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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884172/spatial-distribution-and-trypanosome-infection-of-tsetse-flies-in-the-sleeping-sickness-focus-of-zimbabwe-in-hurungwe-district
#1
William Shereni, Neil E Anderson, Learnmore Nyakupinda, Giuliano Cecchi
BACKGROUND: In Zimbabwe, cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are caused by the unicellular protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, sub-species T. b. rhodesiense. They are reported from the tsetse-infested area in the northern part of the country, broadly corresponding to the valley of the Zambezi River. Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes, in particular T. congolense and T. vivax, also cause morbidity and mortality in livestock, thus generating poverty and food insecurity. Two species of tsetse fly, Glossina morsistans morsitans and G...
November 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884110/tsetse-fly-tolerance-to-t-brucei-infection-transcriptome-analysis-of-trypanosome-associated-changes-in-the-tsetse-fly-salivary-gland
#2
Irina Matetovici, Guy Caljon, Jan Van Den Abbeele
BACKGROUND: For their transmission, African trypanosomes rely on their blood feeding insect vector, the tsetse fly (Glossina sp.). The ingested Trypanosoma brucei parasites have to overcome a series of barriers in the tsetse fly alimentary tract to finally develop into the infective metacyclic forms in the salivary glands that are transmitted to a mammalian host by the tsetse bite. The parasite population in the salivary gland is dense with a significant number of trypanosomes tightly attached to the epithelial cells...
November 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856732/trypanosoma-brucei-metabolite-indolepyruvate-decreases-hif-1%C3%AE-and-glycolysis-in-macrophages-as-a-mechanism-of-innate-immune-evasion
#3
Anne F McGettrick, Sarah E Corcoran, Paul J G Barry, Jennifer McFarland, Cécile Crès, Anne M Curtis, Edward Franklin, Sinéad C Corr, K Hun Mok, Eoin P Cummins, Cormac T Taylor, Luke A J O'Neill, Derek P Nolan
The parasite Trypanasoma brucei causes African trypanosomiasis, known as sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in domestic animals. These diseases are a major burden in the 36 sub-Saharan African countries where the tsetse fly vector is endemic. Untreated trypanosomiasis is fatal and the current treatments are stage-dependent and can be problematic during the meningoencephalitic stage, where no new therapies have been developed in recent years and the current drugs have a low therapeutic index. There is a need for more effective treatments and a better understanding of how these parasites evade the host immune response will help in this regard...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739621/african-trypanosomes-and-brain-infection%C3%A2-%C3%A2-the-unsolved-question
#4
Stefan Mogk, Christian M Boßelmann, Celestin N Mudogo, Jasmin Stein, Hartwig Wolburg, Michael Duszenko
African trypanosomes induce sleeping sickness. The parasites are transmitted during the blood meal of a tsetse fly and appear primarily in blood and lymph vessels, before they enter the central nervous system. During the latter stage, trypanosomes induce a deregulation of sleep-wake cycles and some additional neurological disorders. Historically, it was assumed that trypanosomes cross the blood-brain barrier and settle somewhere between the brain cells. The brain, however, is a strictly controlled and immune-privileged area that is completely surrounded by a dense barrier that covers the blood vessels: this is the blood-brain barrier...
October 14, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734008/the-cyclical-development-of-trypanosoma-vivax-in-the-tsetse-fly-involves-an-asymmetric-division
#5
Cher-Pheng Ooi, Sarah Schuster, Christelle Cren-Travaillé, Eloise Bertiaux, Alain Cosson, Sophie Goyard, Sylvie Perrot, Brice Rotureau
Trypanosoma vivax is the most prevalent trypanosome species in African cattle. It is thought to be transmitted by tsetse flies after cyclical development restricted to the vector mouthparts. Here, we investigated the kinetics of T. vivax development in Glossina morsitans morsitans by serial dissections over 1 week to reveal differentiation and proliferation stages. After 3 days, stable numbers of attached epimastigotes were seen proliferating by symmetric division in the cibarium and proboscis, consistent with colonization and maintenance of a parasite population for the remaining lifespan of the tsetse fly...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725893/employing-solid-phase-microextraction-as-extraction-tool-for-pesticide-residues-in-traditional-medicinal-plants
#6
Thamani T Gondo, Veronica C Obuseng, Lesego C Mmualefe, Harriet Okatch
HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly). The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS)...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682638/influence-of-temperature-and-relative-humidity-on-survival-and-fecundity-of-three-tsetse-strains
#7
Soumaïla Pagabeleguem, Sophie Ravel, Ahmadou H Dicko, Marc J B Vreysen, Andrew Parker, Peter Takac, Karine Huber, Issa Sidibé, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Jérémy Bouyer
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies occur in much of sub-Saharan Africa where they are vectors of trypanosomes that cause human and animal African trypanosomosis. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is currently used to eliminate tsetse fly populations in an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) context in Senegal and Ethiopia. Three Glossina palpalis gambiensis strains [originating from Burkina Faso (BKF), Senegal (SEN) and an introgressed strain (SENbkf)] were established and are now available for use in future AW-IPM programmes against trypanosomes in West Africa...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677695/characterization-of-a-neuropeptide-f-receptor-in-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-morsitans-morsitans
