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skeletal muscle and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775761/the-bone-anabolic-effects-of-irisin-are-through-preferential-stimulation-of-aerobic-glycolysis
#1
Dingdong Zhang, ChuHyun Bae, Junghak Lee, Jiho Lee, Zeyu Jin, Myeongmo Kang, Young Suk Cho, Jeong-Han Kim, Weontae Lee, Sung-Kil Lim
Irisin, a recently identified hormone secreted by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, exhibits anabolic effects on the skeleton primarily through the stimulation of bone formation. However, the mechanism underlying the irisin-stimulated anabolic response remains largely unknown. To uncover the underlying mechanism, we biosynthesized recombinant irisin (r-irisin) using an Escherichia coli expression system and used it to treat several osteoblast cell types. Our synthesized r-irisin could promote proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts as evidenced by enhanced expression of osteoblast-specific transcriptional factors, including Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), Oster (Osx), as well as early osteoblastic differentiation markers such as alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1a1)...
May 15, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775407/effect-of-healthy-aging-and-sex-on-middle-cerebral-artery-blood-velocity-dynamics-during-moderate-intensity-exercise
#2
Jaimie L Ward, Jesse C Craig, Yumei Liu, Eric Dennis Vidoni, Rebecca Malesky, David C Poole, Sandra A Billinger
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity measured in the middle cerebral artery (MCAV ) increases with finite kinetics during moderate intensity exercise and both the amplitude and dynamics of the response provide invaluable insights into the controlling mechanisms. The MCAV response following exercise onset is well fit to an exponential model in young individuals but remains to be characterized in their older counterparts. The responsiveness of vasomotor control degrades with advancing age, especially in skeletal muscle, and we tested the hypothesis that older subjects would evince a slower and reduced MCAV response to exercise...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773865/perlecan-a-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan-regulates-systemic-metabolism-with-dynamic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle
#3
Yuri Yamashita, Satoshi Nakada, Toshinori Yoshihara, Takeshi Nara, Norihiko Furuya, Takashi Miida, Nobutaka Hattori, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa
Perlecan (HSPG2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a component of basement membranes and participates in a variety of biological activities. Here, we show physiological roles of perlecan in both obesity and the onset of metabolic syndrome. The perinatal lethality-rescued perlecan knockout (Hspg2-/- -Tg) mice showed a smaller mass and cell size of white adipose tissues than control (WT-Tg) mice. Abnormal lipid deposition, such as fatty liver, was not detected in the Hspg2-/- -Tg mice, and those mice also consumed more fat as an energy source, likely due to their activated fatty acid oxidation...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773650/the-exercise-inducible-bile-acid-receptor-tgr5-improves-skeletal-muscle-function-in-mice
#4
Takashi Sasaki, Ayane Kuboyama, Moeko Mita, Shotaro Murata, Makoto Shimizu, Jun Inoue, Kazutoshi Mori, Ryuichiro Sato
TGR5 (also known as G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1, GPBAR1) is a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor that is expressed in many diverse tissues. TGR5 is involved in various metabolic processes, including glucose metabolism and energy expenditure; however, TGR5's function in skeletal muscle is not fully understood. Using both gain- and loss-of-function mouse models, we demonstrate here that Tgr5 activation promotes muscle cell differentiation and muscle hypertrophy. Both young and old transgenic mice with muscle-specific Tgr5 expression exhibited increased muscle strength...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769428/myokine-irisin-induced-protection-against-oxidative-stress-in-vitro-involvement-of-heme-oxygenase-1-and-antioxidazing-enzymes-superoxide-dismutase-2-and-glutathione-peroxidase
#5
A I Mazur-Bialy, K Kozlowska, E Pochec, J Bilski, T Brzozowski
Irisin is a recently discovered myokine reported as protective protein released from exercising skeletal muscles. Although myokines were recently reported to possess the antioxidizing properties, the impact of irisin on the functions of macrophages with respect to its anti-inflammatory potential has not been fully elucidated. Here, we determined the ability of irisin to interact with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. The macrophages were pre-incubated with irisin (0 - 50 nM), some of which had undergone additional co-incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng/ml)...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767544/the-aerobic-resistance-inspiratory-muscle-training-hypothesis-in-heart-failure
#6
Ioannis D Laoutaris
