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skeletal muscle and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338369/dha-rich-fish-oil-increases-the-omega-3-index-and-lowers-the-oxygen-cost-of-physiologically-stressful-cycling-in-trained-individuals
#1
Lachlan Hingley, Michael J Macartney, Marc A Brown, Peter L McLennan, Gregory E Peoples
Dietary fish oil, providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) modulates oxygen consumption and fatigue in animal models. However, in humans predominately supplemented with high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), there is no evidence of endurance performance enhancement. Therefore, this study examined if DHA-rich fish oil could improve repeated bouts of physiologically stressful cycling and a subsequent time trial in a state of fatigue. Twenty-six trained males took part in a double-blind study and were supplemented with either 2x1g/day soy oil (Control) or DHA-rich tuna fish oil (Nu-Mega) (FO) (560mg DHA / 140mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) for eight weeks...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336390/is-parasternal-intercostal-emg-an-accurate-surrogate-of-respiratory-neural-drive-and-biomarker-of-dyspnea-during-cycle-exercise-testing
#2
Andrew H Ramsook, Reid A Mitchell, Tyson Bell, Suzanne Calli, Chris Kennedy, Jenny Lehmann, Matt Thompson, Joseph H Puyat, Jordan A Guenette
Recent evidence suggests that surface electromyography of the parasternal intercostals (EMGpara) can be a non-invasive alternative to diaphragmatic EMG (EMGdi) for estimating neural respiratory drive (NRD) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). The purpose of this study was to determine if non-respiratory muscles influence EMGpara by having subjects place their hands on (Hon) and off (Hoff) the handlebars during cycling-based CPET. Ten healthy adults performed an incremental cycling test until volitional exhaustion...
March 20, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335145/experimental-beneficial-effect-of-the-exercise-on-the-skeletal-muscle-subjected-to-chronic-ischemia-by-restoration-of-the-mitochondrial-function
#3
Anne Lejay, Charline Delay, Anne-Laure Charles, Fabien Thaveau, Joffrey Zoll, Nabil Chakfe, Bernard Geny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332118/nutrition-and-training-influences-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-adenosine-diphosphate-sensitivity-and-bioenergetics
#4
REVIEW
Graham P Holloway
Since the seminal finding almost 50 years ago that exercise training increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle, a considerable amount of research has been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms inducing mitochondrial biogenesis. The discovery of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α as a major regulator of exercise-induced gene transcription was instrumental in beginning to understand the signals regulating this process. However, almost two decades after its discovery, our understanding of the signals inducing mitochondrial biogenesis remain poorly defined, limiting our insights into possible novel training modalities in elite athletes that can increase the oxidative potential of muscle...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332115/periodized-nutrition-for-athletes
#5
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329460/model-based-comparison-of-the-normal-and-fontan-circulatory-systems-part-iii
#6
Raymond L Watrous, Alvin J Chin
BACKGROUND: For patients with the Fontan circulatory arrangement, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, guanylate cyclase activation, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition, and endothelin receptor antagonism have so far resulted in little or no improvement in [Formula: see text] or peak cardiac index (CI), suggesting that our understanding of the factors that most impact the exercise hemodynamics is incomplete. METHODS: To facilitate comparisons with clinical reports of the exercise performance of preadolescent Fontan patients, we rescaled our previously reported computational models of a two-year-old normal child and similarly aged Fontan patient, extended our Fontan model to capture the nonlinear relationship between flow and resistance quantified from previous computational fluid dynamic analyses of the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC), and added respiration as well as skeletal muscle contraction...
March 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328496/brain-over-brawn-smart-imaging-innovations-open-windows-on-muscle-provide-hope-for-treating-degenerating-diseases-and-more
#7
Leslie Mertz
As much as we know about the vitamins, minerals, and types of exercise important to promoting good muscle health, many fundamental questions remain about skeletal and cardiac muscle.
March 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321925/effects-of-6-months-aerobic-interval-training-on-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-in-middle-aged-metabolic-syndrome-patients
#8
A Guadalupe-Grau, V E Fernández-Elías, J F Ortega, F Dela, J W Helge, R Mora Rodríguez
AIM: Aerobic interval training (AIT) improves the health of metabolic syndrome patients (MetS) more than moderate intensity continuous training. However, AIT has not been shown to reverse all metabolic syndrome risk factors, possibly due to the limited duration of the training programs. PURPOSE: To assess the effects of 6 months of AIT on cardio-metabolic health and muscle metabolism in middle aged MetS. METHODS: Eleven MetS (54.5 ± 0.7 yrs old) underwent 6 month of 3 days a week supervised AIT program on a cycle-ergometer...
