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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344558/role-of-autonomic-nervous-system-and-orexinergic-system-on-adipose-tissue
#1
REVIEW
Giovanni Messina, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Monica Salerno, Antonio Lonigro, Teresa Esposito, Vincenzo Monda, Gaetano Corso, Antonietta Messina, Andrea Viggiano, Antonio I Triggiani, Sergio Chieffi, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli
Adipose tissue, defined as white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), is a biological caloric reservoir; in response to over-nutrition it expands and, in response to energy deficit, it releases lipids. The WAT primarily stores energy as triglycerides, whereas BAT dissipates chemical energy as heat. In mammals, the BAT is a key site for heat production and an attractive target to promote weight loss. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) exerts a direct control at the cellular and molecular levels in adiposity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344067/upregulation-of-orexin-hypocretin-expression-in-aged-rats-effects-on-feeding-latency-and-neurotransmission-in-the-insular-cortex
#2
Janel M Hagar, Victoria A Macht, Steven P Wilson, James R Fadel
Aging is associated with changes in numerous homeostatic functions, such as food intake, that are thought to be mediated by the hypothalamus. Orexin/hypocretin neurons of the hypothalamus regulate several physiological functions, including feeding, sleep and wakefulness. Evidence from both clinical and animal studies supports the notion that aging is associated with loss or dysregulation of the orexin system. Here, we used virus-mediated gene transfer to manipulate expression of orexin peptides in young and aged rats and examined behavioral and neurochemical correlates of food intake in these animals...
March 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343142/circuit-mechanisms-of-sleepiness-and-cataplexy-in-narcolepsy
#3
REVIEW
Sara Pintwala, John Peever
Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder caused by loss of orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy are the major complaints in narcolepsy, and are associated with impaired quality of life. Although it is unclear how orexin loss causes sleepiness and cataplexy, animal models have been instrumental in identifying the neurobiological underpinnings of narcolepsy because they reliably recapitulate disease symptoms. Current evidence indicates that orexin cell loss causes sleepiness and cataplexy by destabilizing the ability of the circuits that initiate and sustain normal levels of arousal and motor activity...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338525/orexin-action-on-oxytocin-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#4
Yuko Maejima, Shinichi Takahashi, Katsuya Takasu, Seiichi Takenoshita, Yoichi Ueta, Kenju Shimomura
Oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus play an important role in food intake regulation. It has been shown that the secretion of oxytocin from the hypothalamus shows a diurnal circadian rhythmic pattern and disturbance of this pattern leads to the development of obesity. However, whether oxytocin secretion from the PVN has a diurnal pattern remains unknown. Here, we show that oxytocin secretion from the PVN does have a diurnal pattern and that the terminals of orexin neurons, the neuropeptide responsible for regulating the sleep-wake rhythm, are synapsed with PVN oxytocin neurons...
April 12, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329117/muscle-activity-during-sleep-in-human-subjects-rats-and-mice-towards-translational-models-of-rem-sleep-without-atonia
#5
Alessandro Silvani, Raffaele Ferri, Viviana Lo Martire, Stefano Bastianini, Chiara Berteotti, Agnese Salvadè, Giuseppe Plazzi, Marco Zucconi, Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Claudio L Bassetti, Mauro Manconi, Giovanna Zoccoli
Study Objectives: rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) is a marker of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and is common in narcolepsy. Available techniques for electromyogram (EMG) analysis are species-specific, limiting translational research on RSWA. We developed an automated technique based on distributions of normalized EMG values (DNE) to overcome this limitation. With DNE, we tested whether the control of neck and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles during sleep in wild-type rats and mice validly models the control of submentalis (chin) and TA muscles in healthy humans...
February 22, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323938/loss-of-action-via-neurotensin-leptin-receptor-neurons-disrupts-leptin-and-ghrelin-mediated-control-of-energy-balance
#6
Juliette A Brown, Raluca Bugescu, Thomas Mayer, Adriana Gata-Garcia, Gizem Kurt, Hillary L Woodworth, Gina M Leinninger
The hormones ghrelin and leptin act via the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to modify energy balance but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated how leptin and ghrelin engage LHA neurons to modify energy balance behaviors and whether there is any cross-talk between leptin and ghrelin-responsive circuits. We demonstrate that ghrelin activates LHA neurons expressing Hypocretin/Orexin (OX) to increase food intake. Leptin mediates anorectic actions via separate neurons expressing the long form of the leptin receptor (LepRb), many of which co-express the neuropeptide neurotensin (Nts); we refer to these as NtsLepRb neurons...
