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Obesity and sepsis

Richard H Savel, Ronald J Simon, Yizhak Kupfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Tracey Ying, Samantha Chan, Stephen Lane, Christine Somerville
AIM: To identify risk factors for acute kidney injury following major orthopaedic surgery. METHODS: We included all patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery at University Hospital Geelong between 2008 and 2014 in the study. Out of 2188 surgeries audited, we identified cases of acute kidney injury using the RIFLE criteria and matched those to controls 2:1 for age, sex, procedure and chronic kidney disease stage. We reviewed their records for risk factors of postoperative acute kidney injury, including medications such as gentamicin, diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use...
October 5, 2016: Nephrology
Hayato Yamashita, Michiko Ishikawa, Taketo Inoue, Makoto Usami, Yu Usami, Joji Kotani
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of glucose metabolism, including hyperglycemia with insulin resistance, is commonly observed in critically ill patients. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) improves the insulin resistance associated with obesity, but the relationship between IL-18 and glucose metabolism in sepsis was unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of IL-18 on hyperglycemia during sepsis. METHODS: Sepsis was induced using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in wild type (WT) mice, IL-18 knockout (KO) mice, and IL-18 KO mice pretreated with recombinant IL-18...
September 19, 2016: Shock
Fabricia Petronilho, Amanda Della Giustina, Diego Zapelini Nascimento, Graciela Freitas Zarbato, Andriele Aparecida Vieira, Drielly Florentino, Lucinéia Gainski Danielski, Mariana Pereira Goldim, Gislaine Tezza Rezin, Tatiana Barichello
Sepsis progression is linked to the imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes. Sepsis affects multiple organs, but when associated with a chronic inflammatory disease, such as obesity, it may be exacerbated. We hypothesized that obesity could aggravate the oxidative damage to peripheral organs of rats submitted to an animal model of sepsis. Male Wistar rats aged 8 weeks received hypercaloric nutrition for 2 months to induce obesity. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) procedure, and sham-operated rats were considered as control group...
September 19, 2016: Inflammation
Alexander Koch, Ralf Weiskirchen, Sebastian Ludwig, Lukas Buendgens, Jan Bruensing, Eray Yagmur, Christer Baeck, Ulf Herbers, Christian Trautwein, Frank Tacke
PURPOSE: Sclerostin is a negative regulator of bone metabolism and associated with chronic morbidities. We investigated circulating sclerostin in critically ill patients. METHODS: A total of 264 patients (170 with sepsis) were studied prospectively upon admission to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) and on day 7. Patients' survival was followed for up to 3 years. RESULTS: Sclerostin serum levels were significantly elevated in critically ill patients at ICU admission compared with 99 healthy controls...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Andreas Hillenbrand, Pengfei Xu, Shaoxia Zhou, Annette Blatz, Manfred Weiss, Sebastian Hafner, Doris Henne-Bruns, Uwe Knippschild
BACKGROUND: Adipokines have a wide range of effects and are linked to sepsis and septic shock. The aim of the present study was to describe the changes in adipokine levels in septic patients in relation to patients' preseptic adipokine levels. Furthermore, we examined adipokines as prognostic markers. METHODS: Fourteen consecutive critically ill patients meeting the clinical criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock 3 days up to 1 month after major visceral surgery were enrolled prospectively...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Caroline Cole
CASE SUMMARY: A 6 yr old 45 kg child with severe Cushinoid features was admitted to PICU with probable hypertensive encephalopathy. She presented with increasing headaches, vomiting and seizures becoming unresponsive with a GCS of 3. She was profoundly hypertensive and her cortisol levels were significantly elevated (>2000 nmol/L). Rapid reduction in cortisol levels was required to stabilise her condition prior to surgery. Etomidate is the only readily available intravenous preparation which reliably suppresses adrenocortical function...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Chawika Pisitsak, Joseph G H Lee, John H Boyd, Harvey O Coxson, James A Russell, Keith R Walley
OBJECTIVES: Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue may contribute differentially to the septic inflammatory response. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with altered sepsis outcome. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis from a cohort of sepsis patients admitted between 2004 and 2009. SETTING: A mixed medical-surgical ICU at St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver, Canada. PATIENTS: Patients older than 16 years old who had sepsis and underwent abdominal CT scan (n = 257) for clinical reasons...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Andrew T Schlussel, Conor P Delaney, Justin A Maykel, Michael B Lustik, Madhuri Nishtala, Scott R Steele
BACKGROUND: Clinical and administrative databases each have fundamental distinctions and inherent limitations that may impact results. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, focusing on the similarities, differences, and limitations of both data sets. DESIGN: All elective open and laparoscopic segmental colectomies from American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2006-2013) and Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2006-2012) were reviewed...
September 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Xianfeng Wang, Nancy L Buechler, Ayana Martin, Jonathan Wells, Barbara Yoza, Charles E McCall, Vidula Vachharajani
OBJECTIVE: Obesity increases morbidity and resource utilization in sepsis patients. Sepsis transitions from early/hyper-inflammatory to late/hypo-inflammatory phase. Majority of sepsis-mortality occurs during the late sepsis; no therapies exist to treat late sepsis. In lean mice, we have shown that sirtuins (SIRTs) modulate this transition. Here, we investigated the role of sirtuins, especially the adipose-tissue abundant SIRT-2 on transition from early to late sepsis in obese with sepsis...