#8
Jelle Caers, Matthias B Van Hiel, Katleen Peymen, Sven Zels, Liesbeth Van Rompay, Jan Van Den Abbeele, Liliane Schoofs, Isabel Beets
Neuropeptides related to mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY) and insect neuropeptide F (NPF) are conserved throughout Metazoa and intimately involved in a wide range of biological processes. In insects NPF is involved in regulating feeding, learning, stress and reproductive behavior. Here we identified and characterized an NPF receptor of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, the sole transmitter of Trypanosoma parasites causing sleeping sickness. We isolated cDNA sequences encoding tsetse NPF (Glomo-NPF) and its receptor (Glomo-NPFR), and examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns using quantitative PCR...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671214/structural-characterization-reveals-a-novel-bilobed-architecture-for-the-ectodomains-of-insect-stage-expressed-trypanosoma-brucei-pssa-2-and-trypanosoma-congolense-isa
#9
Raghavendran Ramaswamy, Sarah Goomeshi Nobary, Brett A Eyford, Terry W Pearson, Martin J Boulanger
African trypanosomiasis, caused by parasites of the genus Trypanosoma, is a complex of devastating vector-borne diseases of humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. Central to the pathogenesis of African trypanosomes is their transmission by the arthropod vector, Glossina spp. (tsetse fly). Intriguingly, the efficiency of parasite transmission through the vector is reduced following depletion of Trypanosoma brucei Procyclic-Specific Surface Antigen-2 (TbPSSA-2). To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of TbPSSA-2, we determined the crystal structures of its ectodomain and that of its homolog T...
December 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606593/proteomic-identification-of-immunodiagnostic-antigens-for-trypanosoma-vivax-infections-in-cattle-and-generation-of-a-proof-of-concept-lateral-flow-test-diagnostic-device
#10
Jennifer R Fleming, Lalitha Sastry, Steven J Wall, Lauren Sullivan, Michael A J Ferguson
Trypanosoma vivax is one of the causative agents of Animal African Trypanosomosis in cattle, which is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and transmitted primarily by the bite of the tsetse fly vector. The parasite can also be mechanically transmitted, and this has allowed its spread to South America. Diagnostics are limited for this parasite and in farm settings diagnosis is mainly symptom-based. We set out to identify, using a proteomic approach, candidate diagnostic antigens to develop into an easy to use pen-side lateral flow test device...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503259/computational-characterization-of-iron-metabolism-in-the-tsetse-disease-vector-glossina-morsitans-ire-stem-loops
#11
Zahra Jalali Sefid Dashti, Junaid Gamieldien, Alan Christoffels
BACKGROUND: Iron metabolism and regulation is an indispensable part of species survival, most importantly for blood feeding insects. Iron regulatory proteins are central regulators of iron homeostasis, whose binding to iron response element (IRE) stem-loop structures within the UTRs of genes regulate expression at the post-transcriptional level. Despite the extensive literature on the mechanism of iron regulation in human, less attention has been given to insect and more specifically the blood feeding insects, where research has mainly focused on the characterization of ferritin and transferrin...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446070/immune-evasion-strategies-of-trypanosoma-brucei-within-the-mammalian-host-progression-to-pathogenicity
#12
REVIEW
Benoît Stijlemans, Guy Caljon, Jan Van Den Abbeele, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Stefan Magez, Carl De Trez
The diseases caused by African trypanosomes (AT) are of both medical and veterinary importance and have adversely influenced the economic development of sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, so far not a single field applicable vaccine exists, and chemotherapy is the only strategy available to treat the disease. These strictly extracellular protozoan parasites are confronted with different arms of the host's immune response (cellular as well as humoral) and via an elaborate and efficient (vector)-parasite-host interplay they have evolved efficient immune escape mechanisms to evade/manipulate the entire host immune response...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439767/dynamics-of-gamete-production-and-mating-in-the-parasitic-protist-trypanosoma-brucei
#13
Lori Peacock, Mick Bailey, Wendy Gibson
BACKGROUND: Sexual reproduction in Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei occurs in the insect vector and is important in generating hybrid strains with different combinations of parental characteristics. Production of hybrid parasite genotypes depends on the likelihood of co-infection of the vector with multiple strains. In mosquitoes, existing infection with Plasmodium facilitates the establishment of a second infection, although the asynchronicity of gamete production subsequently prevents mating...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402791/near-infrared-imaging-as-a-method-of-studying-tsetse-fly-diptera-glossinidae-pupal-development
#14
