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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620452/metabolic-reprogramming-during-the-trypanosoma-brucei-life-cycle
#1
REVIEW
Terry K Smith, Frédéric Bringaud, Derek P Nolan, Luisa M Figueiredo
Cellular metabolic activity is a highly complex, dynamic, regulated process that is influenced by numerous factors, including extracellular environmental signals, nutrient availability and the physiological and developmental status of the cell. The causative agent of sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei, is an exclusively extracellular protozoan parasite that encounters very different extracellular environments during its life cycle within the mammalian host and tsetse fly insect vector. In order to meet these challenges, there are significant alterations in the major energetic and metabolic pathways of these highly adaptable parasites...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586253/characterization-of-recombinant-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-rtbgtctp-and-its-interaction-with-glossina-midgut-bacteria
#2
Géraldine Bossard, Manon Bartoli, Marie-Laure Fardeau, Philippe Hozmuller, Bernard Ollivier, Anne Geiger
In humans, sleeping sickness (i.e. Human African Trypanosomiasis) is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg) in West and Central Africa, and T. b. rhodesiense in East Africa. We previously showed in vitro that Tbg is able to excrete/secrete a large number of proteins, including Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein (TCTP). Moreover, the tctp gene was previously described to be expressed in Tbg-infected flies. Aside from its involvement in diverse cellular processes, we have investigated a possible alternative role within the interactions occurring between the trypanosome parasite, its tsetse fly vector, and the associated midgut bacteria...
June 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504437/seasonal-variation-of-tsetse-fly-species-abundance-and-prevalence-of-trypanosomes-in-the-maasai-steppe-tanzania
#3
Happiness J Nnko, Anibariki Ngonyoka, Linda Salekwa, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson, Paul S Gwakisa, Isabella M Cattadori
Tsetse flies, the vectors of trypanosomiasis, represent a threat to public health and economy in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite these concerns, information on temporal and spatial dynamics of tsetse and trypanosomes remain limited and may be a reason that control strategies are less effective. The current study assessed the temporal variation of the relative abundance of tsetse fly species and trypanosome prevalence in relation to climate in the Maasai Steppe of Tanzania in 2014-2015. Tsetse flies were captured using odor-baited Epsilon traps deployed in ten sites selected through random subsampling of the major vegetation types in the area...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504430/variation-of-tsetse-fly-abundance-in-relation-to-habitat-and-host-presence-in-the-maasai-steppe-tanzania
#4
Anibariki Ngonyoka, Paul S Gwakisa, Anna B Estes, Happiness J Nnko, Peter J Hudson, Isabella M Cattadori
Human activities modify ecosystem structure and function and can also alter the vital rates of vectors and thus the risk of infection with vector-borne diseases. In the Maasai Steppe ecosystem of northern Tanzania, local communities depend on livestock and suitable pasture that is shared with wildlife, which can increase tsetse abundance and the risk of trypanosomiasis. We monitored the monthly tsetse fly abundance adjacent to Tarangire National Park in 2014-2015 using geo-referenced, baited epsilon traps. We examined the effect of habitat types and vegetation greenness (NDVI) on the relative abundance of tsetse fly species...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453513/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-fuscipes-fuscipes-diptera-glossinidae-in-northern-uganda-implications-for-vector-control
#5
Robert Opiro, Norah P Saarman, Richard Echodu, Elizabeth A Opiyo, Kirstin Dion, Alexis Halyard, Augustine W Dunn, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
Uganda is the only country where the chronic and acute forms of human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness both occur and are separated by < 100 km in areas north of Lake Kyoga. In Uganda, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the main vector of the Trypanosoma parasites responsible for these diseases as well for the animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT), or Nagana. We used highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker to provide fine scale spatial resolution of genetic structure of G...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403841/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-trypanosome-prevalence-in-tsetse-flies
#6
REVIEW
Reta D Abdi, Getahun E Agga, Weldegebrial G Aregawi, Merga Bekana, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Vincent Delespaux, Luc Duchateau
BACKGROUND: The optimisation of trypanosomosis control programs warrants a good knowledge of the main vector of animal and human trypanosomes in sub-Saharan Africa, the tsetse fly. An important aspect of the tsetse fly population is its trypanosome infection prevalence, as it determines the intensity of the transmission of the parasite by the vector. We therefore conducted a systematic review of published studies documenting trypanosome infection prevalence from field surveys or from laboratory experiments under controlled conditions...
