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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343494/uncovering-genomic-regions-associated-with-trypanosoma-infections-in-wild-populations-of-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-fuscipes
#1
Andrea Gloria-Soria, W Augustine Dunn, Xiaoqing Yu, Aurélien Vigneron, Kuang-Yao Lee, Mo Li, Brian L Weiss, Hongyu Zhao, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
Vector-borne diseases are responsible for more than one million deaths every year but genomic resources for most species responsible for their transmission are limited. This is true for neglected diseases such as sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis), a disease caused by Trypanosoma parasites vectored by several species of tseste flies within the genus Glossina We describe an integrative approach that identifies statistical associations between trypanosome infection status of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff) flies from Uganda, for which functional studies are complicated because the species cannot be easily maintained in laboratory colonies, and ~73,000 polymorphic sites distributed across the genome...
January 17, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287598/molecular-screening-of-tsetse-flies-and-cattle-reveal-different-trypanosoma-species-including-t-grayi-and-t-theileri-in-northern-cameroon
#2
Sen Claudine Henriette Ngomtcho, Judith Sophie Weber, Elisabeth Ngo Bum, Thaddeus Terlumun Gbem, Sørge Kelm, Mbunkah Daniel Achukwi
BACKGROUND: African trypanosomes are mainly transmitted through the bite of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). The present study investigated the occurrence of pathogenic trypanosomes in tsetse flies and cattle in tsetse fly-infested areas of Northern Cameroon. RESULTS: Trypanosomes were identified using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region, both by size estimation and sequencing of PCR products. Apparent density indices recorded in Gamba and Dodeo were 3...
December 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284545/morphometric-diagnosis-of-glossina-palpalis-diptera-glossinidae-population-structure-in-ghana
#3
Faith Ebhodaghe, Maxwell Kelvin Billah, Delphina Adabie-Gomez, Adam Yahaya
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify isolated population(s) of Glossina palpalis in Ghana using geometric morphometrics to evaluate variations in wing-shape and size between populations of the fly from three regions. RESULTS: Wing shape of G. palpalis tsetse flies from the Northern, Western and Eastern Regions varied significantly between each other. Populations from the Northern and Western Regions varied the most (Mahalanobis Distance = 54.20). The least variation was noticed between populations from the Western and Eastern Regions (MD = 1...
December 29, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281634/competitiveness-and-survival-of-two-strains-of-glossina-palpalis-gambiensis-in-an-urban-area-of-senegal
#4
Mireille Djimangali Bassène, Momar Talla Seck, Soumaïla Pagabeleguem, Assane Gueye Fall, Baba Sall, Marc J B Vreysen, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Jérémy Bouyer
BACKGROUND: In the Niayes area, located in the west of Senegal, only one tsetse species, Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera: Glossinidae) was present. The Government of Senegal initiated and implemented an elimination programme in this area that included a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The G. p. gambiensis strain (BKF) mass-reared at the Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES) in Burkina Faso was used for the SIT component...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261481/genetic-structure-of-trypanosoma-congolense-forest-type-circulating-in-domestic-animals-and-tsetse-flies-in-the-south-west-region-of-cameroon
#5
Pythagore Soubgwi Fogue, Flobert Njiokou, Gustave Simo
Despite the economic impact of trypanosome infections, few investigations have been undertaken on the population genetics and transmission dynamics of animal trypanosomes. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to investigate the population genetics of Trypanosoma congolense "forest type", with the ultimate goal of understanding its transmission dynamics between tsetse flies and domestic animals. Blood samples were collected from pigs, sheep, goats and dogs in five villages in Fontem, South-West region of Cameroon...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260004/comparative-genomics-identifies-male-accessory-gland-proteins-in-five-glossina-species
#6
Muna F Abry, Kelvin M Kimenyi, Daniel Masiga, Benard W Kulohoma
Accessory gland proteins (ACPs) are important reproductive proteins produced by the male accessory glands (MAGs) of most insect species. These proteins are essential for male insect fertility, and are transferred alongside semen to females during copulation. ACPs are poorly characterized in Glossina species (tsetse fly), the principal vector of the parasite that causes life-threatening Human African Trypanosomiasis and Animal trypanosomiasis in endemic regions in Africa. The tsetse fly has a peculiar reproductive cycle because of the absence of oviposition...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258576/tsetse-fly-glossina-pallidipes-midgut-responses-to-trypanosoma-brucei-challenge
#7
Rosemary Bateta, Jingwen Wang, Yineng Wu, Brian L Weiss, Wesley C Warren, Grace A Murilla, Serap Aksoy, Paul O Mireji
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) are the prominent vector of African trypanosome parasites (Trypanosoma spp.) in sub-Saharan Africa, and Glossina pallidipes is the most widely distributed species in Kenya. This species displays strong resistance to infection by parasites, which are typically eliminated in the midgut shortly after acquisition from the mammalian host. Although extensive molecular information on immunity for the related species Glossina morsitans morsitans exists, similar information is scarce for G...
