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Obesity and sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919840/leptin-independently-predicts-development-of-sepsis-and-its-outcome
#1
Sofie Jacobsson, Peter Larsson, Göran Johansson, Margareta Norberg, Göran Wadell, Göran Hallmans, Ola Winsö, Stefan Söderberg
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening condition and obesity is related to the clinical outcome. The underlying reasons are incompletely understood, but the adipocyte derived hormones leptin and adiponectin may be involved. METHODS: Patients aged 18 years or more with documented first time sepsis events were included in a nested case-referent study if they had participated in previous health surveys. Two matched referents free of known sepsis were identified...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916639/small-rna-seq-during-acute-maximal-exercise-reveal-rnas-involved-in-vascular-inflammation-and-cardiometabolic-health
#2
Ravi Shah, Ashish S Yeri, Avash Das, Amanda Courtright-Lim, Olivia Ziegler, Ernest Gervino, Jeffrey Ocel, Pablo Quintero Pinzon, Luke Wooster, Cole Shields Bailey, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Lea Beaulieu, Jane E Freedman, Ionita Ghiran, Gregory D Lewis, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen, Saumya Das
OBJECTIVE: Exercise improves cardiometabolic and vascular function, though mechanisms remain unclear. Our objective was to demonstrate the diversity of circulating extracellular RNA (ex-RNA) release during acute exercise in humans and its relevance to exercise-mediated benefits on vascular inflammation. Approach and Results: We performed plasma small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in 26 individuals undergoing symptom-limited maximal treadmill exercise, with replication of our top candidate miRNA in a separate cohort of 59 individuals undergoing bicycle ergometry...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887432/maternal-pregravid-obesity-remodels-the-dna-methylation-landscape-of-cord-blood-monocytes-disrupting-their-inflammatory-program
#3
Suhas Sureshchandra, Randall M Wilson, Maham Rais, Nicole E Marshall, Jonathan Q Purnell, Kent L Thornburg, Ilhem Messaoudi
Prepregnancy maternal obesity is associated with adverse outcomes for the offspring, including increased incidence of neonatal bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. We recently reported that umbilical cord blood (UCB) monocytes from babies born to obese mothers generate a reduced IL-6/TNF-α response to TLR 1/2 and 4 ligands compared to those collected from lean mothers. These observations suggest altered development of the offspring's immune system, which in turn results in dysregulated function...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884000/catabolic-and-anabolic-faces-of-insulin-resistance-and-their-disorders-a-new-insight-into-circadian-control-of-metabolic-disorders-leading-to-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Polina M Schwartsburd
Maintenance of glucose homeostasis during circadian behavioral cycles is critical. The processes controlling the switch between predominant lipolysis/fatty oxidation during fasting and predominant lipid storage/glucose oxidation following feeding are determined principally by insulin. Chronic elevated threshold of insulin resistance (IR) is a key pathological feature of obesity, Type 2 diabetes, sepsis and cancer cachexia; however, a temporal reduced threshold of IR is widely met in fasting/hibernation, pregnancy, antibacterial immunity, exercise and stress...
August 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866827/fistula-following-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-a-proposed-classification-and-algorithm-for-optimal-management
#5
G Al Hajj, R Chemaly
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an accepted restrictive procedure with a hormonal component. There is no definitive course of treatment for post-LSG fistula; it remains a feared complication. We aimed to classify post-LSG fistulas and propose an algorithm to optimize their treatment. METHODS: Following primary and revisional LSG in obese patients, a retrospective observational study of fistulas was undertaken. Radiological studies were performed to identify anatomically distinct types of fistulas...
September 2, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860018/comparison-of-in-hospital-outcomes-of-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-versus-surgical-aortic-valve-replacement-in-obese-body-mass-index%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-30%C3%A2-kg-m2-patients
#6
Tomo Ando, Emmanuel Akintoye, Naveen Trehan, Tesfaye Telila, Alexandros Briasoulis, Hisato Takagi, Cindy L Grines, Luis Afonso
The comparative outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) versus surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) patients are underexplored. Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was queried from 2011 to 2014, and those who underwent TAVI or SAVR with obesity were identified. A complete case analysis with multivariate analysis was performed to adjust for the difference in underlying co-morbidities. We identified a total of 12,525 patients (989 TAVI and 11,536 SAVR)...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859605/the-role-of-increased-body-mass-index-in-outcomes-of-sepsis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Sicong Wang, Xu Liu, Qixing Chen, Can Liu, Changshun Huang, Xiangming Fang
BACKGROUND: The role of increased body mass index (BMI) in sepsis is controversial. We aimed to evaluate the associations between overweight (25 kg/m(2) < BMI ≤ 29.9 kg/m(2)), obese (30 kg/m(2) < BMI ≤ 39.9 kg/m(2)) and morbidly obese (BMI > 40 kg/m(2)) BMIs and outcomes in septic patients. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov databases for studies published by December 1, 2016...
