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HIV Renal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096698/burkitt-lymphoma-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-management-challenges
#1
REVIEW
Massimo Dozzo, Francesca Carobolante, Pietro Maria Donisi, Annamaria Scattolin, Elena Maino, Rosaria Sancetta, Piera Viero, Renato Bassan
About one-half of all Burkitt lymphoma (BL) patients are younger than 40 years, and one-third belong to the adolescent and young adult (AYA) subset, defined by an age between 15 and 25-40 years, based on selection criteria used in different reports. BL is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm displaying highly characteristic clinico-diagnostic features, the biologic hallmark of which is a translocation involving immunoglobulin and c-MYC genes. It presents as sporadic, endemic, or epidemic disease. Endemicity is pathogenetically linked to an imbalance of the immune system which occurs in African children infected by malaria parasites and Epstein-Barr virus, while the epidemic form strictly follows the pattern of infection by HIV...
2017: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070174/the-hcv-treatment-revolution-continues-resistance-considerations-pangenotypic-efficacy-and-advances-in-challenging-populations
#2
Ira M Jacobson
The US Food and Drug Administration has now approved 10 direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV). These therapies are combined into 6 regimens that are given for varying durations, with or without ribavirin, depending on the viral genotype, the presence or absence of baseline resistance-associated variants (RAVs), and the patient type. RAVs may be present before exposure to a drug or may become detectable de novo during exposure to a drug. Emerging resistant strains are the most common cause of failure of HCV DAA regimens...
October 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064450/screening-and-management-practices-for-renal-disease-in-the-hiv-positive-patient-population-of-an-inner-metropolitan-sexual-health-service
#3
Sheena Kakar, Douglas Drak, Tahiya Amin, Jason Cheung, Catherine C O'Connor, David M Gracey
Renal disease is an important and commonly encountered co-morbidity in HIV infection. Despite this, few data are available concerning renal disease in this patient group. A retrospective review was conducted of all HIV-positive patients of an inner metropolitan sexual health service who attended from 1 August 2013 to 31 July 2014 for HIV management. One hundred eighty-eight HIV-positive patients attended the clinic during the study period. The majority were male (96%), Caucasian (70%) and 30-39 years of age (37%)...
February 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064418/novel-antiretroviral-drugs-in-patients-with-renal-impairment-clinical-and-pharmacokinetic-considerations
#4
Dario Cattaneo, Cristina Gervasoni
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically increased the survival of HIV-infected patients from Western countries reducing the incidence of opportunistic infections and AIDS-related malignancies, and improving the patients' quality of life compared with the pre-HAART era. HIV is thus now considered in the West as a chronic disease, with the majority of HIV-infected patients successfully reaching an optimal immune and virological outcome a few months after starting HAART. However, this switch from acute to chronic disease has been accompanied by an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), reported in up to 60% of HIV-infected patients...
January 7, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060986/-ultrastructural-alterations-in-renal-biopsy-leading-to-the-diagnosis-of-hiv-infection
#5
Jorge Vega, M Elizabeth Barthel, Gonzalo P Méndez
HIV infection has different clinical presentations. We report a 21-year-old male with longstanding isolated microscopic hematuria attributed to thin glomerular basement membrane disease, who after 15 years of follow-up presented with significant proteinuria. A kidney biopsy was performed, revealing the presence of tubulo-reticular inclusions in the glomerular endothelial cells. This finding led to suspect an HIV infection, which was verified. Antiretroviral therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptor blockers were prescribed...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053556/assessment-of-the-effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-renal-and-liver-functions-among-hiv-infected-patients-a-retrospective-study
#6
Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Birhanemeskel Tegene, Mikiyas Gebremichael, Gebrehawaria Birhane, Wabe Kedir, Belete Biadgo
BACKGROUND: The emergence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically improved quality of life in prolonging survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on treatment in developed as well as developing countries. However, the main shortcoming of HAART in long-term use is its potential to cause liver and kidney derangements that may be life threatening. The drugs are actively accumulated in the proximal renal tubule resulting in functional disturbance with mitochondrial injury being one of the most important targets recognized...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003289/burden-of-multimorbidity-in-relation-to-age-gender-and-immigrant-status-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-administrative-data
#7
Jacopo Lenzi, Vera Maria Avaldi, Paola Rucci, Giulia Pieri, Maria Pia Fantini
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have investigated multimorbidity, whose prevalence varies according to settings and data sources. However, few studies on this topic have been conducted in Italy, a country with universal healthcare and one of the most aged populations in the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of multimorbidity in a Northern Italian region, to investigate its distribution by age, gender and citizenship and to analyse the correlations of diseases. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study based on administrative data...
