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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417245/elbasvir-grazoprevir-a-review-in-chronic-hcv-genotypes-1-and-4
#1
Zaina T Al-Salama, Emma D Deeks
A fixed-dose combination tablet comprising the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor elbasvir and the HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor grazoprevir (elbasvir/grazoprevir; Zepatier™) was recently approved for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 and 4 infection in the EU and the USA. In phase III trials, 12 or 16 weeks of treatment with once-daily elbasvir/grazoprevir (fixed-dose tablet or as individual agents), taken with or without ribavirin, generally provided high rates of sustained virological response at 12 weeks (SVR12) in treatment-naive and -experienced adult patients with chronic HCV genotype 1a, 1b or 4 infection, including those with or without compensated cirrhosis, HIV co-infection, inherited blood disorders or chronic kidney disease or patients receiving opioid agonist therapy or of Japanese origin...
April 17, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414687/disseminated-cryptococcal-disease-with-diffuse-pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-non-hiv-host
#2
M Hughes, K Trivedi, M Rudrappa
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of disseminated Cryptococcus in a non-HIV host, where the primary manifestation was pulmonary with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. This patient was on high dose corticosteroids for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. CASE: A 79 year old Caucasian man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia on 100 mg of prednisone daily, coronary artery disease s/p bypass surgery, ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease, and history of bilateral pulmonary emboli presented to Hematology/Oncology clinic with symptoms of productive cough, worsening shortness of breath, hemoptysis...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406595/changes-in-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-over-time-in-south-african-hiv-1-infected-patients-receiving-tenofovir-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Reneé De Waal, Karen Cohen, Matthew P Fox, Kathryn Stinson, Gary Maartens, Andrew Boulle, Ehimario U Igumbor, Mary-Ann Davies
INTRODUCTION: Tenofovir has been associated with decline in kidney function, but in patients with low baseline kidney function, improvements over time have been reported. Additionally, the magnitude and trajectory of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) changes may differ according to how eGFR is calculated. We described changes in eGFR over time, and the incidence of, and risk factors for, kidney toxicity, in a South African cohort. METHODS: We included antiretroviral-naïve patients ≥16 years old who started tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2002 and 2013...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402929/kidney-disease-and-hiv-infection
#4
Christina M Wyatt
The risk of acute and chronic kidney disease remains higher in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, and kidney disease in HIV-infected persons is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality. HIV-associated nephropathy occurs less frequently in the era of antiretroviral therapy. HIV immune complex kidney disease is being diagnosed more frequently, but the term is currently used to refer to a heterogeneous group of kidney diseases. Comorbid chronic kidney disease poses a growing burden in HIV-infected persons due to an overrepresentation of risk factors such as black race, diabetes, hypertension, and coinfection with hepatitis C virus...
February 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398958/new-onset-diabetes-in-hiv-treated-adults-from-thailand-predictors-long-term-renal-and-cardiovascular-outcomes
#5
Opass Putcharoen, Lalita Wattanachanya, Jiratchaya Sophonphan, Sarawut Siwamogsatham, Vorapot Sapsirisavat, Sivaporn Gatechompol, Supalak Phonphithak, Stephen J Kerr, Yingyos Avihingsanon, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Anchalee Avihingsanon
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus (DM) in a cohort of Thai HIV-infected patients on long-term combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). DESIGN: Prospective study conducted between July 1996-April 30, 2015. METHODS: 1,748 subjects (60% males) who did not have DM prior to ART were assessed twice a year. Incident DM was defined as either having two consecutive fasting glucose levels >126 mg/dL, or reporting anti-DM medication/ DM diagnosis after starting cART...
April 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391078/calcifications-de-la-loge-parotidienne-mise-au-point
#6
S Avignon, J M Foletti, C Collet, L Guyot, C Chossegros
INTRODUCTION: . Parotid lithiasis is the main cause of calcifications in the parotid space. However, there are many other less-known causes. The aim of our study was to point out the non lithiasic causes of calcifications in the parotid space. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted an exhaustive review of the literature by mean of PubMed, using the keywords "parotid" and "calcification" and limiting our analysis to the original articles in humans published in English and in French...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376824/hepatitis-c-co-infection-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-incident-chronic-kidney-disease-in-hiv-infected-patients-initiating-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Carmine Rossi, Janet Raboud, Sharon Walmsley, Curtis Cooper, Tony Antoniou, Ann N Burchell, Mark Hull, Jason Chia, Robert S Hogg, Erica E M Moodie, Marina B Klein
BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has reduced mortality from AIDS-related illnesses and chronic comorbidities have become prevalent among HIV-infected patients. We examined the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD) among patients initiating modern antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Canadian HIV Observational Cohort for individuals initiating cART from 2000 to 2012. Incident CKD was defined as two consecutive serum creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) measurements <60 mL/min/1...