March 10, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321032/the-effects-of-prenatal-undernutrition-and-a-high-fat-postnatal-diet-on-central-and-peripheral-orexigenic-and-anorexigenic-factors-in-female-rats
#7
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Kiyohito Yano, Altankhuu Tungalagsuvd, Munkhsaikhan Munkhzaya, Yiliyasi Mayila, Akira Kuwahara, Minoru Irahara
Prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition increase the risk of some peripheral and central metabolic disorders in adulthood. We speculated that disturbances of appetite/metabolic regulatory factors might already have been established in the early stages of life and contribute to obesity later in life. The effects of a high-fat diet on the levels of peripheral and central appetite/metabolic regulatory factors were compared between the offspring of normally nourished dams and those of undernourished dams in the peri-pubertal period...
March 17, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317548/sex-and-orexins-uncovering-a-mechanism-underlying-sex-differences-in-stress-susceptibility
#8
Andrew Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306607/orexin-a-aggravates-the-impairment-of-hippocampal-neurons-caused-by-intermittent-hypoxemia-by-the-oxr-plc%C3%AE-1-erk1-2-pathway
#9
Guohua Li, Shi Tang, Heng Chi, Weiwei Huang, Shanshan Lu, Xin Lv, Xiaomin Liu, Yan Li, Yanpeng Wang, Jiyou Tang
Obstructive sleep apnea is a highly prevalent but under-recognized disorder that causes neurocognitive deficits such as spatial memory and learning deficits. These deficits are frequently accompanied by an increase in orexin-A, which has been shown to be involved in learning and memory as well as in neuronal apoptosis in brain areas involved in cognition, such as the hippocampus. The aim of this work was to study the possible harmful effects of orexin-A on intermittent hypoxemia-induced hippocampal neuronal damage and to investigate the potential underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways in vitro...
April 12, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303403/hypocretin-orexin-and-plastic-adaptations-associated-with-drug-abuse
#10
Corey Baimel, Stephanie L Borgland
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are a critical part of the neural circuits that underlie reward learning and motivation. Dopamine neurons send dense projections throughout the brain and recent observations suggest that both the intrinsic properties and the functional output of dopamine neurons are dependent on projection target and are subject to neuromodulatory influences. Lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (also termed orexin) neurons project to the VTA and contain both hypocretin and dynorphin peptides in the same dense core vesicles suggesting they may be co-released...
March 17, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296947/the-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonist-tcs1102-does-not-affect-reinstatement-of-nicotine-seeking
#11
Shaun Yon-Seng Khoo, Gavan P McNally, Kelly J Clemens
The orexin/hypocretin system is important for appetitive motivation towards multiple drugs of abuse, including nicotine. Both OX1 and OX2 receptors individually have been shown to influence nicotine self-administration and reinstatement. Due to the increasing clinical use of dual orexin receptor antagonists in the treatment of disorders such as insomnia, we examined whether a dual orexin receptor antagonist may also be effective in reducing nicotine seeking. We tested the effect of intracerebroventricular (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288880/dual-agonist-occupancy-of-orexin-receptor-1-and-cholecystokinin-a-receptor-heterodimers-decreases-g-protein-dependent-signaling-and-migration-in-the-human-colon-cancer-cell-line-ht-29
#12
Bo Bai, Xiaoyu Chen, Rumin Zhang, Xin Wang, Yunlu Jiang, Dandan Li, Zhengwen Wang, Jing Chen
The orexin (OX1R) and cholecystokinin A (CCK1R) receptors play opposing roles in the migration of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29, and may be involved in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. OX1R and CCK1R belong to family A of the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), but the detailed mechanisms underlying their functions in solid tumor development remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether these two receptors heterodimerize, and the results revealed novel signal transduction mechanisms...
March 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283578/molecular-identification-and-functional-analysis-of-ctrp9-in-epinephelus-coioides
#13
Guokun Yang, Chaobin Qin, Bin Wang, Jirong Jia, Xi Yuan, Caiyun Sun, Wensheng Li
CTRP9 is a member of the C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) superfamily and has been studied in mammals, while the comparative studies of CTRP9 in non-mammalian species are still absent. In this study, CTRP9 was isolated and characterized from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The full length cDNA of CTRP9 was 1378 bp in size with ORF (open reading frame) of 1020 bp which encods a 339 amino acids preprohormone. The mRNA expression of CTRP9 showed a rather high level in the kidney and brain, but low level in other tissues...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283054/orexin-hypocretin-central-amygdala-and-escalation-of-cocaine-intake
#14
Morgan H James, Gary Aston-Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279667/preclinical-assessment-of-the-abuse-potential-of-the-orexin-receptor-antagonist-suvorexant
#15
Stephanie Born, David V Gauvin, Suman Mukherjee, Richard Briscoe
Suvorexant (Belsomra(®)) is a dual orexin receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of insomnia. Because of its pharmacology within the central nervous system, intended therapeutic indication, and first-in-class status, an assessment of suvorexant abuse liability potential was required prior to marketing approval. The nonclinical abuse liability potential studies for suvorexant included: 1) rat drug-dependence model to assess physical dependence following abrupt cessation; 2) rat drug-discrimination model to examine the potential similarity of the interoceptive or subjective effects of suvorexant to those elicited by zolpidem and morphine; 3) self-administration model to assess the relative reinforcing efficacy of suvorexant in rhesus monkeys conditioned to self-administer methohexital...