Evidence from large multicentre exercise intervention trials in heart failure patients, investigating both moderate continuous aerobic training and high intensity interval training, indicates that the 'crème de la crème' exercise programme for this population remains to be found. The 'aerobic/resistance/inspiratory (ARIS) muscle training hypothesis in heart failure' is introduced, suggesting that combined ARIS muscle training may result in maximal exercise pathophysiological and functional benefits in heart failure patients...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765493/long-term-exercise-protects-against-cellular-stresses-in-aged-mice
#7
Irina Belaya, Masataka Suwa, Tao Chen, Rashid Giniatullin, Katja M Kanninen, Mustafa Atalay, Shuzo Kumagai
The current study examined the effect of aging and long-term wheel-running on the expression of heat shock protein (HSP), redox regulation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers in tibialis anterior (T.A.) and soleus muscle of mice. Male mice were divided into young (Y, 3-month-old), old-sedentary (OS, 24-month-old), and old-exercise (OE, 24-month-old) groups. The OE group started voluntary wheel-running at 3 months and continued until 24 months of age. Aging was associated with a higher thioredoxin-interacting protein (TxNiP) level, lower thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) to TxNiP ratio-a determinant of redox regulation and increased CHOP, an indicator of ER stress-related apoptosis signaling in both muscles...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761654/low-load-resistance-exercise-during-inactivity-is-associated-with-greater-fibre-area-and-satellite-cell-expression-in-older-skeletal-muscle
#8
Daniel R Moore, Ryan P Kelly, Michaela C Devries, Tyler A Churchward-Venne, Stuart M Phillips, Gianni Parise, Adam P Johnston
BACKGROUND: Age-related sarcopenia is accelerated by physical inactivity. Low-load resistance exercise (LLRE) counters inactivity-induced muscle atrophy in older adults, but changes in muscle fibre morphology are unstudied. We aimed to determine the impact of LLRE during short-term inactivity (step-reduction) on muscle fibre size and capillarity as well as satellite cell (SC) content in older skeletal muscle. METHODS: Fourteen older (~71 years) male adults underwent 14 days of step reduction (<1500 steps/day) while performing six sessions of LLRE (~30% maximal strength) with one leg (SR + EX) while the contralateral leg served as an untrained control (SR)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761414/spatially-resolved-kinetics-of-skeletal-muscle-exercise-response-and-recovery-with-multiple-echo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-mediti-a-feasibility-study
#9
E E Sigmund, S H Baete, K Patel, D Wang, D Stoffel, R Otazo, P Parasoglou, J Bencardino
OBJECTIVES: We describe measurement of skeletal muscle kinetics with multiple echo diffusion tensor imaging (MEDITI). This approach allows characterization of the microstructural dynamics in healthy and pathologic muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a Siemens 3-T Skyra scanner, MEDITI was used to collect dynamic DTI with a combination of rapid diffusion encoding, radial imaging, and compressed sensing reconstruction in a multi-compartment agarose gel rotation phantom and within in vivo calf muscle...
May 14, 2018: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761224/cardiopulmonary-factors-affecting-6-min-walk-distance-in-patients-with-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies
#10
Naoki Mugii, Fujiko Someya
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies involve skeletal muscles and can be associated with interstitial lung disease and/or heart dysfunction, which may reduce exercise capacity. We aimed to clarify cardiopulmonary factors affecting the 6-min walk distance in patients who were able to walk without leg pain or fatigue. Twenty-three patients with inactive adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, and 18 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were evaluated for hemodynamic responses using noninvasive impedance cardiography during the 6-min walk test...
May 14, 2018: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760520/author-correction-skeletal-muscle-phosphatidylcholine-and-phosphatidylethanolamine-respond-to-exercise-and-influence-insulin-sensitivity-in-men
#11
Sindre Lee, Frode Norheim, Hanne L Gulseth, Torgrim M Langleite, Andreas Aker, Thomas E Gundersen, Torgeir Holen, Kåre I Birkeland, Christian A Drevon
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757230/exercise-and-nutrition-strategies-to-counteract-sarcopenic-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Inez Trouwborst, Amely Verreijen, Robert Memelink, Pablo Massanet, Yves Boirie, Peter Weijs, Michael Tieland
As the population is aging rapidly, there is a strong increase in the number of individuals with chronic disease and physical limitations. The decrease in skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) and the increase in fat mass (obesity) are important contributors to the development of physical limitations, which aggravates the chronic diseases prognosis. The combination of the two conditions, which is referred to as sarcopenic obesity, amplifies the risk for these negative health outcomes, which demonstrates the importance of preventing or counteracting sarcopenic obesity...