August 31, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858182/metabolic-syndrome-and-30-day-outcomes-in-elective-lumbar-spinal-fusion
#8
Andrew S Chung, David Campbell, Robert Waldrop, Dennis Crandall
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate the effect of MetS on 30-day morbidity and mortality following elective lumbar spinal fusion SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a variable combination of hypertension, obesity, elevated fasting plasma glucose, and dyslipidemia.MetS has been associated with an increased risk of post-operative morbidity and mortality in multiple surgical settings. To our knowledge, the effect of MetS on 30-day outcomes following elective lumbar spinal fusion has not been well studied...
August 29, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837586/nampt-serum-levels-are-selectively-elevated-in-acute-infectious-disease-and-in-acute-relapse-of-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-in-children
#9
Julia Gesing, Kathrin Scheuermann, Isabel Viola Wagner, Dennis Löffler, Daniela Friebe, Wieland Kiess, Volker Schuster, Antje Körner
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) is an inflammatory adipocytokine shown to interact in immune modulation in chronic inflammatory diseases, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, cancer and obesity in adulthood. It is, however, not clear whether this association reflects a chronic elevation or acute inflammatory response. We analyzed NAMPT concentrations in distinct states of inflammation in 102 children and found consistently significantly increased NAMPT levels in subjects with acute infections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798879/prostatic-abscess-after-stapled-hemorrhoidopexy-caused-by-esbl-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-an-additional-challenge-to-postoperative-sepsis
#10
Asem Saleh, Abdelnasir Kibeida, Elsaid Amin, Abdalla Khalil, Rafat Abu Shakra, Mohamed Elwakil
Postoperative septic complications of hemorrhoids surgical interventions are rare, but very serious with high mortality rate. Early diagnosis and prompt therapy are essential to save patient's life. There are a good number of articles and case reports about these septic complications. We are presenting a case report of a prostatic abscess caused by extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae after hemorrhoidopexy. Our patient was a healthy middle aged Saudi male who has no significant medical history apart from morbid obesity and recurrent urinary tract infections...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794960/gastric-perforation-after-duodenopancreatectomy
#11
Henrik Bäcker, Frank Jp Beeres, Marco Rossi, Andreas Scheiwiller
Fungal and bacterial infections are often which may cause sepsis. Mucormycosis is an unfrequent, but often life-threatening disease. A timely diagnosis and treatment is the cornerstone of success. An increase in incidence can be expected, given an aging population and increasing incidence of obesity, diabetes and cancer. We present a rare case where early diagnosis has helped to treat the patient mainly with antifungal therapy as surgical therapy has had high risk of complications.
December 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789683/voluntary-running-exercise-protects-against-sepsis-induced-early-inflammatory-and-pro-coagulant-responses-in-aged-mice
#12
Karel Tyml, Scott Swarbreck, Cynthia Pape, Dan Secor, James Koropatnick, Qingping Feng, Ruud A W Veldhuizen, Sean E Gill
BACKGROUND: Despite many animal studies and clinical trials, mortality in sepsis remains high. This may be due to the fact that most experimental studies of sepsis employ young animals, whereas the majority of septic patients are elderly (60 - 70 years). The objective of the present study was to examine the sepsis-induced inflammatory and pro-coagulant responses in aged mice. Since running exercise protects against a variety of diseases, we also examined the effect of voluntary running on septic responses in aged mice...
August 8, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674636/diabetes-during-pregnancy-influence-of-body-mass-index-on-composite-morbidity
#13
Amy E O'Neil Dudley, Zachary B Jenner, Hector Mendez-Figueroa, Viviana S Ellis, Suneet P Chauhan
Objective  This study aims to compare composite maternal and neonatal morbidities (MM, NM) among pregnant women with diabetes mellitus whose body mass index (BMI) at delivery was < 30 (group 1), 30.0 to 39.9 (group 2), and ≥ 40 kg/m (2) (group 3). We hypothesized that increased BMI class at delivery would be associated with worsening maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods  This is a retrospective cohort study. MM was defined as: chorioamnionitis, wound infection, eclampsia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia admission, third/fourth degree laceration, and/or death...
