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HIV Renal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343165/hiv-and-renal-disease-a-contemporary-review
#1
Joana Gameiro, Sofia Jorge, José A Lopes
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related kidney disease is an important cause of mortality and morbidity. HIV infection induces renal injury by direct cytotoxicity or immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis in patients with genetic susceptibility factors. In the last decades, with the development and diffusion of combination antiretroviral therapy, which has prolonged patient survival, there has been a shift in the spectrum of renal diseases in HIV-infected patients, with the decrease of glomerular diseases and increase in the role of nephrotoxicity and co-morbidities...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337702/changing-concepts-of-hiv-infection-and-renal-disease
#2
Jean Hou, Cynthia C Nast
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) was identified as the major renal manifestation of HIV infection early in the HIV epidemic. However, HIV infection now is associated with a different spectrum of renal lesions leading to chronic kidney disease. This review examines the changes in kidney injury occurring in the current HIV era and the factors involved in this transformation of disease expression. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of HIVAN and opportunistic infections in HIV-infected individuals has declined in concert with the use of effective combination antiretroviral agents...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334883/renal-outcomes-in-patients-initiated-on-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-based-antiretroviral-therapy-at-a-community-health-centre-in-malawi
#3
Bongani Chikwapulo, Bagrey Ngwira, Jean Baptiste Sagno, Rhys Evans
Tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy (TDF ART) is the first-line regimen for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Africa. However, contemporary data on nephrotoxicity are lacking. We determined the renal outcomes of patients commenced on TDF ART in Malawi. ART-naïve patients initiated on TDF ART at a community health centre between 1 July 2013 and 31 December 2015 were included. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, Cockcroft-Gault) was recorded at the initiation of therapy and over 18 months thereafter...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310419/proliferative-lupus-nephritis-in-the-absence-of-overt-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-historical-study-of-12-adult-patients
#4
Maxime Touzot, Cécile Saint-Pastou Terrier, Stanislas Faguer, Ingrid Masson, Hélène François, Lionel Couzi, Aurélie Hummel, Nathalie Quellard, Guy Touchard, Noémie Jourde-Chiche, Jean-Michel Goujon, Eric Daugas
Severe lupus nephritis in the absence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare condition with an unclear clinical presentation and outcome.We conducted a historical observational study of 12 adult (age >18 years) patients with biopsy-proven severe lupus nephritis or lupus-like nephritis without SLE immunological markers at diagnosis or during follow-up. Excluded were patients with chronic infections with HIV or hepatitis B or C; patients with a bacterial infectious disease; and patients with pure membranous nephropathy...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302827/colonic-perforation-due-to-severe-cytomegalovirus-disease-in-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-after-immunosuppression
#5
REVIEW
Alessandra Soriano, Nazareno Smerieri, Stefano Bonilauri, Loredana De Marco, Alberto Cavazza, Carlo Salvarani
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a small-vessel necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis typically involving upper airways, lungs, and kidneys, which may lead to end-organ damage and life-threatening complications. Major infections during GPA course represent a considerable concern in the management of the disease. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease are rare but significant complications in the course of GPA being associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Colonic perforation due to CMV colitis is exceedingly rare and has so far almost exclusively been documented in HIV, renal transplant, and systemic lupus erythematosus patients...
January 4, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260263/systematic-literature-review-on-the-incidence-and-prevalence-of-heart-failure-in-children-and-adolescents
#6
REVIEW
Robert E Shaddy, Aneesh Thomas George, Thomas Jaecklin, Eimear Nic Lochlainn, Lalit Thakur, Rumjhum Agrawal, Susan Solar-Yohay, Fabian Chen, Joseph W Rossano, Thomas Severin, Michael Burch
While the epidemiology of adult heart failure has been extensively researched, this systematic review addresses the less well characterized incidence and prevalence of pediatric HF. The search strategy used Cochrane methodology and identified 83 unique studies for inclusion. Studies were categorized according to whether the HF diagnosis was reported as primary (n = 10); associated with other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) (n = 49); or associated with non-CVDs (n = 24). A narrative synthesis of the evidence is presented...
December 20, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251606/issues-in-access-to-end-of-life-care-in-low-resource-areas
#7
Yogesh Jain, Gajanan Phutke
Even though 1% of people require palliative and end-of-life care in low-resource situations, it remains an uncharted arena. Yet it is as important as curative care to alleviate suffering. Palliative care is not only a need in cancer and HIV disease; but is needed in a diverse group of illnesses ranging from tuberculosis, renal failures, paraplegia to chronic lung diseases. In a lower resource setting, the gaps in palliation may be the need for more technology and interventions or more healthcare professionals...