December 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248414/effects-of-vector-control-on-the-population-structure-of-tsetse-glossina-fuscipes-fuscipes-in-western-kenya
#8
Njelembo J Mbewe, Rajinder K Saini, Baldwyn Torto, Janet Irungu, Abdullahi A Yusuf, Christian Pirk
Displacement rates of tsetse affect performance of targets during vector control. Fly size, one of the indicators of population structure usually obtained from wing measurement, is among the determinants of displacement rates. Although recovery of tsetse in previous intervention areas has been widely reported, the population structure of tsetse that recover is rarely evaluated despite being associated with displacements rates. Previously, intervention trials had reduced tsetse densities by over 90% from >3 flies/trap/day to <1fly/trap/day on Big Chamaunga and Manga islands of Lake Victoria in western Kenya...
December 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197735/novel-triazine-dimers-with-potent-antitrypanosomal-activity
#9
Muthusamy Venkatraj, Irene G Salado, Jan Heeres, Jurgen Joossens, Paul J Lewi, Guy Caljon, Louis Maes, Pieter Van der Veken, Koen Augustyns
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of the 'Glossina' insect, commonly known as the tsetse fly. This disease affects mostly poor populations living in remote rural areas of Africa. Untreated, it is usually fatal. Currently, safe and effective treatments against this disease are lacking. Phenotypic screening of triazine non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (monomers) resulted in potent and selective antitrypanosomal compounds...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190455/structural-features-of-the-salivary-gland-hypertrophy-virus-of-the-tsetse-fly-revealed-by-cryo-electron-microscopy-and-tomography
#10
Igor Orlov, Robert Drillien, Danièle Spehner, Max Bergoin, Adly M M Abd-Alla, Bruno P Klaholz
Glossina palipides salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV) infects tsetse flies, which are vectors for African trypanosomosis. This virus represents a major challenge in insect mass rearing and has hampered the implementation of the sterile insect technique programs in the Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency. GpSGHV virions consist of long rod-shaped particles over 9000Å in length, but little is known about their detailed structural organization. We show by cryo electron microscopy and cryo electron tomography that the GpSGHV virion has a unique, non-icosahedral helical structure...
November 27, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185140/community-based-tsetse-fly-control-minimizes-the-effect-of-trypanosomosis-on-livestock-in-metekel-zone-ethiopia
#11
Gebrerufael Girmay, Bezna Arega, Dirk Berkvens, Solomon Z Altaye, Gadisa Muleta
Tsetse-related trypanosomosis threatens integrated crop-livestock production system in Ethiopia. Metekel zone is among the tsetse-infested areas in Ethiopia. Community-based tsetse fly and trypanosomosis control using targets was conducted from June 2011 to May 2012 in the zone. In coordination with the control project, a questionnaire survey was administered to assess the economic importance of the tsetse fly and trypanosomosis control conducted in the Zone. On average, there were 3 livestock deaths/household before control and this was decreased to 0...
November 29, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170590/people-patches-and-parasites-the-case-of-trypanosomiasis-in-zimbabwe
#12
Ian Scoones, V Dzingirai, N Anderson, E MacLeod, L Mangwanya, F Matawa, A Murwira, L Nyakupinda, W Shereni, S C Welburn
Understanding the socio-ecology of disease requires careful attention to the role of patches within disease landscapes. Such patches, and the interfaces between different socio-epidemiological systems, we argue, have important implications for disease control. We conducted an interdisciplinary study over three years to investigate the spatial dynamics of human and animal trypanosomiasis in the Zambezi valley, Zimbabwe. We used a habitat niche model to identify changes in suitable habitat for tsetse fly vectors over time, and this is related to local villagers' understandings of where flies are found...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114487/prevalence-of-trypanosome-infection-in-tsetse-flies-from-oji-river-and-emene-axis-of-enugu-state-nigeria-a-preliminary-report
#13
Kenechukwu Chibuike Onyekwelu, Fidelis Ebele Ejezie, Anthonius Anayochukwu Eze, Joy Ebele Ikekpeazu, Richard Chukwunonye Ezeh, Godknows Chizurumoke Edeh
Introduction: Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by blood-sucking tsetse fly. Trypanosomes remain a constant threat to the lives of humans and animals throughout large regions of Africa. Aims and Objectives: This study investigated the presence, prevalence, and species of trypanosome parasite in tsetse flies caught in two areas of no previous documented history of trypanosome infection. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 63 and 77 nonterenal tsetse flies were collected from Oji River and Emene areas of Enugu State Nigeria, respectively...