April 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638306/effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-maternal-fetal-transfer-of-preoperative-cefazolin-at-cesarean-section
#14
Stephanie McKenney Groff, Wareef Fallatah, Samuel Yang, Jamie Murphy, Christopher Crutchfield, Mark Marzinke, Joanne Kurtzberg, Carlton K K Lee, Irina Burd, Azadeh Farzin
OBJECTIVES: American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends a single dose of antibiotic prophylaxis before all cesarean sections (C/S). This recommendation is based on pharmacokinetic studies that include only non-obese patients. We sought to evaluate 1) cefazolin plasma concentrations among obese and non-obese patients after administration of a 2-g cefazolin dose for prevention of surgical wound infections, and 2) whether cefazolin concentration in fetal circulation may be protective against pathogens that cause early onset neonatal sepsis...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632072/maternal-obesity-obstetric-interventions-and-post-partum-anaemia-increase-the-risk-of-post-partum-sepsis-a-population-based-cohort-study-based-on-swedish-medical-health-registers
#15
Daniel Axelsson, Marie Blomberg
BACKGROUND: The objective was to estimate whether maternal obesity and/or obstetric interventions are associated with diagnosed maternal post-partum sepsis. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study including all deliveries in Sweden between 1997 and 2012 (N = 1,558,752). Cases of sepsis (n = 376) were identified by International Classification of Diseases, (ICD-10) codes A40, A41 and O 85 in the Medical Birth Register and the National Patient Register...
June 20, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625915/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-increases-myocardial-injury-and-alters-cardiac-stat3-signaling-in-mice-after-polymicrobial-sepsis
#16
Theodore DeMartini, Marchele Nowell, Jeanne James, Lauren Williamson, Patrick Lahni, Hui Shen, Jennifer M Kaplan
Little is known about how obesity affects the heart during sepsis and we sought to investigate the obesity-induced cardiac effects that occur during polymicrobial sepsis. Six-week old C57BL/6 mice were randomized to a high fat (HFD) (60% kcal fat) or normal diet (ND) (16% kcal fat). After 6weeks of feeding, mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Plasma and cardiac tissue were obtained for analysis. Echocardiography was performed on a separate cohort of mice at 0 and 18h after CLP...
June 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595555/microdialysis-assessed-adipose-tissue-metabolism-in-critically-ill-patients
#17
Ioannis Ilias, Nikitas Nikitas, Maria Theodorakopoulou, Ioanna Dimopoulou
BACKGROUND: Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique that allows direct in situ and in vivo sampling, studies and manipulations of the interstitial/extracellular fluid/space. It has been shown to be of use mainly in acute brain injury/neurocritical care. METHODS: Microdialysis has been used to study obesity, diabetes mellitus, inflammation and pharmacokinetics at the adipose tissue level. In critically ill patients (and particularly in those with sepsis or septic shock), within days to weeks, adipose tissue shows profound alterations; under such conditions the implementation of microdialysis can provide researchers with interesting findings...
June 8, 2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567574/differences-in-effectiveness-and-use-of-robotic-surgery-in-patients-undergoing-minimally-invasive-colectomy
#18
M Schootman, S Hendren, T Loux, K Ratnapradipa, J M Eberth, N O Davidson
BACKGROUND: We compared patient outcomes of robot-assisted surgery (RAS) and laparoscopic colectomy without robotic assistance for colon cancer or nonmalignant polyps, comparing all patients, obese versus nonobese patients, and male versus female patients. METHODS: We used the 2013-2015 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data to examine a composite outcome score comprised of mortality, readmission, reoperation, wound infection, bleeding transfusion, and prolonged postoperative ileus...
August 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465288/thirty-day-readmissions-after-endovascular-or-surgical-therapy-for-critical-limb-ischemia-analysis-of-the-2013-to-2014-nationwide-readmissions-databases
#19
Dhaval Kolte, Kevin F Kennedy, Mehdi H Shishehbor, J Dawn Abbott, Sahil Khera, Peter Soukas, Shafiq T Mamdani, Omar N Hyder, Douglas E Drachman, Herbert D Aronow
BACKGROUND: Thirty-day readmission rates have gained increasing importance as a key quality metric. A significant number of patients are hospitalized for the management of critical limb ischemia (CLI), but limited data are available on the incidence, predictors, and causes of 30-day readmission after hospitalization for CLI. METHODS: Hospitalizations for a primary diagnosis of CLI during which patients underwent endovascular or surgical therapy (revascularization and/or amputation) and were discharged alive were identified in the 2013 to 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Databases...
July 11, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437804/-prognostic-factors-of-open-abdomen-treatment-in-visceral-surgery
#20
Martin W von Websky, Agnes Jedig, Arnulf Willms, Azin Jafari, Hanno Matthaei, Jörg C Kalff, Steffen Manekeller
Introduction In general surgery, open abdomen treatment (OAT) is used to treat abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and sepsis, often after a primary surgical procedure associated with complications. The results achieved in this patient population may depend on factors that are yet unknown. This study evaluates independent patient-related prognostic factors after OAT. Methods 38 clinical parameters and survival data of 165 consecutive general surgery patients after OAT were entered into a prospective database according to a defined algorithm in order to analyse the underlying surgical pathology, predictors of survival and important aspects of OAT-related morbidity...
June 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
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