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skeletal muscle and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938532/modulation-of-gdf11-expression-and-synaptic-plasticity-by-age-and-training
#1
Emanuela De Domenico, Giovanna D'Arcangelo, Isabella Faraoni, Mattia Palmieri, Virginia Tancredi, Grazia Graziani, Paola Grimaldi, Lucio Tentori
The Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF11) has been controversially involved in the aging/rejuvenation process. To clarify whether GDF11 is differently expressed during aging, we have evaluated GDF11 levels in skeletal muscles and hippocampi of young and old mice, sedentary or subjected to a 12-weeks triweekly training protocol. The results of real-time PCR and Western blot analyses indicate that skeletal muscles of sedentary old mice express higher levels of GDF11 compared to young animals (p < 0.05)...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937250/role-of-exercise-induced-calmodulin-protein-kinase-camk-ii-activation-in-the-regulation-of-omega-6-fatty-acids-and-lipid-metabolism-genes-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#2
J S Joseph, A O Ayeleso, E Mukwevho
Activation of calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK)II by exercise is beneficial in controlling membrane lipids associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Regulation of lipid metabolism is crucial in the improvement of type 2 diabetes and obesity associated symptoms. The role of CaMKII in membrane associated lipid metabolism was the focus of this study. Five to six weeks old male Wistar rats were used in this study. GC×GC-TOFMS technique was used to determine the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and 11,14-eicosadienoic acid)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934166/is-branched-chain-amino-acids-supplementation-an-efficient-nutritional-strategy-to-alleviate-skeletal-muscle-damage-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Alexandre Fouré, David Bendahan
Amino acids and more precisely, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are usually consumed as nutritional supplements by many athletes and people involved in regular and moderate physical activities regardless of their practice level. BCAAs have been initially shown to increase muscle mass and have also been implicated in the limitation of structural and metabolic alterations associated with exercise damage. This systematic review provides a comprehensive analysis of the literature regarding the beneficial effects of BCAAs supplementation within the context of exercise-induced muscle damage or muscle injury...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932990/treatment-opportunities-in-patients-with-metabolic-myopathies
#4
REVIEW
Mette Cathrine Ørngreen, John Vissing
Metabolic myopathies are disorders affecting utilization of carbohydrates or fat in the skeletal muscle. Adult patients with metabolic myopathies typically present with exercise-induced pain, contractures or stiffness, fatigue, and myoglobinuria. Symptoms are related to energy failure. Purpose of review In this review, the current treatment options, including exercise therapy, dietary treatment, pharmacological supplementation, gene transcription, and enzyme replacement therapy, are described. Recent findings Recognition of the metabolic block in the metabolic myopathies has started the development of new therapeutic options...
September 21, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932500/effects-of-low-load-resistance-exercise-with-blood-flow-restriction-on-high-energy-phosphate-metabolism-and-oxygenation-level-in-skeletal-muscle
#5
Osamu Yanagisawa, Manabu Sanomura
We aimed to evaluate the effects of low-load resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) on high-energy phosphate metabolism, intracellular pH, and oxygenation level in the skeletal muscle. Seven males performed low-load ankle plantar flexion exercise (120 repetitions, 30% of one-repetition maximum) with and without BFR (130% of systolic blood pressure) inside a magnetic resonance device. Inorganic phosphate (Pi)-to-phosphocreatine (PCr) ratio, intracellular pH, and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) in the medial gastrocnemius were determined using (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy before and during exercise...
June 2017: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930871/reliability-and-measurement-error-of-tensiomyography-to-assess-mechanical-muscle-function-a-systematic-review
#6
Saúl Martín-Rodríguez, Irineu Loturco, Angus M Hunter, David Rodríguez-Ruiz, Diego Munguia-Izquierdo
Interest in studying mechanical skeletal muscle function through tensiomyography (TMG) has increased in recent years. This systematic review aimed to (a) report the reliability and measurement error of all TMG parameters [i.e., maximum radial displacement of the muscle belly (Dm), contraction time (Tc), delay time (Td), half-relaxation time (½ Tr), and sustained contraction time (Ts)] and (b) to provide critical reflection on how to perform accurate and appropriate measurements for informing clinicians, exercise professionals, and researchers...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921743/exercise-training-dose-differentially-alters-muscle-and-heart-capillary-density-and-metabolic-functions-in-an-obese-rat-with-metabolic-syndrome
#7
Marcus Vinicius Machado, Aline Bomfim Vieira, Fabiana Gomes da Conceição, Alessandro Rodrigues Nascimento, Antonio Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega, Eduardo Tibirica
We evaluated the effect of frequency, duration and intensity of exercise training on metabolic parameters and structural capillary density in obese rats with metabolic syndrome (MS). Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a either standard commercial diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD). Animals that received the HFD were randomly separated into either a sedentary (SED) group or 8 different exercise groups that varied by the frequency, duration and intensity of training. After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, body composition, aerobic capacity, hemodynamic variables, metabolic parameters and capillary density in the heart and skeletal muscle were evaluated...