December 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955709/the-characteristics-of-patients-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-blood-stream-infections-in-beijing-china-a-retrospective-study
#8
Xiaoqing Liu, Sainan Bian, Yueqiu Zhang, Lifan Zhang, Qiwen Yang, Peng Wang, Yingchun Xu, Xiaochun Shi, Yao Zhang, Roy F Chemaly
BACKGROUND: Published information regarding the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and outcomes of patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) blood stream infection (BSI) is limited. We aimed in this study to evaluate the clinical characteristics, laboratory evaluation, and outcomes of patients with MTB BSI. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with MTB BSI at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2008 and May 2014 were identified by examining the electronic database listing results of all blood cultures...
December 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951552/what-is-the-best-dialysis-therapy-for-south-asia-hd-or-pd
#9
K R N Pavan, S V Subhramanyam, A N Karopadi, K A Sinoj, K S Nayak
BACKGROUND: South Asian countries have a population of 1.7 billion and are classified as low-middle to poor income nations. Their health care systems cannot presently meet the growing need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), provided as haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Most patients cannot afford the treatment and quickly default. Furthermore, most of the population is located in rural areas, where there are few treatment centres; therefore, there is a huge gap between those treated and those in need...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941989/real-world-assessment-of-renal-and-bone-safety-among-patients-with-hiv-infection-exposed-to-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-containing-single-tablet-regimens
#10
Ella T Nkhoma, Lisa Rosenblatt, Joel Myers, Angelina Villasis-Keever, John Coumbis
OBJECTIVES: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-containing antiretroviral regimens have been associated with an increased incidence of renal and bone adverse outcomes. Here, we estimated the real-world incidence of renal and bone adverse outcomes among patients with HIV infection receiving different TDF-containing single-tablet regimens (STRs). METHODS: This cohort study used US health insurance data spanning the years 2008-2014. We identified HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years (all HIV patients) and those with ≥6 months of continuous enrollment prior to initiating efavirenz/emtricitabine/TDF (EFV/FTC/TDF), rilpivirine/FTC/TDF (RPV/FTC/TDF) or elvitegravir/cobicistat/FTC/TDF (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922852/hiv-associated-changes-in-the-enteric-microbial-community-potential-role-in-loss-of-homeostasis-and-development-of-systemic-inflammation
#11
David B Gootenberg, Jeffrey M Paer, Jesus-Mario Luevano, Douglas S Kwon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite HIV therapy advances, average life expectancy in HIV-infected individuals on effective treatment is significantly decreased relative to uninfected persons, largely because of increased incidence of inflammation-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and renal dysfunction. The enteric microbial community could potentially cause this inflammation, as HIV-driven destruction of gastrointestinal CD4 T cells may disturb the microbiota-mucosal immune system balance, disrupting the stable gut microbiome and leading to further deleterious host outcomes...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917261/anti-hepatitis-c-virus-drugs-and-kidney
#12
REVIEW
Paul Carrier, Marie Essig, Marilyne Debette-Gratien, Denis Sautereau, Annick Rousseau, Pierre Marquet, Jérémie Jacques, Véronique Loustaud-Ratti
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mainly targets the liver but can also induce extrahepatic manifestations. The kidney may be impacted via an immune mediated mechanism or a cytopathic effect. HCV patients are clearly at a greater risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) than uninfected patients are, and the presence of CKD increases mortality. Interferon-based therapies and ribavirin are difficult to manage and are poorly effective in end-stage renal disease and hemodialysis. These patients should be given priority treatment with new direct anti-viral agents (DAAs) while avoiding peginterferon and ribavirin...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875991/the-prevalence-of-renal-impairment-in-individuals-seeking-hiv-testing-in-urban-malawi
#13
Nicola Glaser, Sam Phiri, Tom Bruckner, Dominic Nsona, Hannock Tweya, Nomeda Ahrenshop, Florian Neuhann
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) poses a major health threat to people living in low- and middle-income countries, especially when it is combined with HIV, antiretroviral treatment (ART) or communicable and non-communicable diseases. Data about the prevalence of CKD and its association with other diseases is scarce, particularly in HIV-negative individuals. This study estimated the prevalence of CKD in individuals who were either HIV-positive (and ART-naïve) or HIV-negative in an urban Malawian population...