March 6, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274803/the-effect-of-orexin-1-and-orexin-2-receptors-antagonisms-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-on-memory-processing-in-a-passive-avoidance-task
#16
Motahareh Rouhi Ardeshiri, Narges Hosseinmardi, Esmaeil Akbari
There is an extensive evidence concerning basolateral amygdala (BLA) function to hippocampal memory processing. However, few researches have addressed the orexinergic system roles in this modulation. Then, the present study aims at investigating the action of orexin 1 and 2 receptors in BLA on passive avoidance (PA) learning. Wistar male rats (n=79) were trained to avoid foot shock in one type of PA task. The rats were injected bilaterally into BLA, a selective orexin 1 receptor antagonist, SB-334867-A (3, 6, 12μg/0...
March 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270183/the-link-between-obesity-and-migraine-in-childhood-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
G Farello, P Ferrara, A Antenucci, C Basti, A Verrotti
Obesity and headache are two highly prevalent diseases both in adults and children and they are associated with a strong personal and social impact. Many studies suggest that obesity is comorbid with headache in general, and migraine in particular and obesity seems to be a risk factor for migraine progression and for migraine frequency both in adults and in children. Research shows that there are multiple areas of overlap between migraine pathophysiology and the central and peripheral pathways regulating feeding: inflammatory mediators such as the calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), neurotransmitters such as serotonin, peptides such as orexin and adipocytokines such as adiponectin (ADP) and leptin could explain the common pathogenesis...
March 7, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265715/clinical-profile-of-suvorexant-for-the-treatment-of-insomnia-over-3%C3%A2-months-in-women-and-men-subgroup-analysis-of-pooled-phase-3-data
#18
W Joseph Herring, Kathryn M Connor, Ellen Snyder, Duane B Snavely, Ying Zhang, Jill Hutzelmann, Deborah Matzura-Wolfe, Ruth M Benca, Andrew D Krystal, James K Walsh, Christopher Lines, Thomas Roth, David Michelson
RATIONALE: Sex-related differences in the clinical profiles of some insomnia medications have been previously reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical profile of suvorexant, a novel orexin receptor antagonist approved for treating insomnia at doses up to 20 mg, by sex subgroups. METHODS: Efficacy analyses by sex were based on pooled data from two similar phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-month trials in elderly (≥65 years) and non-elderly (18-64 years) insomnia patients...
March 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262417/cell-autonomous-excitation-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-by-endocannabinoid-dependent-lipid-signaling
#19
Stephanie C Gantz, Bruce P Bean
The major endocannabinoid in the mammalian brain is the bioactive lipid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The best-known effects of 2-AG are mediated by G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors. In principle, 2-AG could modify neuronal excitability by acting directly on ion channels, but such mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a preparation of dissociated mouse midbrain dopamine neurons to isolate effects on intrinsic excitability, we found that 100 nM 2-AG accelerated pacemaking and steepened the frequency-current relationship for burst-like firing...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261108/exercise-influence-on-hippocampal-function-possible-involvement-of-orexin-a
#20
REVIEW
Sergio Chieffi, Giovanni Messina, Ines Villano, Antonietta Messina, Maria Esposito, Vincenzo Monda, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Teresa Esposito, Marco Carotenuto, Andrea Viggiano, Giuseppe Cibelli, Marcellino Monda
In the present article, we provide a brief review of current knowledge regarding the effects induced by physical exercise on hippocampus. Research involving animals and humans supports the view that physical exercise, enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis and function, improves cognition, and regulates mood. These beneficial effects depend on the contribute of more factors including the enhancement of vascularization and upregulation of growth factors. Among these, the BDNF seems to play a significant role. Another putative factor that might contribute to beneficial effects of exercise is the orexin-A...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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