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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772025/shape-shifting-trypanosomes-flagellar-shortening-followed-by-asymmetric-division-in-trypanosoma-congolense-from-the-tsetse-proventriculus
#1
Lori Peacock, Christopher Kay, Mick Bailey, Wendy Gibson
Trypanosomatids such as Leishmania and Trypanosoma are digenetic, single-celled, parasitic flagellates that undergo complex life cycles involving morphological and metabolic changes to fit them for survival in different environments within their mammalian and insect hosts. According to current consensus, asymmetric division enables trypanosomatids to achieve the major morphological rearrangements associated with transition between developmental stages. Contrary to this view, here we show that the African trypanosome Trypanosoma congolense, an important livestock pathogen, undergoes extensive cell remodelling, involving shortening of the cell body and flagellum, during its transition from free-swimming proventricular forms to attached epimastigotes in vitro...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703229/impact-of-an-integrated-control-campaign-on-tsetse-populations-in-burkina-faso
#2
Lassané Percoma, Adama Sow, Soumaïla Pagabeleguem, Ahmadou H Dicko, Oumarou Serdebéogo, Mariam Ouédraogo, Jean-Baptiste Rayaissé, Jérémy Bouyer, Adrien M G Belem, Issa Sidibé
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human and animal trypanosomosis. In Burkina Faso, a project aiming to create zones free of tsetse flies and trypanosomosis was executed from June 2006 to December 2013. After the determination of tsetse distribution in the intervention area from December 2007 to November 2008, the control campaign was launched in November 2009 and ended in December 2013. The goal was to eliminate tsetse flies from 40,000 km2 of area, through an integrated control campaign including insecticide targets, traps and cattle, sequential aerial treatment (SAT) and the mass treatment of livestock using trypanocides...
April 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695261/sticky-small-target-an-effective-sampling-tool-for-tsetse-fly-glossina-fuscipes-fuscipes-newstead-1910
#3
Njelembo J Mbewe, Rajinder K Saini, Baldwyn Torto, Janet Irungu, Abdullahi A Yusuf, Christian W W Pirk
BACKGROUND: Small targets comprising panels of blue and insecticide-treated black netting material each 0.25 × 0.25 m have been shown to attract and kill Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newstead, 1910 (Diptera: Glossinidae) thereby reducing its population density by over 90% in field trials. However, their attractive ability has not been fully exploited for sampling purposes. Therefore, in this study we assessed the effectiveness of using sticky small targets as sampling tools for G. f. fuscipes in western Kenya...
April 25, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686664/susceptibility-of-tsetse-species-to-glossina-pallidipes-salivary-gland-hypertrophy-virus-gpsghv
#4
Güler Demirbas-Uzel, Henry M Kariithi, Andrew G Parker, Marc J B Vreysen, Robert L Mach, Adly M M Abd-Alla
Salivary gland hytrosaviruses (SGHVs, family Hytrosaviridae ) are non-occluded dsDNA viruses that are pathogenic to some dipterans. SGHVs primarily replicate in salivary glands (SG), thereby inducing overt salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms in their adult hosts. SGHV infection of non-SG tissues results in distinct pathobiologies, including reproductive dysfunctions in tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) and house fly. Infection with the G. pallidipes virus (GpSGHV) resulted in the collapse of several laboratory colonies, which hindered the implementation of area wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs that had a sterile insect technique (SIT) component...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666191/flagellum-inheritance-in-trypanosoma-brucei-requires-a-kinetoplastid-specific-protein-phosphatase
#5
Qing Zhou, Gang Dong, Ziyin Li
Trypanosoma brucei causes sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle in sub-Saharan Africa and alternates between its mammalian hosts and its insect vector, the tsetse fly. T. brucei uses a flagellum for motility, cell division, and cell-cell communication. Proper positioning and attachment of the newly assembled flagellum rely on the faithful duplication and segregation of flagellum-associated cytoskeletal structures. These processes are regulated by the polo-like kinase homolog TbPLK, whose activity and abundance are under stringent control to ensure spatiotemporally regulated phosphorylation of its substrates...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649484/vision-and-the-genesis-of-survival-strategies-in-tsetse-flies-a-laboratory-study
#6
Emmanuel Kamba Mebourou, Balázs Bernáth, Dominique Schenker, Patrick M Guerin
Organisms respond to environmental stimuli in ways that optimize survival and reproduction. Tsetse fly life-history is characterized by high investment in progeny by the pregnant female and low birth rate. This places constraints on tsetse populations across the sub-Saharan biotopes they colonize where extreme climatic conditions militate against survival. Controlling metabolic rate is crucial in biotopes where daily swings in temperature can exceed 20 o C. Tsetse acquire their nutrient requirements from the blood meal...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629449/post-hoc-support-vector-machine-learning-for-impedimetric-biosensors-based-on-weak-protein-ligand-interactions
#7
Y Rong, A V Padron, K J Hagerty, N Nelson, S Chi, N O Keyhani, J Katz, S P A Datta, C Gomes, E S McLamore
Impedimetric biosensors for measuring small molecules based on weak/transient interactions between bioreceptors and target analytes are a challenge for detection electronics, particularly in field studies or in the analysis of complex matrices. Protein-ligand binding sensors have enormous potential for biosensing, but achieving accuracy in complex solutions is a major challenge. There is a need for simple post hoc analytical tools that are not computationally expensive, yet provide near real time feedback on data derived from impedance spectra...