March 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320830/exercise-and-the-skeletal-muscle-epigenome
#9
Sean L McGee, Ken R Walder
An acute bout of exercise is sufficient to induce changes in skeletal muscle gene expression that are ultimately responsible for the adaptive responses to exercise. Although much research has described the intracellular signaling responses to exercise that are linked to transcriptional regulation, the epigenetic mechanisms involved are only just emerging. This review will provide an overview of epigenetic mechanisms and what is known in the context of exercise. Additionally, we will explore potential interactions between metabolism during exercise and epigenetic regulation, which serves as a framework for potential areas for future research...
March 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319140/role-of-muscle-il-6-in-gender-specific-metabolism-in-mice
#10
Amalia Molinero, Antonio Fernandez-Perez, Aina Mogas, Mercedes Giralt, Gemma Comes, Olaya Fernandez-Gayol, Mario Vallejo, Juan Hidalgo
The aim of the present work was to further explore the physiological roles of muscle-derived IL-6. Adult-floxed and conditional skeletal muscle IL-6 knock out male and female mice were used to study energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry at rest and during treadmill exercise, and body temperature cycle during the light phase) and energy intake (response to fast/refeeding). We also evaluated the responses to leptin and the activity of the insulin signalling pathway in skeletal muscle and liver by phosphorylation of Akt at Ser 473...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318397/baiba-does-not-regulate-ucp-3-expression-in-human-skeletal-muscle-as-a-response-to-aerobic-exercise
#11
Flor E Morales, Jeffrey S Forsse, Thomas L Andre, Sarah K McKinley-Barnard, Paul S Hwang, Ian G Anthony, Grant M Tinsley, Mike Spillane, Peter W Grandjean, Alejandro Ramirez, Darryn S Willoughby
OBJECTIVE: β-Aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) has shown to modulate uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 expression, which is mainly expressed in white adipose tissue; however, no studies to date have analyzed its potential effect on the main uncoupling protein of skeletal muscle, UCP-3. The main goal of this study was to assess the potential effect of acute aerobic exercise on serum BAIBA and skeletal muscle UCP-3. The secondary goal was to assess the potential involvement of the transcription factors proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), as well as free fatty acids (FFAs) in UCP-3 expression...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318098/decreased-insulin-stimulated-brown-adipose-tissue-glucose-uptake-after-short-term-exercise-training-in-healthy-middle-aged-men
#12
Piryanka Motiani, Kirsi A Virtanen, Kumail K Motiani, Joonas J Eskelinen, Roeland J Middelbeek, Laurie J Goodyear, Anna M Savolainen, Jukka Kemppainen, Jørgen Jensen, Mueez U Din, Virva Saunavaara, Riitta Parkkola, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Juhani Knuuti, Pirjo Nuutila, Kari K Kalliokoski, Jarna C Hannukainen
AIMS: Little is known about the effects of exercise training on brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism in humans. We tested the hypothesis that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) improve BAT insulin sensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy middle-aged men (n = 18, age 47 [CI: 49, 43] years, BMI 25.3 [CI: 24.1-26.3] kg · m(-2) , VO2peak 34.8[CI: 32.1, 37.4] ml · kg(-1)  · min(-1) ) were recruited and randomized into six HIIT or MICT sessions within two weeks...
March 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317895/upregulation-of-skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-through-the-elevation-of-cyclic-amp-levels-by-cyanidin-3-glucoside-enhances-exercise-performance
#13
Toshiya Matsukawa, Hideko Motojima, Yuki Sato, Shinya Takahashi, Myra O Villareal, Hiroko Isoda
Regular exercise and physical training enhance physiological capacity and improve metabolic diseases. Skeletal muscles require peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the process of their adaptation to exercise owing to PGC-1α's ability to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G) is a natural polyphenol and a nutraceutical factor, which has several beneficial effects on human health. Here, the effect of Cy3G on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms involved were investigated...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317297/cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-type-2-diabetes-with-high-fat-and-low-muscle-mass-at-baseline-and-in-response-to-exercise
#14
Tasuku Terada, Normand G Boulé, Mary Forhan, Carla M Prado, Glen P Kenny, Denis Prud'homme, Eiji Ito, Ronald J Sigal
OBJECTIVE: To examine the interplay between high fat and low muscle mass on cardiometabolic risk factors at baseline and in response to exercise in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Using baseline percent body fat and skeletal muscle mass index, 248 participants were divided into high fat versus low fat and low muscle versus high muscle. Linear mixed models were used to examine the main effects of fat mass and muscle mass and their interaction on baseline cardiometabolic risk factors and changes in risk factors in response to 6-month exercise training...