October 25, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240798/the-cost-of-comorbidities-in-treatment-for-hiv-aids-in-california
#8
David S Zingmond, Kodi B Arfer, Jennifer L Gildner, Arleen A Leibowitz
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy has increased longevity for people living with HIV (PLWH). As a result, PLWH increasingly experience the common diseases of aging and the resources needed to manage these comorbidities are increasing. This paper characterizes the number and types of comorbidities diagnosed among PLWH covered by Medicare and examines how non-HIV comorbidities relate to outpatient, inpatient, and pharmaceutical expenditures. METHODS: The study examined Medicare expenditures for 9767 HIV-positive Californians enrolled in Medicare in 2010 (7208 persons dually covered by Medicare and Medicaid and 2559 with Medicare only)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238427/hiv-associated-nephropathy-in-africa-pathology-clinical-presentation-and-strategy-for-prevention
#9
REVIEW
Nazik Elmalaika Husain, Mohamed H Ahmed, Ahmed O Almobarak, Sufian K Noor, Wadie M Elmadhoun, Heitham Awadalla, Clare L Woodward, Dushyant Mital
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can lead to progressive decline in renal function known as HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Importantly, individuals of African ancestry are more at risk of developing HIVAN than their European descent counterparts. An in-depth search on Google Scholar, Medline and PubMed was conducted using the terms "HIVAN" and "pathology and clinical presentation", in addition to "prevalence and risk factors for HIVAN", with special emphasis on African countries for any articles published between 1990 and 2017...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235927/risk-factors-for-hospital-death-in-conditions-needing-palliative-care-nationwide-population-based-death-certificate-study
#10
Barbara Gomes, Maria João Pinheiro, Sílvia Lopes, Maja de Brito, Vera P Sarmento, Pedro Lopes Ferreira, Henrique Barros
BACKGROUND: Most people would prefer to die at home as opposed to hospital; therefore, understanding mortality patterns by place of death is essential for health resources allocation. AIM: We examined trends and risk factors for hospital death in conditions needing palliative care in a country without integrated palliative care. DESIGN: This is a death certificate study. We examined factors associated with hospital death using logistic regression...
November 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224373/pharmacotherapy-and-treatment-options-for-hiv-associated-nephropathy
#11
Steven Menez, Mohamad Hanouneh, Blaithin A McMahon, Derek M Fine, Mohamed G Atta
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a worldwide disease with significant mortality and morbidity. There are a multitude of HIV-related kidney diseases including HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) most prominently. The risk of developing HIVAN increases with decreasing CD4 count, higher viral load, and based on genetic factors. The mortality rate for those with HIVAN-end stage renal disease (ESRD) remains 2.5-3 times higher than ESRD patients without HIVAN. Areas covered: The epidemiology of HIVAN, particularly risk assessment, will be explored in this review...
January 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219816/nephrotic-syndrome-due-to-lupus-like-glomerulonephritis-in-an-hiv-positive-patient
#12
J S Wiegersma, C F M Franssen, A Diepstra
Lupus nephritis, a well-known complication in systemic lupus erythematosus, is characterised by a proliferative glomerulonephritis or membranous nephropathy along with a full-house immunofluorescence pattern on renal biopsy. There are very few exceptions in which similar histopathological findings are present, but case reports show that an increasing number of HIV-positive patients (mostly black Africans, but also white patients) have HIV-immune complex disease (HIVICK), which can mimic lupus nephritis. Lupus-like HIVICK is treated differently than 'true' lupus nephritis, so distinction is warranted...
November 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210830/tenofovir-associated-nephrotoxicity-among-a-us-national-historical-cohort-of-hiv-infected-veterans-risk-modification-by-concomitant-antiretrovirals
#13
Joanne LaFleur, Adam P Bress, Stephen Esker, Kristin Knippenberg, Jacob Crook, Heather Nyman, Roger Bedimo, Pablo Tebas, Lisa Rosenblatt
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been associated with renal complications. The third agent in TDF-containing antiretroviral regimens may modify that risk. We compared renal adverse outcomes among treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients initiating TDF-containing regimens including efavirenz (EFV) or other agents. SETTING: This population-based historical cohort study used national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) clinical and administrative datasets to identify treatment-naïve HIV-infected veterans initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with TDF/emtricitabine (FTC)+EFV, rilpivirine (RPV), elvitegravir/cobicistat (EVG/c), or ritonavir (RTV)-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) from 2003-2015...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204904/the-functionality-of-african-specific-variants-in-the-tgfb1-regulatory-region-and-their-potential-role-in-hivan
#14
M Nel, J-M Buys, F C J Botha, N Wearne, S Prince, J M Heckmann
BACKGROUND: Transcription of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) is regulated by a polymorphic promoter region containing African-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Some of these SNPs have higher frequencies among Southern Africans compared to other African populations and their functionality has only been partially studied. Due to the high prevalence of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) in Africans we hypothesized that functional African TGFB1-promoter SNPs may contribute to HIVAN pathogenesis...