April 9, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606092/rna-seq-analysis-validates-the-use-of-culture-derived-trypanosoma-brucei-and-provides-new-markers-for-mammalian-and-insect-life-cycle-stages
#8
Arunasalam Naguleswaran, Nicholas Doiron, Isabel Roditi
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma brucei brucei, the parasite causing Nagana in domestic animals, is closely related to the parasites causing sleeping sickness, but does not infect humans. In addition to its importance as a pathogen, the relative ease of genetic manipulation and an innate capacity for RNAi extend its use as a model organism in cell and infection biology. During its development in its mammalian and insect (tsetse fly) hosts, T. b. brucei passes through several different life-cycle stages...
April 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562674/variations-in-the-peritrophic-matrix-composition-of-heparan-sulphate-from-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-morsitans-morsitans
#9
Evelyn Rogerson, Julien Pelletier, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Clair Rose, Sarah Taylor, Scott Guimond, Marcelo Lima, Mark Skidmore, Edwin Yates
Tsetse flies are the principal insect vectors of African trypanosomes -sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in cattle. One of the tsetse fly species, Glossina morsitans morsitans , is host to the parasite, Trypanosoma brucei , a major cause of African trypanosomiasis. Precise details of the life cycle have yet to be established, but the parasite life cycle involves crossing the insect peritrophic matrix (PM). The PM consists of the polysaccharide chitin, several hundred proteins, and both glycosamino- and galactosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides...
March 19, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529232/expression-levels-of-odorant-receptor-genes-in-the-savanna-tsetse-fly-glossina-morsitans-morsitans
#10
Steven Ger Nyanjom, Cyrus Tare, Fred Wamunyokoli, George Fredrick Obiero
Tsetse flies (Glossina) are vectors of African trypanosomiasis. Olfaction plays a critical role in Glossina behavior, including larviposition, feeding, and reproduction. Odorant receptors (ORs) are important in insect chemoreception as they bind volatile odorants and transport them to olfactory receptor neurons to elicit behavioral response. To better understand Glossina chemoreception, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction to examine the expression levels of ORs in female and male Glossina morsitans morsitans Wiedemann, 1850 (Diptera: Glossinidae) antennae and legs...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528164/thioester-containing-proteins-in-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-and-their-response-to-trypanosome-infection
#11
I Matetovici, J Van Den Abbeele
Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are conserved proteins with a role in innate immune immunity. In the current study, we characterized the TEP family in the genome of six tsetse fly species (Glossina spp.). Tsetse flies are the biological vectors of several African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness in humans or nagana in livestock. The analysis of the tsetse TEP sequences revealed information about their structure, evolutionary relationships and expression profiles under both normal and trypanosome infection conditions...
June 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514930/inositol-polyphosphate-multikinase-regulation-of-trypanosoma-brucei-life-stage-development
#12
Igor Cestari, Atashi Anupama, Kenneth Stuart
Many cellular processes change during the Trypanosoma brucei life cycle as this parasite alternates between the mammalian host and tsetse fly vector. We show that the inositol phosphate pathway helps regulate these developmental changes. Knockdown of inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), which phosphorylates Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, resulted in changes in bloodstream forms that are characteristic of insect stage procyclic forms. These changes include expression of the procyclic surface coat, up-regulation of RNA-binding proteins that we show to regulate stage-specific transcripts, and activation of oxidative phosphorylation with increased ATP production in bloodstream forms...