Zelda R Moran, Andrew G Parker
Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380654/comparative-performance-of-traps-in-catching-tsetse-flies-diptera-glossinidae-in-tanzania
#15
Imna I Malele, Johnson O Ouma, Hamisi S Nyingilili, Winston A Kitwika, Deusdedit J Malulu, Henry B Magwisha, Eliningeya J Kweka
This study was conducted to determine the efficiency of different tsetse traps in 28 sites across Tanzania. The traps used were biconical, H, NGU, NZI, pyramidal, S3, mobile, and sticky panels. Stationary traps were deployed at a distance of 200 m apart and examined 72 h after deployment. The results showed that 117 (52.2%) out of the 224 traps deployed captured at least one Glossina species. A total of five Glossina species were captured, namely Glossina brevipalpis, Glossina pallidipes, Glossina swynnertoni, Glossina morsitans, and Glossina fuscipes martinii...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380653/an-update-of-the-tsetse-fly-diptera-glossinidae-distribution-and-african-animal-trypanosomosis-prevalence-in-north-eastern-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#16
Chantel J de Beer, Gert J Venter, Karin Kappmeier Green, Johan Esterhuizen, Daniel G de Klerk, Jerome Ntshangase, Marc J B Vreysen, Ronel Pienaar, Makhosazana Motloang, Lundi Ntantiso, Abdalla A Latif
An unpredicted outbreak of African animal trypanosomosis or nagana in 1990 in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal necessitated an emergency control programme, utilising the extensive cattledipping system in the area, as well as a reassessment of the tsetse and trypanosomosis problem in the province. Since 1990, sporadic blood sampling of cattle at the dip tanks in the naganainfested areas were undertaken to identify trypanosome species involved and to determine the infection prevalence in cattle. The distribution and species composition of the tsetse populations in the area were also investigated...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296784/analysis-of-a-model-of-gambiense-sleeping-sickness-in-humans-and-cattle
#17
A M Ndondo, J M W Munganga, J N Mwambakana, C M Saad-Roy, P van den Driessche, R O Walo
Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Nagana in cattle, commonly called sleeping sickness, is caused by trypanosome protozoa transmitted by bites of infected tsetse flies. We present a deterministic model for the transmission of HAT caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense between human hosts, cattle hosts and tsetse flies. The model takes into account the growth of the tsetse fly, from its larval stage to the adult stage. Disease in the tsetse fly population is modeled by three compartments, and both the human and cattle populations are modeled by four compartments incorporating the two stages of HAT...
2016: Journal of Biological Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216812/molecular-identification-of-different-trypanosome-species-and-subspecies-in-tsetse-flies-of-northern-nigeria
#18
Clement Isaac, Marc Ciosi, Alana Hamilton, Kathleen Maria Scullion, Peter Dede, Igho Benjamin Igbinosa, Oyebiguwa Patrick Goddey Nmorsi, Dan Masiga, C Michael R Turner
BACKGROUND: Animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is caused by several species of trypanosomes including Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax, T. godfreyi, T. simiae and T. brucei. Two of the subspecies of T. brucei also cause Human African Trypanosomiasis. Although some of them can be mechanically transmitted by biting flies; these trypanosomes are all transmitted by tsetse flies which are the cyclical vectors of Trypanosoma congolense, T. godfreyi, T. simiae and T. brucei. We present here the first report assessing the prevalence of trypanosomes in tsetse flies in Nigeria using molecular tools...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27172181/patterns-of-genome-wide-variation-in-glossina-fuscipes-fuscipes-tsetse-flies-from-uganda
#19
Andrea Gloria-Soria, W Augustine Dunn, Erich L Telleria, Benjamin R Evans, Loyce Okedi, Richard Echodu, Wesley C Warren, Michael J Montague, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
The tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff) is the insect vector of the two forms of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) that exist in Uganda. Understanding Gff population dynamics, and the underlying genetics of epidemiologically relevant phenotypes is key to reducing disease transmission. Using ddRAD sequence technology, complemented with whole-genome sequencing, we developed a panel of ∼73,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the Gff genome that can be used for population genomics and to perform genome-wide-association studies...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142987/a-pseudouridylation-switch-in-rrna-is-implicated-in-ribosome-function-during-the-life-cycle-of-trypanosoma-brucei
#20
Vaibhav Chikne, Tirza Doniger, K Shanmugha Rajan, Osnat Bartok, Dror Eliaz, Smadar Cohen-Chalamish, Christian Tschudi, Ron Unger, Yaser Hashem, Sebastian Kadener, Shulamit Michaeli
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes devastating diseases in humans and animals in sub-Saharan Africa, undergoes a complex life cycle between the mammalian host and the blood-feeding tsetse fly vector. However, little is known about how the parasite performs most molecular functions in such different environments. Here, we provide evidence for the intriguing possibility that pseudouridylation of rRNA plays an important role in the capacity of the parasite to transit between the insect midgut and the mammalian bloodstream...
2016: Scientific Reports
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