April 4, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372551/kidney-disease-in-uganda-a-community-based-study
#8
Robert Kalyesubula, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Isaac Ssinabulya, Trishul Siddharthan, James Kayima, Jane Nakibuuka, Robert A Salata, Charles Mondo, Moses R Kamya, Donald Hricik
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The majority of studies on CKD in SSA have been conducted among HIV-infected populations and mainly from large health facilities. We determined the prevalence of CKD and its predictors among populations in communities in central Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wakiso district using multi-stage sampling. Data was collected on age, sex, socio-economic status, history of alcohol intake, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and smoking...
April 3, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367350/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-occurring-in-a-kidney-transplant-patient-with-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#9
Jose Iglesias, Kandria Jumil Ledesma, Paul J Couto, Jessie Liu
Tuberculosis (TB) occurring in solid organ transplantation (SOT) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality usually due to delays in diagnosis, drug toxicity encountered with antimycobacterial therapy, and drug-drug interactions. TB in SOT patients may mimic other infectious and noninfectious posttransplant complications such as posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and systemic cytomegalovirus infection. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a host response resulting in paradoxical worsening of an infectious disease which occurs after the employment of effective therapy and reversal of an immunosuppressed state...
2017: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360466/rare-cause-of-paradoxical-worsening-of-pleural-effusion-in-a-patient-with-tuberculosis
#10
Paramasivan Duraikannan, S Saheer, T Balamugesh, D J Christopher
A 33-year-old patient, Known case of chronic kidney disease on maintenance dialysis presented with complaints of low-grade fever and weight loss of 2 months duration. Computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral mild pleural effusion with significant mediastinal and abdominal adenopathy. CT-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of abdominal lymph nodes and bone marrow culture was suggestive of tuberculosis. The patient was started on four drug anti-tubercular therapy, post 6 weeks of initiation he developed new onset fever and chest X-ray revealed moderate right pleural effusion...
March 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355402/budd-chiari-syndrome-secondary-to-catheter-associated-inferior-vena-cava-thrombosis
#11
Gustavo N Araujo, Luciane M Restelatto, Carlos A Prompt, Cristina Karohl
INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for thrombotic complications. The use of central venous catheters as dialysis vascular access additionally increases this risk. We describe the first case of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) secondary to central venous catheter misplacement in a patient with CKD. CASE REPORT: A 30-year-old female patient with HIV/AIDS and CKD on hemodialysis was admitted to the emergency room for complaints of fever, prostration, and headache in the last six days...
March 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341926/risks-associated-with-antiretroviral-treatment-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-qualitative-analysis-of-social-media-data-and-health-state-utility-valuation
#12
Louis S Matza, Karen C Chung, Katherine J Kim, Trena M Paulus, Evan W Davies, Katie D Stewart, Grace A McComsey, Marshall W Fordyce
PURPOSE: Despite benefits of antiretroviral therapies (ART), people with HIV infection have increased risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and low bone mineral density. Some ARTs increase risk of these events. The purpose of this study was to examine patients' perspectives of these risks and estimate health state utilities associated with these risks for use in cost-utility models. METHODS: Qualitative thematic analysis was conducted to examine messages posted to the POZ/AIDSmeds Internet community forums, focusing on bone, kidney, and cardiovascular side effects and risks of HIV/AIDS medications...
March 24, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321326/first-canadian-case-report-of-kidney-transplantation-from-an-hiv-positive-donor-to-an-hiv-positive-recipient
#13
Georges Ambaraghassi, Héloïse Cardinal, Daniel Corsilli, Claude Fortin, Marie-Chantal Fortin, Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Jacques Malaise, Michel R Pâquet, Danielle Rouleau
RATIONALE: Kidney transplantation has become standard of care for carefully selected patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. American and European prospective cohort studies have reported similar patient and graft survival compared with HIV-negative kidney transplant recipients. Despite an increased rate of acute rejection, partially due to drug interactions, HIV immunovirologic parameter generally remains under control during immunosuppression...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302065/lamivudine-dolutegravir-dual-therapy-in-hiv-infected-virologically-suppressed-patients
#14
Franco Maggiolo, Roberto Gulminetti, Layla Pagnucco, Margherita Digaetano, Simone Benatti, Daniela Valenti, Annapaola Callegaro, Diego Ripamonti, Cristina Mussini
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the applicability of dual treatments based on integrase inhibitors. We explored the combination of lamivudine + dolutegravir as an option when switching from standard cART in virologically suppressed patients. METHODS: In this prospective cohort we enrolled patients previously switched to 3TC + DTG who were 18 years or older, with no previous resistance mutations to the used drugs, having a HIV-RNA <50 copies/ml for 6 months or longer, negative for HBsAg and on a stable (>6 months) cART...