May 1, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471415/blue-and-black-cloth-targets-effects-of-size-shape-and-color-on-stable-fly-diptera-muscidae-attraction
#13
Jerome A Hogsette, Lane D Foil
Stable fly management is challenging because of the fly's dispersal behavior and its tendency to remain on the host only while feeding. Optically attractive traps have been used to survey and sometimes reduce adult populations. Insecticide-treated blue and black cloth targets developed for tsetse fly management in Africa were found to be attractive to stable flies in the United States, and various evaluations were conducted in Louisiana and Florida. Tests using untreated targets were designed to answer questions about configuration, size, and color relative to efficacy and stability in high winds...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425200/an-agent-based-model-of-tsetse-fly-response-to-seasonal-climatic-drivers-assessing-the-impact-on-sleeping-sickness-transmission-rates
#14
Simon Alderton, Ewan T Macleod, Neil E Anderson, Gwen Palmer, Noreen Machila, Martin Simuunza, Susan C Welburn, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: This paper presents the development of an agent-based model (ABM) to incorporate climatic drivers which affect tsetse fly (G. m. morsitans) population dynamics, and ultimately disease transmission. The model was used to gain a greater understanding of how tsetse populations fluctuate seasonally, and investigate any response observed in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) disease transmission, with a view to gaining a greater understanding of disease dynamics...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385523/telap1-links-telomere-complexes-with-developmental-expression-site-silencing-in-african-trypanosomes
#15
Helena Reis, Marie Schwebs, Sabrina Dietz, Christian J Janzen, Falk Butter
During its life cycle, Trypanosoma brucei shuttles between a mammalian host and the tsetse fly vector. In the mammalian host, immune evasion of T. brucei bloodstream form (BSF) cells relies on antigenic variation, which includes monoallelic expression and periodic switching of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes. The active VSG is transcribed from only 1 of the 15 subtelomeric expression sites (ESs). During differentiation from BSF to the insect-resident procyclic form (PCF), the active ES is transcriptionally silenced...
April 6, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385123/rapid-autophagic-regression-of-the-milk-gland-during-involution-is-critical-for-maximizing-tsetse-viviparous-reproductive-output
#16
Joshua B Benoit, Veronika Michalkova, Elise M Didion, Yanyu Xiao, Aaron A Baumann, Geoffrey M Attardo, Serap Aksoy
Tsetse flies are important vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Ability to reduce tsetse populations is an effective means of disease control. Lactation is an essential component of tsetse's viviparous reproductive physiology and requires a dramatic increase in the expression and synthesis of milk proteins by the milk gland organ in order to nurture larval growth. In between each gonotrophic cycle, tsetse ceases milk production and milk gland tubules undergo a nearly two-fold reduction in width (involution)...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359194/rnase-iii-domain-of-krepb9-and-krepb10-association-with-editosomes-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#17
Jason Carnes, Suzanne M McDermott, Kenneth Stuart
Editosomes are the multiprotein complexes that catalyze the insertion and deletion of uridines to create translatable mRNAs in the mitochondria of kinetoplastids. Recognition and cleavage of a broad diversity of RNA substrates in vivo require three functionally distinct RNase III-type endonucleases, as well as five additional editosome proteins that contain noncatalytic RNase III domains. RNase III domains have recently been identified in the editosome accessory proteins KREPB9 and KREPB10, suggesting a role related to editing endonuclease function...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343494/uncovering-genomic-regions-associated-with-trypanosoma-infections-in-wild-populations-of-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-fuscipes
#18
Andrea Gloria-Soria, W Augustine Dunn, Xiaoqing Yu, Aurélien Vigneron, Kuang-Yao Lee, Mo Li, Brian L Weiss, Hongyu Zhao, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
Vector-borne diseases are responsible for more than one million deaths every year but genomic resources for most species responsible for their transmission are limited. This is true for neglected diseases such as sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis), a disease caused by Trypanosoma parasites vectored by several species of tseste flies within the genus Glossina We describe an integrative approach that identifies statistical associations between trypanosome infection status of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff) flies from Uganda, for which functional studies are complicated because the species cannot be easily maintained in laboratory colonies, and ~73,000 polymorphic sites distributed across the genome...
January 17, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287598/molecular-screening-of-tsetse-flies-and-cattle-reveal-different-trypanosoma-species-including-t-grayi-and-t-theileri-in-northern-cameroon
#19
Sen Claudine Henriette Ngomtcho, Judith Sophie Weber, Elisabeth Ngo Bum, Thaddeus Terlumun Gbem, Sørge Kelm, Mbunkah Daniel Achukwi
BACKGROUND: African trypanosomes are mainly transmitted through the bite of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). The present study investigated the occurrence of pathogenic trypanosomes in tsetse flies and cattle in tsetse fly-infested areas of Northern Cameroon. RESULTS: Trypanosomes were identified using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region, both by size estimation and sequencing of PCR products. Apparent density indices recorded in Gamba and Dodeo were 3...
December 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284545/morphometric-diagnosis-of-glossina-palpalis-diptera-glossinidae-population-structure-in-ghana
#20
Faith Ebhodaghe, Maxwell Kelvin Billah, Delphina Adabie-Gomez, Adam Yahaya
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify isolated population(s) of Glossina palpalis in Ghana using geometric morphometrics to evaluate variations in wing-shape and size between populations of the fly from three regions. RESULTS: Wing shape of G. palpalis tsetse flies from the Northern, Western and Eastern Regions varied significantly between each other. Populations from the Northern and Western Regions varied the most (Mahalanobis Distance = 54.20). The least variation was noticed between populations from the Western and Eastern Regions (MD = 1...
December 29, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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