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metal dyshomeostasis and Alzheimer's

Nady Braidy, Anne Poljak, Chris Marjo, Helen Rutlidge, Anne Rich, Bat-Erdene Jugder, Tharusha Jayasena, Nibaldo C Inestrosa, Perminder S Sachdev
The accumulation of redox-active transition metals in the brain and metal dyshomeostasis are thought to be associated with the etiology and pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular. As well, distinct biometal imaging and role of metal uptake transporters are central to understanding AD pathogenesis and aging but remain elusive, due inappropriate detection methods. We therefore hypothesized that Octodon degus develop neuropathological abnormalities in the distribution of redox active biometals, and this effect may be due to alterations in the expression of lysosomal protein, major Fe/Cu transporters, and selected Zn transporters (ZnTs and ZIPs)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Huamin Xu, Hong Jiang, Junxia Xie
Both iron dyshomeostasis and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs)-mediated neurotoxicity have been shown to have an important role in neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence proved that activation of NMDARs could promote iron overload and iron-induced neurotoxicity by enhancing iron importer divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-mediated iron uptake and iron releasing from lysosome. Also, iron overload could regulate NMDARs-mediated synaptic transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
A Travaglia, D La Mendola
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal development and survival, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function. Dysregulation of BDNF signaling is involved in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. Alteration of metal ion homeostasis is observed both in normal aging and in many neurodegenerative diseases. Interestingly, there is a significant overlap between brain areas characterized by metal ion dyshomeostasis and those where BDNF exerts its biological activity...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
Lin Li, Shaofeng Xu, Lifei Liu, Rentian Feng, Yongxiang Gong, Xuyang Zhao, Jiang Li, Jie Cai, Nan Feng, Ling Wang, Xiaoliang Wang, Ying Peng
The dyshomeostasis of transition metal ions, accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) senile plaques and neuroinflammatory response found in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been suggested to be involved in AD pathogenesis. Novel compounds capable of targeting metal-Aβ species and neuroinflammation would be valuable. AD-35 is such a patented small-molecule compound derived from innovative modification of the chemical structure of donepezil. This compound could moderately inhibit acetylcholinesterase and metal-induced Aβ aggregation in vitro and showed disassembly of Aβ aggregates...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Mattia Toni, Maria L Massimino, Agnese De Mario, Elisa Angiulli, Enzo Spisni
Metal ions are key elements in organisms' life acting like cofactors of many enzymes but they can also be potentially dangerous for the cell participating in redox reactions that lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Any factor inducing or limiting a metal dyshomeostasis, ROS production and cell injury may contribute to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases or play a neuroprotective action. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting the central nervous system (CNS) of human and other mammalian species...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Brendan Sullivan, Gregory Robison, Jenna Osborn, Martin Kay, Peter Thompson, Katherine Davis, Taisiya Zakharova, Olga Antipova, Yulia Pushkar
Fulfilling a bevy of biological roles, copper is an essential metal for healthy brain function. Cu dyshomeostasis has been demonstrated to be involved in some neurological conditions including Menkes and Alzheimer's diseases. We have previously reported localized Cu-rich aggregates in astrocytes of the subventricular zone (SVZ) in rodent brains with Cu concentrations in the hundreds of millimolar. Metallothionein, a cysteine-rich protein critical to metal homeostasis and known to participate in a variety of neuroprotective and neuroregenerative processes, was proposed as a binding protein...