March 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298195/role-of-systemic-inflammation-scores-for-prediction-of-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-treated-with-atazanavir-not-boosted-by-ritonavir-in-the-italian-master-cohort
#15
Maria Concetta Postorino, Mattia Prosperi, Emanuele Focà, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Elisa Di Filippo, Franco Maggiolo, Alberto Borghetti, Nicoletta Ladisa, Massimo Di Pietro, Andrea Gori, Laura Sighinolfi, Angelo Pan, Nicola Mazzini, Carlo Torti
BACKGROUND: Atazanavir (ATV) not boosted by ritonavir (uATV) has been frequently used in the past for switching combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the clinical outcomes and predictors of such strategy are unknown. METHODS: An observational study was carried out on the Italian MASTER, selecting HIV infected patients on cART switching to an uATV-containing regimen. Baseline was set as the last visit before uATV initiation. In the primary analysis, a composite clinical end-point was defined as the first occurring of any condition among: liver, cardiovascular, kidney, diabetes, non AIDS related cancer or death events...
March 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288014/the-times-they-are-a-changing-hope-for-hiv-to-hiv-organ-transplantation
#16
Ghady Haidar, Nina Singh
HIV-infected persons who achieve undetectable viral loads on antiretroviral therapy currently have near-normal lifespans. Liver disease is a major cause of non-AIDS-related deaths, and as a result of longer survival, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease in HIV is increasing. HIV-infected persons undergoing organ transplantation generally achieve comparable patient and graft survival rates compared to their HIV-uninfected counterparts, despite a nearly threefold increased risk of acute rejection. However, the ongoing shortage of suitable organs can limit transplantation as an option, and patients with HIV have higher waitlist mortality than others...
March 1, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282247/effect-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-on-incidence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-and-rate-of-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-decrement-in-hiv-1-infected-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-asian-patients-results-from-12-year-observational-cohort
#17
Soichiro Suzuki, Takeshi Nishijima, Yohei Kawasaki, Takuma Kurosawa, Yoshikazu Mutoh, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Shinichi Oka
Little evidence is available for the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and rate of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decrement among Asians with low body weight who are susceptible to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) nephrotoxicity. In this 12-year observational cohort in Tokyo, we examined 1383 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected Asians [720 started TDF-containing (TDF group) and 663 started non-TDF-containing (control) combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)]. The CKD incidence was calculated, and the effect of TDF use on CKD development was estimated using logistic regression...
March 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281441/miliary-tuberculosis
#18
Surendra K Sharma, Alladi Mohan
Miliary tuberculosis (TB) results from a massive lymphohematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and is characterized by tiny tubercles evident on gross pathology resembling millet seeds in size and appearance. The global HIV/AIDS pandemic and widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs and biologicals have altered the epidemiology of miliary TB. Considered to be predominantly a disease of infants and children in the pre-antibiotic era, miliary TB is increasingly being encountered in adults as well...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260391/endothelial-glycocalyx-damage-and-renal-dysfunction-in-hiv-patients-receiving-combined-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Malena Gadelha Cavalcante, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Alice Maria Costa Martins, Roberto da Justa Pires Neto, Alexandre Braga Libório, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
Widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) increased HIV patients' life expectancy, however, favored the development of kidney and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) damage and its association with renal function in HIV patients receiving cART. This is a cross-sectional study with HIV-infected patients with no renal and cardiovascular disease, recruited in public health centers in Brazil. Clinical and laboratory parameters of HIV patients were compared according to cART use and with a healthy control group...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256486/the-prevalence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-and-associated-factors-among-patients-admitted-at-princess-marina-hospital-gaborone-botswana
#20
G M Rwegerera, M Bayani, E K Taolo, D Habte
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a major public health problem worldwide. Due to the asymptomatic nature of CKD during earlier stages, patients tend to present late, missing opportunities for prevention. AIMS: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and assess the risk factors associated with CKD in patients admitted at Princes Marina Hospital. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Hospital inpatient setting. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A case-matched comparison study was done involving 86 cases and 86 matches by gender and age (± 5 years) from March 21, 2014, to May 31, 2014...
March 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
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