July 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063677/transporters-of-trypanosoma-brucei-phylogeny-physiology-pharmacology
#14
REVIEW
Remo S Schmidt, Juan P Macêdo, Michael E Steinmann, Amaia González Salgado, Peter Bütikofer, Erwin Sigel, Doris Rentsch, Pascal Mäser
Trypanosoma brucei comprise the causative agents of sleeping sickness, T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense, as well as the livestock-pathogenic T. b. brucei. The parasites are transmitted by the tsetse fly and occur exclusively in sub-Saharan Africa. T. brucei are not only lethal pathogens but have also become model organisms for molecular parasitology. We focus here on membrane transport proteins of T. brucei, their contribution to homeostasis and metabolism in the context of a parasitic lifestyle, and their pharmacological role as potential drug targets or routes of drug entry...
October 24, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061160/molecular-prevalence-of-trypanosome-infections-in-cattle-and-tsetse-flies-in-the-maasai-steppe-northern-tanzania
#15
Mary Simwango, Anibariki Ngonyoka, Happiness J Nnko, Linda P Salekwa, Moses Ole-Neselle, Sharadhuli I Kimera, Paul S Gwakisa
BACKGROUND: African trypanosomosis is a disease of public health and economic importance that poses a major threat to the livelihoods of people living in the Maasai Steppe, where there is a significant interaction between people, livestock and wildlife. The vulnerability of the Maasai people to the disease is enhanced by the interaction of their cattle, which act as vehicles for trypanosomes, and tsetse flies close to wildlife in protected areas. This study was aimed at identification of trypanosome infections circulating in cattle and tsetse flies in order to understand their distribution and prevalence in livestock/wildlife interface areas in the Maasai Steppe...
October 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017575/evidence-for-viable-and-stable-triploid-trypanosoma-congolense-parasites
#16
Eliane Tihon, Hideo Imamura, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Jan Van Den Abbeele
BACKGROUND: Recent whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis identified a viable triploid strain of Trypanosoma congolense. This triploid strain BANANCL2 was a clone of the field isolate BANAN/83/CRTRA/64 that was collected from cattle in Burkina Faso in 1983. RESULTS: We demonstrated the viability and stability of triploidy throughout the complete life-cycle of the parasite by infecting tsetse flies with the triploid clone BANANCL2. Proboscis-positive tsetse flies efficiently transmitted the parasites to mice resulting in systemic infections...
October 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017572/temporal-genetic-differentiation-in-glossina-pallidipes-tsetse-fly-populations-in-kenya
#17
Winnie A Okeyo, Norah P Saarman, Michael Mengual, Kirstin Dion, Rosemary Bateta, Paul O Mireji, Sylvance Okoth, Johnson O Ouma, Collins Ouma, Joel Ochieng, Grace Murilla, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
BACKGROUND: Glossina pallidipes is a major vector of both Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (HAT and AAT) in Kenya. The disease imposes economic burden on endemic regions in Kenya, including south-western Kenya, which has undergone intense but unsuccessful tsetse fly control measures. We genotyped 387 G. pallidipes flies at 13 microsatellite markers to evaluate levels of temporal genetic variation in two regions that have been subjected to intensive eradication campaigns from the 1960s to the 1980s...
October 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991908/mitochondrial-dual-coding-genes-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#18
Laura E Kirby, Donna Koslowsky
Trypanosoma brucei is transmitted between mammalian hosts by the tsetse fly. In the mammal, they are exclusively extracellular, continuously replicating within the bloodstream. During this stage, the mitochondrion lacks a functional electron transport chain (ETC). Successful transition to the fly, requires activation of the ETC and ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This life cycle leads to a major problem: in the bloodstream, the mitochondrial genes are not under selection and are subject to genetic drift that endangers their integrity...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981471/microfluidics-based-approaches-to-the-isolation-of-african-trypanosomes
#19
Michael P Barrett, Jonathan M Cooper, Clément Regnault, Stefan H Holm, Jason P Beech, Jonas O Tegenfeldt, Axel Hochstetter
African trypanosomes are responsible for significant levels of disease in both humans and animals. The protozoan parasites are free-living flagellates, usually transmitted by arthropod vectors, including the tsetse fly. In the mammalian host they live in the bloodstream and, in the case of human-infectious species, later invade the central nervous system. Diagnosis of the disease requires the positive identification of parasites in the bloodstream. This can be particularly challenging where parasite numbers are low, as is often the case in peripheral blood...
October 5, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932909/fipronil-1-pour-on-further-studies-of-its-effects-against-lab-reared-glossina-palpalis-gambiensis
#20
B Sawadogo, J B Rayaisse, H Adakal, A T Kabre, B Bauer
In order to assess the residual effects of fipronil 1% on tsetse fly survival, male Glossina palpalis gambiensis were released on non-treated and treated cattle, with 0.1 ml of fipronil/kg b.w. as a pour-on formulation. In a second trial, the female fecundity performances were evaluated by feeding teneral females on the same cattle. These females were then mated and their production parameters monitored, as well as the survival of freshly emerged flies. Fipronil had a significant effect on tsetse fly survival (p < 0...
November 2017: Parasitology Research
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