April 2017: Redox Biology
Ann Tiiman, Jinghui Luo, Cecilia Wallin, Lisa Olsson, Joel Lindgren, Jϋri Jarvet, Roos Per, Sabrina B Sholts, Shai Rahimipour, Jan Pieter Abrahams, Amelie Eriksson Karlström, Astrid Gräslund, Sebastian K T S Wärmländer
Aggregation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide into insoluble plaques is a major factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Another major factor in AD is arguably metal ions, as metal dyshomeostasis is observed in AD patients, metal ions modulate Aβ aggregation, and AD plaques contain numerous metals including redox-active Cu and Fe ions. In vivo, Aβ is found in various cellular locations including membranes. So far, Cu(II)/Aβ interactions and ROS generation have not been investigated in a membrane environment...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Valentina Oliveri, Carmelo Sgarlata, Graziella Vecchio
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are multifactorial disorders related to protein aggregation, metal dyshomeostasis, and oxidative stress. To advance understanding in this area and to contribute to therapeutic development, many efforts have been directed at devising suitable agents that can target metal ions associated with relevant biomolecules such as α-synuclein. This paper presents a new cyclodextrin-8-hydroxyquinoline conjugate and discusses the properties of four cyclodextrins 3-functionalized with 8-hydroxyquinoline as copper(II) chelators and inhibitors of copper-induced synuclein aggregation...
September 6, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Ivana Cacciatore, Erika Fornasari, Lisa Marinelli, Antonio Di Stefano, Piera Eusepi, Hasan Turkez, Stefania Fulle, Ester Sara Di Filippo, Andrea Scarabeo
BACKGROUND: Medicinal chemistry approaches are presently under investigation to develop new multifunctional drugs able to simultaneously reduce oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, metal dyshomeostasis, and neuroinflammation that characterize neuropathological conditions, such as Alzheimer's Disease. RESULTS: Memantine (MEM) derivatives 1-6 were designed and synthesized as novel multifunctional entities with antioxidant and neuroprotective capabilities to manage neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease...
June 25, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Irina Naletova, Vincenzo G Nicoletti, Danilo Milardi, Adriana Pietropaolo, Giuseppe Grasso
The sole role of bradykinin (BK) as an inflammatory mediator is controversial, as recent data also support an anti-inflammatory role for BK in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The involvement of two different receptors (B1R and B2R) could be a key to understand this issue. However, although copper and zinc dyshomeostasis has been demonstrated to be largely involved in the development of AD, a detailed study of the interaction of BK with these two metal ions has never been addressed. In this work, we have applied mass spectrometry, circular dichroism as well as computational methods in order to assess if copper and zinc have the ability to modulate the conformation and oligomerization of BK...
August 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Valentina Oliveri, Graziella Vecchio
Metal dyshomeostasis has been involved in the etiology of a host of pathologies such as Wilson's, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, transfusion-related iron overload diseases and cancer. Although metal chelating agents represent a necessary therapeutic strategy in metal overload diseases, long-term use of strong chelators that are not selective, can be anticipated perturbing normal physiological functions of essential metal-requiring biomolecules. In this context, the last decade has seen a growing interest in the development of molecules, referred to as "prochelators", that have little affinity for metal ions until they are activated in response to specific stimuli...
May 17, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Jeffrey S Derrick, Richard A Kerr, Kyle J Korshavn, Michael J McLane, Juhye Kang, Eunju Nam, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy, Brandon T Ruotolo, Mi Hee Lim
The complex and multifaceted pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) continues to present a formidable challenge to the establishment of long-term treatment strategies. Multifunctional compounds able to modulate the reactivities of various pathological features, such as amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation, metal ion dyshomeostasis, and oxidative stress, have emerged as a useful tactic. Recently, an incorporation approach to the rational design of multipurpose small molecules has been validated through the production of a multifunctional ligand (ML) as a potential chemical tool for AD...
May 16, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Gerwyn Morris, Michael Berk
Alzheimer`s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative illness characterized by the invariant existence of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Presently approved pharmaceutical approaches offer only marginal efficacy and as yet there is no effective treatment which reverses or arrests the disease. Thus far, drugs targeting any single aspect of disease pathology have proved to be a failure or at best provided very slight clinical benefit. The consistent failure of drugs targeting aspects of the Aβ cascade has questioned the causal role of this pathway...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
S Mckenzie-Nickson, A I Bush, K J Barnham
Pathological aggregation of endogenous proteins is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases. This is generally accompanied by elevated levels of oxidative stress associated with transition metal dyshomeostasis. As such, strategies targeted toward rectifying metal imbalance are increasingly becoming an attractive therapeutic option. One class of compound showing such therapeutic potential are the bis(thiosemicarbazone) metal complexes. These are small, orally bioavailable compounds capable of crossing the blood brain barrier and capable of delivering bioavailable metal intracellularly...