April 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394929/a-quorum-sensing-independent-path-to-stumpy-development-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#7
Henriette Zimmermann, Ines Subota, Christopher Batram, Susanne Kramer, Christian J Janzen, Nicola G Jones, Markus Engstler
For persistent infections of the mammalian host, African trypanosomes limit their population size by quorum sensing of the parasite-excreted stumpy induction factor (SIF), which induces development to the tsetse-infective stumpy stage. We found that besides this cell density-dependent mechanism, there exists a second path to the stumpy stage that is linked to antigenic variation, the main instrument of parasite virulence. The expression of a second variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) leads to transcriptional attenuation of the VSG expression site (ES) and immediate development to tsetse fly infective stumpy parasites...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306730/evaluation-of-radiation-sensitivity-and-mating-performance-of-glossina-brevipalpis-males
#8
Chantel J de Beer, Percy Moyaba, Solomon N B Boikanyo, Daphney Majatladi, Hanano Yamada, Gert J Venter, Marc J B Vreysen
BACKGROUND: Area-wide integrated pest management strategies that include a sterile insect technique component have been successfully used to eradicate tsetse fly populations in the past. To ensure the success of the sterile insect technique, the released males must be adequately sterile and be able to compete with their native counterparts in the wild. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study the radiation sensitivity of colonised Glossina brevipalpis Newstead (Diptera; Glossinidae) males, treated either as adults or pupae, was assessed...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306721/developing-photoreceptor-based-models-of-visual-attraction-in-riverine-tsetse-for-use-in-the-engineering-of-more-attractive-polyester-fabrics-for-control-devices
#9
Roger D Santer
Riverine tsetse transmit the parasites that cause the most prevalent form of human African trypanosomiasis, Gambian HAT. In response to the imperative for cheap and efficient tsetse control, insecticide-treated 'tiny targets' have been developed through refinement of tsetse attractants based on blue fabric panels. However, modern blue polyesters used for this purpose attract many less tsetse than traditional phthalogen blue cottons. Therefore, colour engineering polyesters for improved attractiveness has great potential for tiny target development...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125726/a-receptor-s-tale-an-eon-in-the-life-of-a-trypanosome-receptor
#10
REVIEW
Matthew K Higgins, Harriet Lane-Serff, Paula MacGregor, Mark Carrington
African trypanosomes have complex life cycles comprising at least ten developmental forms, variously adapted to different niches in their tsetse fly vector and their mammalian hosts. Unlike many other protozoan pathogens, they are always extracellular and have evolved intricate surface coats that allow them to obtain nutrients while also protecting them from the immune defenses of either insects or mammals. The acquisition of macromolecular nutrients requires receptors that function within the context of these surface coats...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121493/atp-driven-and-ampk-independent-autophagy-in-an-early-branching-eukaryotic-parasite
#11
Feng-Jun Li, Zhi-Shen Xu, Andy D S Soo, Zhao-Rong Lun, Cynthia Y He
Autophagy is a catabolic cellular process required to maintain protein synthesis, energy production and other essential activities in starved cells. While the exact nutrient sensor(s) is yet to be identified, deprivation of amino acids, glucose, growth factor and other nutrients can serve as metabolic stimuli to initiate autophagy in higher eukaryotes. In the early-branching unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which can proliferate as procyclic form (PCF) in the tsetse fly or as bloodstream form (BSF) in animal hosts, autophagy is robustly triggered by amino acid deficiency but not by glucose depletion...
April 3, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117003/a-brief-review-of-drug-discovery-research-for-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#12
Danica R Cullen, Mauro Mocerino
Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), a neglected disease endemic in Sub- Saharan Africa, is usually fatal if left untreated. It is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is spread by the tsetse fly. The drugs currently available to treat HAT are few, and limited in efficacy. Furthermore, resistance towards these drugs is beginning to grow. In the last 25 years, only one advance has been made into HAT treatment and consequently, there is an increasing need for new drugs to be sought that are able to effectively treat this disease...
2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114403/proline-metabolism-is-essential-for-trypanosoma-brucei-brucei-survival-in-the-tsetse-vector
#13
Brian S Mantilla, Letícia Marchese, Aitor Casas-Sánchez, Naomi A Dyer, Nicholas Ejeh, Marc Biran, Frédéric Bringaud, Michael J Lehane, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Ariel M Silber
Adaptation to different nutritional environments is essential for life cycle completion by all Trypanosoma brucei sub-species. In the tsetse fly vector, L-proline is among the most abundant amino acids and is mainly used by the fly for lactation and to fuel flight muscle. The procyclic (insect) stage of T. b. brucei uses L-proline as its main carbon source, relying on an efficient catabolic pathway to convert it to glutamate, and then to succinate, acetate and alanine as the main secreted end products. Here we investigated the essentiality of an undisrupted proline catabolic pathway in T...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079522/protection-from-within
#14
Florent Masson, Bruno Lemaitre
The development of the tsetse fly immune system relies on a cue from an endosymbiotic bacterium called Wigglesworthia.