May 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757056/whey-protein-augments-leucinemia-and-post-exercise-p70s6k1-activity-compared-to-a-hydrolysed-collagen-blend-when-in-recovery-from-training-with-low-carbohydrate-availability
#13
Samuel G Impey, Kelly M Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O Shepherd, Adam P Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, D Lee Hamilton, Graeme L Close, James P Morton
We examined the effects of whey versus collagen protein on skeletal muscle cell signalling responses associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and protein synthesis in recovery from an acute training session completed with low carbohydrate (CHO) availability. In a repeated measures design (after adhering to a 36-h exercise-dietary intervention to standardise pre-exercise muscle glycogen), eight males completed a 75-min non-exhaustive cycling protocol and consumed 22 g of a hydrolysed collagen blend (COLLAGEN) or whey (WHEY) protein 45 min prior to exercise, 22 g during exercise and 22 g immediately post-exercise...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756416/testosterone-and-sarcopenia
#14
REVIEW
Myung Jun Shin, Yun Kyung Jeon, In Joo Kim
Aging affects metabolism, leading to physiological and functional impairments, and is also related to changes in body composition, including reduced skeletal muscle mass and increased body fat. These changes are correlated with the pathophysiology of sarcopenia, which is defined as age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Low testosterone levels are associated with unfavorable body composition changes, and sex hormones decrease with aging. Androgen deficiency, along with lack of exercise and poor nutrition, may be among the modifiable contributors to sarcopenia...
May 11, 2018: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756164/methods-for-the-determination-of-skeletal-muscle-blood-flow-development-strengths-and-limitations
#15
REVIEW
Lasse Gliemann, Stefan P Mortensen, Ylva Hellsten
Since the first measurements of limb blood flow at rest and during nerve stimulation were conducted in the late 1800s, a number of methods have been developed for the determination of limb and skeletal muscle blood flow in humans. The methods, which have been applied in the study of aspects such as blood flow regulation, oxygen uptake and metabolism, differ in terms of strengths and degree of limitations but most have advantages for specific settings. The purpose of this review is to describe the origin and the basic principles of the methods, important aspects and requirements of the procedures...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755574/branched-chain-amino-acids-in-health-and-disease-metabolism-alterations-in-blood-plasma-and-as-supplements
#16
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755474/exercise-increases-insulin-sensitivity-and-skeletal-muscle-ampk-expression-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Fabiana B Benatti, Cíntia N H Miyake, Wagner S Dantas, Vanessa O Zambelli, Samuel K Shinjo, Rosa M R Pereira, Maria Elizabeth R Silva, Ana Lúcia Sá-Pinto, Eduardo Borba, Eloisa Bonfá, Bruno Gualano
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients may show increased insulin resistance (IR) when compared with their healthy peers. Exercise training has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in other insulin-resistant populations, but it has never been tested in SLE. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of a moderate-intensity exercise training program on insulin sensitivity and potential underlying mechanisms in SLE patients with mild/inactive disease. A 12-week, randomized controlled trial was conducted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750574/exercise-training-during-chemotherapy-preserves-skeletal-muscle-fiber-area-capillarization-and-mitochondrial-content-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#18
Sara Mijwel, Daniele A Cardinale, Jessica Norrbom, Mark Chapman, Niklas Ivarsson, Yvonne Wengström, Carl Johan Sundberg, Helene Rundqvist
Exercise has been suggested to ameliorate the detrimental effects of chemotherapy on skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different exercise regimens with usual care on skeletal muscle morphology and mitochondrial markers in patients being treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer. Specifically, we compared moderate-intensity aerobic combined with high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) and resistance combined with high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT) with usual care (UC)...
May 11, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750251/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-training-and-essential-amino-acid-supplementation-for-24-weeks-on-physical-function-body-composition-and-muscle-metabolism-in-healthy-independent-older-adults-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Melissa M Markofski, Kristofer Jennings, Kyle L Timmerman, Jared M Dickinson, Christopher S Fry, Michael S Borack, Paul T Reidy, Rachel R Deer, Amanda Randolph, Blake B Rasmussen, Elena Volpi
Background: Essential amino acids (EAA) and aerobic exercise (AE) acutely and independently stimulate skeletal muscle protein anabolism in older adults. Objective: In this Phase 1, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial, we determined if chronic EAA supplementation, AE training, or a combination of the two interventions could improve muscle mass and function by stimulating muscle protein synthesis. Methods: We phone screened 971, enrolled 109, and randomized 50 independent, low-active, non-frail, non-diabetic older adults (age 72±1 yrs)...
May 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746891/effect-of-green-tea-extract-supplementation-on-exercise-induced-delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-and-muscular-damage
#20
Willian da Silva, Álvaro S Machado, Mauren A Souza, Pâmela B Mello-Carpes, Felipe P Carpes
Previous studies addressed the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of compounds from green tea in different human tissues. Positive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were described for brain tissues. Whether similar effects are observed in the skeletal muscle, green tea supplementation could be a strategy to reduce delayed onset muscle soreness resultant of exercise. Here we determine the effect of green tea extract supplementation on exercise-induced muscle soreness, muscle damage and oxidative stress...
May 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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