2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Orly Weinreb, Tamar Amit, Orit Bar-Am, Moussa B H Youdim
UNLABELLED: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accepted nowadays as a complex neurodegenerative disorder with multifaceted cerebral pathologies, including extracellular deposition of amyloid β peptide-containing plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, progressive loss of cholinergic neurons, metal dyshomeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, glutamate excitoxicity, oxidative stress and increased MAO enzyme activity. This may explain why it is currently widely accepted that a more effective therapy for AD would result from the use of multifunctional drugs, which may affect more than one brain target involved in the disease pathology...
July 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Xiubo Du, Chao Wang, Qiong Liu
Alzheimer's disease is a devastating and invariably fatal neurodegenerative brain disorder with no cure. AD is characterized by two pathological protein deposits, the senile plaques composed mainly of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and the neurofibrillary tangles which are bundles of paired helical filaments (PHF) of protein tau. In addition, oxidative stress, disorders in signal transduction and metal ions dyshomeostasis also play significant roles in the development of AD. A large body of studies suggests that selenium (Se), either as Se-containing compounds or as selenoproteins, may be beneficial in reducing Alzheimer's pathology...
2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Jeffrey R Liddell
Mitochondrial impairment and metal dyshomeostasis are suggested to be associated with many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Friedreich's ataxia. Treatments aimed at restoring metal homeostasis are highly effective in models of these diseases, and clinical trials hold promise. However, in general, the effect of these treatments on mitochondrial metal homeostasis is unclear, and the contribution of mitochondrial metal dyshomeostasis to disease pathogenesis requires further investigation...
August 2015: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
Ashwini Kumar, Chaluveelaveedu Murleedharan Nisha, Chitrangda Silakari, Isha Sharma, Kanukanti Anusha, Nityasha Gupta, Prateek Nair, Timir Tripathi, Awanish Kumar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline, i.e., dementia. The disease starts with mild symptoms and gradually becomes severe. AD is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Several different hallmarks of the disease have been reported such as deposits of β-amyloid around neurons, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, oxidative stress, dyshomeostasis of bio-metals, low levels of acetylcholine, etc. AD is not simple to diagnose since there is no single diagnostic test for it...
January 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Akiko Kochi, Hyuck Jin Lee, Sashiprabha M Vithanarachchi, Vediappen Padmini, Matthew J Allen, Mi Hee Lim
When Alzheimer's disease (AD) progresses, several pathological features arise including accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates [e.g., amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques], metal ion dyshomeostasis, and oxidative stress. These characteristics are recently suggested to be interconnected through a potential factor, metal-associated Aβ (metal-Aβ) species. The role of metal-Aβ species in AD pathogenesis remains unclear, however. To elucidate the contribution of metal-Aβ species to AD pathology, as well as to develop small molecules as chemical tools and/or theranostic (therapeutic and diagnostic) agents for this disease, curcumin (Cur), a natural product from turmeric, and its derivatives have been studied towards both metal-free and metal-induced Aβ aggregation...
2015: Current Alzheimer Research
Robert A Colvin, Barry Lai, William R Holmes, Daewoo Lee
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how single cell quantitative and subcellular metallomics inform us about both the spatial distribution and cellular mechanisms of metal buffering and homeostasis in primary cultured neurons from embryonic rat brain, which are often used as models of human disease involving metal dyshomeostasis. The present studies utilized synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and focused primarily on zinc and iron, two abundant metals in neurons that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
July 2015: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
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