November 22, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875821/are-hiv-infected-older-adults-aging-differently
#14
Stephen E Karpiak, Richard Havlik
With increasing success in treating HIV, infected persons are living longer, and a new challenge has emerged - the need to understand how HIV-infected adults are aging. What are the similarities with typical aging and what are the unique aspects that may have resulted from HIV infection, interacting with characteristic life style factors and other comorbid conditions? Are specific diseases and conditions (comorbidities), typically seen as part of the aging process, occurring at accelerated rates or with higher frequency (accentuated) in HIV-infected adults? At this juncture, conclusions should be tentative...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846812/predictors-of-hospitalization-of-tuberculosis-patients-in-montreal-canada-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Lisa A Ronald, J Mark FitzGerald, Andrea Benedetti, Jean-François Boivin, Kevin Schwartzman, Gillian Bartlett-Esquilant, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization is the most costly health system component of tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Our objectives were to identify how frequently patients are hospitalized, and the factors associated with hospitalizations and length-of-stay (LOS) of TB patients in a large Canadian city. METHODS: We extracted data from the Montreal TB Resource database, a retrospective cohort of all active TB cases reported to the Montreal Public Health Department between January 1996 and May 2007...
November 15, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828808/managing-chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-older-adults-living-with-hiv
#16
Frank A Post
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV replication and immunodeficiency are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Widespread use of antiretrovirals that may affect kidney function underscores the need for monitoring kidney function, allowing early detection of drug-induced kidney injury and identification of patients who may benefit from antiretroviral therapy switches. RECENT FINDINGS: Several cohorts have reported an increased incidence of CKD with tenofovir [tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)], atazanavir, and lopinavir, and CKD risk scores have been developed to identify those most at risk of kidney disease progression while receiving these agents...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821249/protein-carbonyl-content-a-novel-biomarker-for-aging-in-hiv-aids-patients
#17
Vaishali Kolgiri, Vinayak Wamanrao Patil
BACKGROUND: The major complications of "treated" Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal disease, liver disease, bone disease, and perhaps neurological complications, which are phenomena of the normal aging process occurring at an earlier age in the HIV-infected population. The present study is aimed to explore protein carbonyl content as a biomarker for detecting oxidative DNA damage induced ART toxicity and/or accelerated aging in HIV/AIDS patients...
November 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809359/renal-function-in-hiv-hbv-coinfected-and-hbv-monoinfected-patients-on-a-long-term-treatment-with-tenofovir-in-real-life-setting
#18
Laura Milazzo, Cristina Gervasoni, Felicia Stefania Falvella, Dario Cattaneo, Cristina Mazzali, Paola Ronzi, Francesca Binda, Stefania Cheli, Salvatore Sollima, Spinello Antinori
The HIV/HBV coinfection is likely associated with increased risk of kidney disease, due to the additional factors that may affect renal function in the HIV population. We aimed to evaluate renal toxicity in HIV/HBV and HBV monoinfected patients on long-term therapy with tenofovir (TDF) and to explore the association of polymorphisms in ATP-binding cassette (ABCC)2, ABCC4, ABCC10 with the development of renal dysfunction. From September 2006 to November 2014, 44 HIV/HBV co-infected and 34 HBV monoinfected patients were commenced on TDF...
November 3, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797900/viral-associated-gn-hepatitis-b-and-other-viral-infections
#19
Warren L Kupin
By definition, viral-associated GN indicates the direct pathogenic relationship between active viral replication and the development of acute GN. This definition is in sharp contrast to the semantic label and pathophysiologic foundation behind postinfectious GN that uniquely develops only during a period of resolved and absent active infection. The primary example of postinfectious GN are the glomerular lesions described after a pharyngeal or cutaneous streptococcal infection and do not represent the clinical or immunologic pattern seen with viral-associated GN...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797895/viral-associated-gn-hepatitis-c-and-hiv
#20
Warren L Kupin
Viruses are capable of inducing a wide spectrum of glomerular disorders that can be categorized on the basis of the duration of active viremia: acute, subacute, or chronic. The variable responses of the adaptive immune system to each time period of viral infection results mechanistically in different histologic forms of glomerular injury. The unique presence of a chronic viremic carrier state with either hepatitis C (HCV) or HIV has led to the opportunity to study in detail various pathogenic mechanisms of viral-induced glomerular injury, including direct viral infection of renal tissue and the development of circulating immune complexes composed of viral antigens that deposit along the glomerular basement membrane...
October 24, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
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