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Acute tubular necrosis

Nancy Kim, Roxanna Juarez, Angela D Levy
In patients with end-stage renal disease, the treatment of choice for most patients is renal transplantation. Complications that occur after kidney transplant can be broadly divided into vascular and non-vascular categories. Non-vascular complications can further be divided into surgical and medical categories. When evaluating renal transplant imaging, it is helpful to consider the occurrence of complications in a timeline from time of surgery. Ultrasound is often the first modality used for evaluation of renal transplants particularly in the early postoperative period...
March 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Ahmed I Akl, Hussein A Sheashaa, Mona Abdel Rahim, Muhammed A El Hadedy, Ayman F Refaie
Transplant is the optimal therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease. Acute cellular rejection refractory to treatment remains a major risk factor for graft loss and poor outcomes. In this study, we describe a 39-year-old man who received a living-related kidney transplant. Two days after transplant, the patient displayed acute deterioration of graft function. Conventional anti-rejection therapy was initiated, but graft function did not improve. Biopsy revealed acute cellular rejection (grade IIA), and C4d and HLA antibodies were negative...
March 9, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Wei Fang, Ziying Wang, Quanxin Li, Xiaojie Wang, Yan Zhang, Yu Sun, Wei Tang, Chunhong Ma, Jinpeng Sun, Ningjun Li, Fan Yi
Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) participate in a variety of physiologic functions, and several GPCRs have critical physiologic and pathophysiologic roles in the regulation of renal function. We investigated the role of Gpr97, a newly identified member of the adhesion GPCR family, in AKI. Methods AKI was induced by ischemia-reperfusion or cisplatin treatment in Gpr97-deficient mice. We assessed renal injury in these models and in patients with acute tubular necrosis by histologic examination, and we conducted microarray analysis and in vitro assays to determine the molecular mechanisms of Gpr97 function...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Akash Deep, Romit Saxena, Bipin Jose
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common accompaniment in patients with liver disease. The causes, risk factors, manifestations and management of AKI in these patients vary according to the liver disease in question (acute liver failure, acute-on-chronic liver failure, post-liver transplantation or metabolic liver disease). There are multiple causes of AKI in patients with liver disease-pre-renal, acute tubular necrosis, post-renal, drug-induced renal failure and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Definitions of AKI in liver failure are periodically revised and updated, but pediatric definitions have still to see the light of the day...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Charles R P George
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Bin Xiong, Min Li, Shulin Xiang, Lin Han
PURPOSE: A1 adenosine receptor (AR) activation has been demonstrated to attenuate renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), but the exact mechanism of this protection remains to be well elucidated. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were used in the present study. Expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 27 and HSF-1 were detected using western blot analysis. An RNA interference with adenovirus vector using short hairpin RNA targeting HSP27 was developed. Together with renal IRI model, indicators of renal function, acute tubular necrosis, inflammation and apoptosis were measured in kidneys after 24-h reperfusion...
February 26, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
C Ishii, Y Ikenaka, O Ichii, S M M Nakayama, S-I Nishimura, T Ohashi, M Tanaka, H Mizukawa, M Ishizuka
Avian species have a unique renal structure and abundant blood flow into the kidneys. Although many birds die due to nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals, there are no early biomarkers for renal lesions. Uric acid level in blood, which is generally used as a renal biomarker, is altered when the kidney function is damaged by over 70%. Therefore, early biomarkers for kidney injury in birds are needed. In humans, glycomics has been at the forefront of biological and medical sciences, and glycans are used as biomarkers of diseases, such as carcinoma...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Elizabeth Fox, Kristin Levin, Yan Zhu, Blair Segers, Naomi Balamuth, Richard Womer, Rochelle Bagatell, Frank Balis
LESSONS LEARNED: Using a randomized crossover design and continuous variables such as change in hearing threshold and biomarkers of acute renal injury as short-term endpoints, it was determined that pantoprazole, an organic cation transporter 2 inhibitor, did not ameliorate cisplatin-associated nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity.Cystatin C is a robust method to estimate glomerular filtration rate in patients with cancer. Using a patient-reported outcome survey, all patients identified tinnitus and subjective hearing loss occurring "at least rarely" after cycle 1, prior to objective high-frequency hearing loss measured by audiograms...
February 14, 2018: Oncologist
S Benjamens, S P Berger, A W J M Glaudemans, J S F Sanders, R A Pol, R H J A Slart
BACKGROUND: Clinicians use several diagnostic modalities to recognize post-transplant complications, such as acute tubular necrosis, acute rejection, urologic and vascular complications. Currently, there is no consensus about the best procedural approach to evaluate post-transplant renal dysfunction. Renal needle-biopsy is often required, however, this is invasive and may lead to sample errors and complications, and most clinicians prefer using one of the noninvasive diagnostic modalities...
December 29, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
Daniel Olvera-Posada, Shouzhe Lin, Ghaleb Aboalsamh, Aaron Haig, Ian Lobb, Jaskirandeep Grewal, Manujendra N Saha, Alp Sener
INTRODUCTION: We sought to design a partial nephrectomy (PN) with contralateral total nephrectomy porcine model and assess the underlying mechanisms of ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) after PN using a novel, clinically approved resection device. METHODS: Domestic male pigs (n=9) underwent left lower pole PN, allocated to either standard (Group 1) or no ischemia PN (Group 2), followed by contralateral nephrectomy. Biochemical studies were performed at baseline, Day 2, and Day 7; after sacrifice, kidneys were processed for histological analysis...