March 20, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316572/eccentric-ergometer-training-promotes-locomotor-muscle-strength-but-not-mitochondrial-adaptation-in-patients-with-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#15
Norah J MacMillan, Sophia Kapchinsky, Yana Konokhova, Gilles Gouspillou, Riany de Sousa Sena, R Thomas Jagoe, Jacinthe Baril, Tamara E Carver, Ross E Andersen, Ruddy Richard, Hélène Perrault, Jean Bourbeau, Russell T Hepple, Tanja Taivassalo
Eccentric ergometer training (EET) is increasingly being proposed as a therapeutic strategy to improve skeletal muscle strength in various cardiorespiratory diseases, due to the principle that lengthening muscle actions lead to high force-generating capacity at low cardiopulmonary load. One clinical population that may particularly benefit from this strategy is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as ventilatory constraints and locomotor muscle dysfunction often limit efficacy of conventional exercise rehabilitation in patients with severe disease...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297657/modeling-the-actin-myosin-atpase-cross-bridge-cycle-for-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle-myosin%C3%A2-isoforms
#16
Srbolujub M Mijailovich, Djordje Nedic, Marina Svicevic, Boban Stojanovic, Jonathan Walklate, Zoltan Ujfalusi, Michael A Geeves
Modeling the complete actin.myosin ATPase cycle has always been limited by the lack of experimental data concerning key steps of the cycle, because these steps can only be defined at very low ionic strength. Here, using human β-cardiac myosin-S1, we combine published data from transient and steady-state kinetics to model a minimal eight-state ATPase cycle. The model illustrates the occupancy of each intermediate around the cycle and how the occupancy is altered by changes in actin concentration for [actin] = 1-20Km...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295686/increased-insulin-stimulated-glucose-uptake-in-both-leg-and-arm-muscles-after-sprint-interval-and-moderate-intensity-training-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-or-prediabetes
#17
Tanja J Sjöros, Marja A Heiskanen, Kumail K Motiani, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Jari-Joonas Eskelinen, Kirsi A Virtanen, Nina J Savisto, Olof Solin, Jarna C Hannukainen, Kari K Kalliokoski
We investigated the effects of sprint interval (SIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on glucose uptake (GU) during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and fatty acid uptake (FAU) at fasting state in thigh and arm muscles in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or prediabetes. Twenty-six patients (age 49, SD 4; 10 women) were randomly assigned into two groups: SIT (n=13), and MICT (n=13). The exercise in the SIT group consisted of 4-6 x 30 s of all-out cycling with 4 min recovery and in the MICT group 40-60 min cycling at 60% of VO2peak ...
March 13, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294339/we-are-what-we-eat-eating-against-the-grain-may-not-be-as-beneficial-to-performance-and-economy-in-endurance-athletes
#18
Joshua M Bock, Nicholas T Kruse
During prolonged, submaximal exercise skeletal muscle uses both carbohydrates (CHO) and lipids as substrates to synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP); the fundamental unit of energy This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292969/exercise-increases-human-skeletal-muscle-insulin-sensitivity-via-coordinated-increases-in-microvascular-perfusion-and-molecular-signaling
#19
Kim A Sjøberg, Christian Frøsig, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Lykke Sylow, Maximilian Kleinert, Andrew C Betik, Christopher S Shaw, Bente Kiens, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Stephen Rattigan, Erik A Richter, Glenn K McConell
Insulin resistance is a major health risk and although exercise clearly improves skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, the mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that initiation of a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp four hours after single-legged exercise in humans increased microvascular perfusion (determined by contrast enhanced ultrasound) by 65% in the exercised leg and 25% in the rested leg (p<0.05) and leg glucose uptake increased 50% more (p<0.05) in the exercised leg than the rested leg. Importantly, infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NMMA into both femoral arteries reversed the insulin stimulated increase in microvascular perfusion in both legs and abrogated the greater glucose uptake in the exercised compared with the rested leg...
March 14, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292879/%C3%AE-gpa-treatment-leads-to-elevated-basal-metabolic-rate-and-enhanced-hypoxic-exercise-tolerance-in-mice
#20
Trenton T Ross, Jeffrey D Overton, Katelyn F Houmard, Stephen T Kinsey
Treatments that increase basal metabolic rate (BMR) and enhance exercise capacity may be useful therapeutic approaches for treating conditions such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and associated circulatory problems. β-guanidinopropionic acid (β-GPA) supplementation decreases high-energy phosphate concentrations, such as ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) resulting in an energetic challenge that is similar to both exercise programs and hypoxic conditions. In this study, we administered β-GPA to mice for 2 or 6 weeks, and investigated the effect on muscle energetic status, body and muscle mass, muscle capillarity, BMR, and normoxic and hypoxic exercise tolerance (NET and HET, respectively)...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
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