December 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165954/the-hiv-organ-policy-equity-act-offering-hope-to-individuals-with-end-stage-renal-disease-and-hiv
#15
Emily Arnold
The HIV Organ Policy Equity Act, or HOPE Act, requires the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop guidelines for research on the transplantation of kidneys and livers from individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into patients with end stage organ failure who are also infected with HIV. Although signed into law in 2013, the guidelines were not finalized until November 2015. Currently, 18 transplant centers that wish to participate in this research have received Institutional Review Board approval...
May 2017: Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165684/can-biomarkers-advance-hiv-research-and-care-in-the-art-era
#16
Amy C Justice, Kristine M Erlandson, Paolo G Miotti, Alan Landay, Peter W Hunt, Russell P Tracy
Despite achieving HIV-1 RNA suppression below levels of detection and, for most, improved CD4 counts, those aging with HIV experience excess low-level inflammation, hypercoagulability, and immune dysfunction (chronic inflammation) compared to demographically and behaviorally similar uninfected individuals. A host of biomarkers that are linked to chronic inflammation are also associated with HIV-associated non-AIDS events including cardiovascular disease, many forms of cancer, liver disease, renal disease, neurocognitive decline, and osteoporosis...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163528/the-role-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-in-the-progression-of-hiv-aids-and-development-of-non-aids-defining-fibrotic-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Annette J Theron, Ronald Anderson, Theresa M Rossouw, Helen C Steel
Even after attainment of sustained viral suppression following implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected persons continue to experience persistent, low-grade, systemic inflammation. Among other mechanisms, this appears to result from ongoing microbial translocation from a damaged gastrointestinal tract. This HIV-related chronic inflammatory response is paralleled by counteracting, but only partially effective, biological anti-inflammatory processes. Paradoxically, however, this anti-inflammatory response not only exacerbates immunosuppression but also predisposes for development of non-AIDS-related, non-communicable disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159414/hepatitis-b-vaccination-screening-and-linkage-to-care-best-practice-advice-from-the-american-college-of-physicians-and-the-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention
#18
Winston E Abara, Amir Qaseem, Sarah Schillie, Brian J McMahon, Aaron M Harris
Background: Vaccination, screening, and linkage to care can reduce the burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, recommendations vary among organizations, and their implementation has been suboptimal. The American College of Physicians' High Value Care Task Force and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed this article to present best practice statements for hepatitis B vaccination, screening, and linkage to care. Methods: A narrative literature review of clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, randomized trials, and intervention studies on hepatitis B vaccination, screening, and linkage to care published between January 2005 and June 2017 was conducted...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158864/-chronic-kidney-disease-associated-factors-etiologies-clinical-and-biological-parameters-at-lubumbashi-city-in-democratic-republic-of-congo
#19
Serge Muleka Ngoie, Philippe Mulenga, Olivier Mukuku, Christian Ngama Kakisingi, Cédrick Milindi Sangwa, Pascal Tshimwang Nawej, Claude Mulumba Mwamba, Dophra Nkulu Ngoy, Faustin Wa Pa Manda Muteta
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease is fast becoming a worldwide public health problem due to the increase of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, its main risk factors. In countries like DRC where majority of population are in the low income bracket, very few studies about this disease, usually diagnosed at a very advanced stage have been conducted. As a result of such, cases are not always properly taken care of and managed. Methods: We opted for a descriptive cross-sectional study and it was conducted during the period from July 2014 to July 2015 at CMDC dialysis service...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157060/mycobacterium-genavense-infections-in-non-hiv-immunocompromised-hosts-a-systematic-review
#20
Maryam Mahmood, Saira Ajmal, Omar M Abu Saleh, Alexandra Bryson, Jasmine R Marcelin, John W Wilson
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium genavense is a non-tuberculous mycobacterium which can rarely cause disease in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts. We describe our experience with this unusual infection and perform a systematic review of the literature to describe the features of M. genavense infection in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts. METHODS: All cases of Mycobacterium genavense infection in non-HIV patients at our institution were reviewed. In addition, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify previously published cases of M...
November 20, 2017: Infectious Diseases
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