October 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Wenjing Liu, Binbin Chen, Yang Wang, Chenling Meng, Huihui Huang, Xiao-Ru Huang, Jinzhong Qin, Shrikant R Mulay, Hans-Joachim Anders, Andong Qiu, Baoxue Yang, Gordon J Freeman, Hua Jenny Lu, Herbert Y Lin, Zhi-Hua Zheng, Hui-Yao Lan, Yu Huang, Yin Xia
Tubular cell necrosis is a key histological feature of acute kidney injury (AKI). Necroptosis is a type of programed necrosis, which is executed by mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) upon its binding to the plasma membrane. Emerging evidence indicates that necroptosis plays a critical role in the development of AKI. However, it is unclear whether renal tubular cells undergo necroptosis in vivo and how the necroptotic pathway is regulated during AKI. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM)-b is a member of the RGM family...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maysa Sarhan, Anne von Mässenhausen, Christian Hugo, Rainer Oberbauer, Andreas Linkermann
Death of renal cells is central to the pathophysiology of acute tubular necrosis, autoimmunity, necrotizing glomerulonephritis, cystic kidney disease, urosepsis, delayed graft function and transplant rejection. By means of regulated necrosis, immunogenic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and highly reactive organelles such as lysosomes, peroxisomes and mitochondria are released from the dying cells, thereby causing an overwhelming immunologic response. The rupture of the plasma membrane exhibits the "point of no return" for the immunogenicity of regulated cell death, explaining why apoptosis, a highly organized cell death subroutine with long-lasting plasma membrane integrity, elicits hardly any immune response...
January 25, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
David A Jaques, Laurent Spahr, Gregory Berra, Vincent Poffet, Pierre Lescuyer, Eric Gerstel, Nicolas Garin, Pierre-Yves Martin, Belen Ponte
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication in cirrhotic patients. As serum creatinine is a poor marker of renal function in this population, we aimed to study the utility of several biomarkers in this context. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in hospitalized patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Serum creatinine (SCr), Cystatin C (CystC), NGAL and urinary NGAL, KIM-1, protein, albumin and sodium were measured on three separate occasions...
January 25, 2018: Nephrology
Tsai-Hung Wu, Ko-Jen Li, Chia-Li Yu, Chang-Youh Tsai
Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), or uromodulin (UMOD), is an 80-90-kDa phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein produced exclusively by the renal tubular cells in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Physiologically, THP is implicated in renal countercurrent gradient formation, sodium homeostasis, blood pressure regulation, and a defense molecule against infections in the urinary system. Investigations have also revealed that THP is an effective binding ligand for serum albumin, immunoglobulin G light chains, complement components C1 and C1q, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ through its carbohydrate side chains for maintaining circulatory and renal immune homeostasis...
January 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jinhua Tang, Yingfeng Shi, Na Liu, Liuqing Xu, Xiujuan Zang, Peibin Li, Juanlian Zhang, Xiaoqing Zheng, Andong Qiu, Shougang Zhuang
Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been shown to be involved in various pathological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and inflammatory diseases. Nonetheless, its specific role in drug-induced nephrotoxicity is poorly understood. Cisplatin (dichlorodiamino platinum) belongs to an inorganic platinum - fundamental chemotherapeutic drug utilized in the therapy of various solid malignant tumors. However, the use of cisplatin is extremely limited by obvious side effects, for instance bone marrow suppression and nephrotoxicity...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Mai M Helmy, Amel A Hashim, Samar M Mouneir
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated for the first time the possible beneficial effect of zileuton, a selective 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor (5-LOX), against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. METHODOLOGY: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) were administered cisplatin once (5 mg/kg, i.p.) alone or combined with oral zileuton (10 mg/kg, given twice; 1 hour before and 12 hours after cisplatin). RESULTS: Compared with control rats, acute cisplatin administration caused significant increases of BUN (33...
January 17, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Qiongqiong Guo, Junxia Wang
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combination of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) and vitamin E (VitE) on inflammation in mice with acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: UC-MSCs were isolated from pregnant wistar mice and cultured. A total of 90 female wistar mice were randomly divided into control group, AKI group, AKI + VitE group, AKI + UC-MSC group, and AKI + VitE + UC-MSC group (18 mice in each group) which were given no treatment, normal saline, VitE, UC-MSC, and VitE + UC-MSC, respectively...
January 22, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Iolanda Godinho, Estela Nogueira, Sofia Jorge, António Teixeira Alves, António Gomes da Costa
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a rare, aggressive disorder characterized by dysregulation of lymphocyte and macrophage activity, which culminates in tissue infiltration with hemophagocytosis and ultimately organ failure. Renal involvement frequently ensues and usually results in acute tubular necrosis with associated interstitial inflammation. Less frequently, glomerulopathy can also be found. CASE: We report a case of a 24-year-old Caucasian woman with previous asymptomatic hematuria, mild proteinuria, and normal renal function who presented to us with fever...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Sanjay Vikrant, Anupam Parashar
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after multiple Hymenoptera stings is well known but still a rare phenomenon. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of the clinicopathological spectrum of AKI due to multiple Hymenoptera stings over 13 years (July 2003-June 2016). Results: A total of 35 patients were diagnosed with AKI due to multiple Hymenoptera stings. The mean age of the patients was 44.7 ± 17.4 years and the majority (60%) were men...
August 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
Ju-Yeun Lee, Kyung-Ah Park, Sei Yeul Oh
PURPOSE: To investigate the risk of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). DESIGN: Population-based cohort study METHODS: This is a nationwide, population-based, retrospective study using data from the Korean national health claims database from 2011 through 2015. Patients with NAION and randomly selected control subjects from the entire Korean population were enrolled. A log rank analysis was used to evaluate a risk of ATN in the group of patients with NAION (study group) compared to an age-, sex-, and comorbidities-matched control group...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
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