September 17, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920922/g%C3%AE-13-ablation-reprograms-myofibers-to-oxidative-phenotype-and-enhances-whole-body-metabolism
#8
Ja Hyun Koo, Tae Hyun Kim, Shi-Young Park, Min Sung Joo, Chang Yeob Han, Cheol Soo Choi, Sang Geon Kim
Skeletal muscle is a key organ in energy homeostasis owing to its high requirement for nutrients. Heterotrimeric G proteins converge signals from cell-surface receptors to potentiate or blunt responses against environmental changes. Here, we show that muscle-specific ablation of Gα13 in mice promotes reprogramming of myofibers to the oxidative type, with resultant increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular respiration. Mechanistically, Gα13 and its downstream effector RhoA suppressed nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1), a chief regulator of myofiber conversion, by increasing Rho-associated kinase 2-mediated (Rock2-mediated) phosphorylation at Ser243...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917232/compressed-food-with-added-functional-oligopeptides-improves-performance-during-military-endurance-training
#9
Zhi-Qiang Zheng, Zhan-Hui Geng, Jia-Xi Liu, Shun-Tang Guo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Oligosaccharide or oligopeptide supplementation may have a significant impact on endurance performance. This study evaluated the effects of adding maltooligosaccharides (MO) or soy oligopeptides (SO) to compressed food (CF) on the physical response of soldiers to daily military training. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Twelve soldiers were randomized to four diet groups: regular meals, CF, CFMO, and CFSO (crossover design). They participated in exercise tests including 90 minutes running at 55-65% VO2max and exhaustive running...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916822/ampk-phosphorylation-of-ulk1-is-required-for-targeting-of-mitochondria-to-lysosomes-in-exercise-induced-mitophagy
#10
Rhianna C Laker, Joshua C Drake, Rebecca J Wilson, Vitor A Lira, Bevan M Lewellen, Karen A Ryall, Carleigh C Fisher, Mei Zhang, Jeffrey J Saucerman, Laurie J Goodyear, Mondira Kundu, Zhen Yan
Mitochondrial health is critical for skeletal muscle function and is improved by exercise training through both mitochondrial biogenesis and removal of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria via mitophagy. The mechanisms underlying exercise-induced mitophagy have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that acute treadmill running in mice causes mitochondrial oxidative stress at 3-12 h and mitophagy at 6 h post-exercise in skeletal muscle. These changes were monitored using a novel fluorescent reporter gene, pMitoTimer, that allows assessment of mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitophagy in vivo, and were preceded by increased phosphorylation of AMP activated protein kinase (Ampk) at tyrosine 172 and of unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (Ulk1) at serine 555...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916639/small-rna-seq-during-acute-maximal-exercise-reveal-rnas-involved-in-vascular-inflammation-and-cardiometabolic-health
#11
Ravi Shah, Ashish S Yeri, Avash Das, Amanda Courtright-Lim, Olivia Ziegler, Ernest Gervino, Jeffrey Ocel, Pablo Quintero Pinzon, Luke Wooster, Cole Shields Bailey, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Lea Beaulieu, Jane E Freedman, Ionita Ghiran, Gregory D Lewis, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen, Saumya Das
OBJECTIVE: Exercise improves cardiometabolic and vascular function, though mechanisms remain unclear. Our objective was to demonstrate the diversity of circulating extracellular RNA (ex-RNA) release during acute exercise in humans and its relevance to exercise-mediated benefits on vascular inflammation. Approach and Results: We performed plasma small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in 26 individuals undergoing symptom-limited maximal treadmill exercise, with replication of our top candidate miRNA in a separate cohort of 59 individuals undergoing bicycle ergometry...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912360/influence-of-past-injurious-exercise-on-fiber-type-specific-acute-anabolic-response-to-resistance-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle
#12
Ryo Takagi, Riki Ogasawara, Junya Takegaki, Arata Tsutaki, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
We investigated influence of past injurious exercise on anabolic response of skeletal muscle fibers to resistance exercise (RE). Wistar rats were divided into exercise (E) and exercise after injury (I-E) groups. At age 10 wk, the right gastrocnemius muscle in each rat in the I-E group was subjected to strenuous eccentric contractions. Subsequently, RE was imposed on the same muscle of each rat at 14 wk of age in both groups. Peak joint torque and total force generation per body mass during RE were similar between the groups...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912130/near-infrared-spectroscopy-of-superficial-and-deep-rectus-femoris-reveals-markedly-different-exercise-response-to-superficial-vastus-lateralis
#13
Shunsaku Koga, Dai Okushima, Thomas J Barstow, Harry B Rossiter, Narihiko Kondo, David C Poole
To date our knowledge of skeletal muscle deoxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is predicated almost exclusively on sampling of superficial muscle(s), most commonly the vastus lateralis (VL-s). Recently developed high power NIRS facilitates simultaneous sampling of deep (i.e., rectus femoris, RF-d) and superficial muscles of RF (RF-s) and VL-s. Because deeper muscle is more oxidative with greater capillarity and sustains higher blood flows than superficial muscle, we used time-resolved NIRS to test the hypotheses that, following exercise onset, the RF-d has slower deoxy[Hb+Mb] kinetics with reduced amplitude than superficial muscles...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911978/effect-of-12-month-resistance-and-endurance-training-on-quality-quantity-and-function-of-skeletal-muscle-in-older-adults-requiring-long-term-care
#14
Akito Yoshiko, Takashi Kaji, Hiroki Sugiyama, Teruhiko Koike, Yoshiharu Oshida, Hiroshi Akima
Older adults requiring long-term care will experience age-associated deterioration of the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle if no interventions are performed. Long-term training is considered a typical intervention method and is effective for improvement of both muscle quantity and physical function. However, how such training affects muscle quality [i.e., fat-to-muscle ratio as determined by echo intensity (EI)] in older adults requiring long-term care remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-month physical training intervention on the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle, physical function, and blood chemistry in older adults requiring long-term care...
