HIVICK and compare the clinical characteristics of patients with HIVICK with those with IgA nephropathy and HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN)...
December 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26175146/trends-in-the-outcomes-of-end-stage-renal-disease-secondary-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-nephropathy
#19
Sarah Razzak Chaudhary, Biruh T Workeneh, Maria E Montez-Rath, Andrew R Zolopa, Paul E Klotman, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the trends in the incidence and outcomes of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) attributed to human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). We sought to define relative incidence among ESRD patients, changes in mortality among patients with ESRD attributed to HIVAN, as well as changes in the excess mortality experienced by patients with ESRD attributed to HIVAN compared with otherwise similar ESRD patients with non-HIVAN causes...
October 2015: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26161174/prevalence-of-persistent-microalbuminuria-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-infected-children-attending-a-tertiary-hospital-in-northern-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-analytical-study
#20
Ignatus Kissima Mosten, Bernadus Carolus Hamel, Grace Damas Kinabo
INTRODUCTION: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a significant cause of paediatric morbidity and mortality especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. It affects the kidney by injuring the glomerular and tubular epithelial cells causing leakage of albumin in urine. Microalbuminuria is known to be an early indicator of kidney injury including HIVAN. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with microalbuminuria among HIV infected children receiving care and treatment at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC)...
2015: Pan African Medical Journal
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