January 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006007/improving-the-diet-for-the-rearing-of-glossina-brevipalpis-newstead-and-glossina-austeni-newstead-blood-source-and-collection-processing-feeding-procedures
#15
Chantel J De Beer, Gert J Venter, Marc J B Vreysen
One of the challenges to maintain tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) colonies is the sustainable supply of high quality blood meals. The effect of using anticoagulants during collection of the blood, the addition of phagostimulants to the blood meals as well as using mixtures of bovine and porcine blood in different proportions for feeding on colony productivity was assessed. Defibrinated bovine blood was found to be suitable to maintain both the Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead colonies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002435/transcriptome-profiling-of-trypanosoma-brucei-development-in-the-tsetse-fly-vector-glossina-morsitans
#16
Amy F Savage, Nikolay G Kolev, Joseph B Franklin, Aurelien Vigneron, Serap Aksoy, Christian Tschudi
African trypanosomes, the causative agents of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals, have a complex digenetic life cycle between a mammalian host and an insect vector, the blood-feeding tsetse fly. Although the importance of the insect vector to transmit the disease was first realized over a century ago, many aspects of trypanosome development in tsetse have not progressed beyond a morphological analysis, mainly due to considerable challenges to obtain sufficient material for molecular studies. Here, we used high-throughput RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to profile Trypanosoma brucei transcript levels in three distinct tissues of the tsetse fly, namely the midgut, proventriculus and salivary glands...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918578/correction-genome-wide-comparative-analysis-of-chemosensory-gene-families-in-five-tsetse-fly-species
#17
Rosaline Macharia, Paul Mireji, Edwin Murungi, Grace Murilla, Alan Christoffels, Serap Aksoy, Daniel Masiga
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004421.].
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884172/spatial-distribution-and-trypanosome-infection-of-tsetse-flies-in-the-sleeping-sickness-focus-of-zimbabwe-in-hurungwe-district
#18
William Shereni, Neil E Anderson, Learnmore Nyakupinda, Giuliano Cecchi
BACKGROUND: In Zimbabwe, cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are caused by the unicellular protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, sub-species T. b. rhodesiense. They are reported from the tsetse-infested area in the northern part of the country, broadly corresponding to the valley of the Zambezi River. Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes, in particular T. congolense and T. vivax, also cause morbidity and mortality in livestock, thus generating poverty and food insecurity. Two species of tsetse fly, Glossina morsistans morsitans and G...
November 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884110/tsetse-fly-tolerance-to-t-brucei-infection-transcriptome-analysis-of-trypanosome-associated-changes-in-the-tsetse-fly-salivary-gland
#19
Irina Matetovici, Guy Caljon, Jan Van Den Abbeele
BACKGROUND: For their transmission, African trypanosomes rely on their blood feeding insect vector, the tsetse fly (Glossina sp.). The ingested Trypanosoma brucei parasites have to overcome a series of barriers in the tsetse fly alimentary tract to finally develop into the infective metacyclic forms in the salivary glands that are transmitted to a mammalian host by the tsetse bite. The parasite population in the salivary gland is dense with a significant number of trypanosomes tightly attached to the epithelial cells...
November 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856732/trypanosoma-brucei-metabolite-indolepyruvate-decreases-hif-1%C3%AE-and-glycolysis-in-macrophages-as-a-mechanism-of-innate-immune-evasion
#20
Anne F McGettrick, Sarah E Corcoran, Paul J G Barry, Jennifer McFarland, Cécile Crès, Anne M Curtis, Edward Franklin, Sinéad C Corr, K Hun Mok, Eoin P Cummins, Cormac T Taylor, Luke A J O'Neill, Derek P Nolan
The parasite Trypanasoma brucei causes African trypanosomiasis, known as sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in domestic animals. These diseases are a major burden in the 36 sub-Saharan African countries where the tsetse fly vector is endemic. Untreated trypanosomiasis is fatal and the current treatments are stage-dependent and can be problematic during the meningoencephalitic stage, where no new therapies have been developed in recent years and the current drugs have a low therapeutic index. There is a need for more effective treatments and a better understanding of how these parasites evade the host immune response will help in this regard...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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