September 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911834/how-swimming-affects-plasma-insulin-and-glucose-concentration-in-thoroughbreds-a-pilot-study
#15
F Bonelli, M Sgorbini, V Meucci, C Sighieri, P Baragli
Low intensity exercise increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and decreases its plasma concentration. In this study, plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were evaluated 5min before and 5, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 60min after an IV bolus of glucose in 12 Thoroughbreds before and after 1 month of submaximal aquatraining exercise, monitored using heart rate and blood lactate. Plasma glucose concentrations were evaluated using a colorimetric enzymatic method, and plasma insulin concentrations with a solid-phase radioimmunoassay method...
August 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911611/antifatigue-and-increasing-exercise-performance-of-actinidia-arguta-crude-alkaloids-in-mice
#16
Yangyang Liu, Changjiang Liu
Actinidia arguta (Siebold et Zucc.) Planch. ex. Miq. is one of the most recently domesticated fruit species with increasing commercial production worldwide. It is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and is used to reduce blood glucose and treat atopic dermatitis. In addition, it possesses antioxidant, anticancer, and antiallergic properties. In this study, we investigated the physical antifatigue and exercise performance effects of A. arguta crude alkaloids (AACA) extracted with 70% ethanol. Four groups of male Kunming mice (n = 16) were orally administered AACA at doses of 0 mg/kg/d (vehicle), 50 mg/kg/d (AACA-50), 100 mg/kg/d (AACA-100), or 200 mg/kg/d (AACA-200) for 28 days...
October 2016: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906407/gelatinases-and-physical-exercise-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-from-human-studies
#17
REVIEW
Rosalia Lo Presti, Eugenia Hopps, Gregorio Caimi
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9), as well as their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2), are involved in the development of skeletal muscle tissue, in the repair process after muscle injury and in the adaptive modifications induced by physical exercise in skeletal muscle. This paper aims at reviewing results from human studies that investigated the role of gelatinases and their inhibitors in skeletal muscle response to acute physical exercise or training...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905498/effect-of-bimagrumab-on-thigh-muscle-volume-and-composition-in-men-with-casting-induced-atrophy
#18
Daniel S Rooks, Didier Laurent, Jens Praestgaard, Scott Rasmussen, Michael Bartlett, László B Tankó
BACKGROUND: Patients experiencing disuse atrophy report acute loss of skeletal muscle mass which subsequently leads to loss of strength and physical capacity. In such patients, especially the elderly, complete recovery remains a challenge even with improved nutrition and resistance exercise. This study aimed to explore the clinical potential of bimagrumab, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the activin type II receptor, for the recovery of skeletal muscle volume from disuse atrophy using an experimental model of lower extremity immobilization...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901677/natriuretic-peptides-in-the-control-of-lipid-metabolism-and-insulin-sensitivity
#19
REVIEW
K Verboven, D Hansen, J W E Jocken, E E Blaak
Natriuretic peptides have long been known for their cardiovascular function. However, a growing body of evidence emphasizes the role of natriuretic peptides in human substrate and energy metabolism, thereby connecting the heart with several insulin-sensitive organs like adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver. Obesity may be associated with an impaired regulation of the natriuretic peptide system, also indicated as a natriuretic handicap. Evidence points towards a contribution of this natriuretic handicap to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiometabolic complications, although the causal relationship is not fully understood...
September 12, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899879/pronounced-energy-restriction-with-elevated-protein-intake-results-in-no-change-in-proteolysis-and-reductions-in-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-that-are-mitigated-by-resistance-exercise
#20
Amy J Hector, Chris McGlory, Felipe Damas, Nicole Mazara, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips
Preservation of lean body mass (LBM) may be important during dietary energy restriction (ER) and requires equal rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Currently, the relative contribution of MPS and MPB to the loss of LBM during ER in humans is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of dietary protein intake and resistance exercise on MPS and MPB during a controlled short-term energy deficit. Adult men (body mass index, 28.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2); age 22 ± 1 yr) underwent 10 d of 40%-reduced energy intake while performing unilateral resistance exercise and consuming lower protein (1...
September 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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