2016: PloS One
Shrihari Anil Anikhindi, Piyush Ranjan, Munish Sachdeva, Mandhir Kumar
BACKGROUND: Self-expanding plastic stents (SEPS) have emerged as a good alternative to surgery in esophageal leaks and fistulae. There is scarce published literature regarding its efficacy in these conditions. We present our experience with SEPS in treatment of esophageal leaks and fistulae. METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted in a tertiary referral center who underwent SEPS placement for esophageal leak or fistula between February 2012 and February 2015 were retrospectively evaluated...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Rachel M Saroka, Michael P Kane, Lawrence Robinson, Robert S Busch
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid replacement is commonly required to treat secondary adrenal insufficiency after surgical resection of unilateral cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Here, we describe a patient with unilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas in which the preoperative use of mifepristone therapy was associated with recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, eliminating the need for postoperative glucocorticoid replacement. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old Caucasian man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity was hospitalized for Fournier's gangrene and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Endocrinology and Diabetes
Marcela C Smid, Catherine J Vladutiu, Sarah K Dotters-Katz, Tracy A Manuck, Kim A Boggess, David M Stamilio
Objective To estimate the association between maternal super obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 50 kg/m(2)) and neonatal morbidity among neonates born via cesarean delivery (CD). Methods Retrospective cohort of singleton neonates delivered via CD ≥ 37 weeks in the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit Cesarean Registry. Maternal BMI at delivery was stratified as 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2), 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2), 40 to 49.9 kg/m(2), and ≥ 50 kg/m(2). Primary outcomes included acute (5-minute Apgar score < 5, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and ventilator support < 24 hours, neonatal injury, and/or transient tachypnea of the newborn) and severe (grade 3 or 4 intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, seizure, respiratory distress syndrome, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, meconium aspiration, ventilator support ≥ 2 days, sepsis and/or neonatal death) neonatal morbidity...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Mei Gao, Jianzhong Sun, Nilas Young, Douglas Boyd, Zane Atkins, Zhongmin Li, Qian Ding, James Diehl, Hong Liu
OBJECTIVES: Body mass index (BMI) commonly is used in obesity classification as a surrogate measure, and obesity is associated with a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of BMI on short-term outcomes after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: University teaching hospital, 2 centers. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 4,740 patients who underwent cardiac surgery at 2 hospitals-from July 1, 2001, to June 30, 2013, in 1 hospital and from September 1, 2003, to August 31, 2014, in a second hospital...
October 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Saskia Skonetzki, Florian Lüders, Christiane Engelbertz, Nasser M Malyar, Eva Freisinger, Matthias Meyborg, Holger Reinecke
BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVES, DESIGN: Aging of the population is one of the major challenges facing public health systems. The impact of aging on acute and long-term outcome of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and critical limb ischemia (CLI) is currently not sufficiently clarified. This analysis consists of comprehensive, anonymized data obtained from the largest public health insurance in Germany. RESULTS: A total of 41,740 PAD patients with an index hospitalization between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011, and a follow-up time up to 4 years were included (40-49 years: n = 1179; 50-59 years: n = 5415; 60-69 years: n = 10,565; 70-79 years: n = 13,313; 80-89 years: n = 9714; and 90-100 years: n = 1554)...
October 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Eun Jung Park, Young Min Kim, Hye Jung Kim, Se-Yun Jang, Moo Hyun Oh, Duck-Hyung Lee, Ki Churl Chang
Obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases coagulation and inflammation. We hypothesized that (S)YS-51, an agent found to be beneficial in animal models of sepsis, may reduce NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD) mice by reducing coagulation and inflammation. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a chow diet or HFD and each was supplemented with or without (S)YS-51 (10mg/kg, daily, i.p.) for 16 weeks. The results showed that HFD caused significant increases in lipogenesis [CD36, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol response element binding protein (SREBP)-1c mRNA and protein], inflammation [monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), TGF-β, and procollagen type 1 mRNA, macrophage infiltration] and coagulation [tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mRNA and thrombin antithrombin complex (TAT)] in the liver, adipose tissue and serum, which were significantly reduced by (S)YS-51...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Kelton Tremellen
Obesity is an increasing public health problem, with two-thirds of the adult population in many Western countries now being either overweight or obese. Male obesity is associated with late onset hypogonadism, a condition characterised by decreased serum testosterone, sperm quality plus diminished fertility and quality of life. In this paper we propose a novel theory underlying the development of obesity related hypogonadism- the GELDING theory (Gut Endotoxin Leading to a Decline IN Gonadal function). Several observational studies have previously reported an association between obesity related hypogonadism (low testosterone) and systemic inflammation...
2016: Basic and Clinical Andrology
Dominique J Pepper, Junfeng Sun, Judith Welsh, Xizhong Cui, Anthony F Suffredini, Peter Q Eichacker
BACKGROUND: At least 25 % of adults admitted to intensive care units (ICU) in the United States have an overweight, obese or morbidly obese body mass index (BMI). The effect of BMI on adjusted mortality in adults requiring ICU treatment for sepsis is unclear. We performed a systematic review of adjusted all-cause mortality for underweight, overweight, obese and morbidly obese BMIs relative to normal BMI for adults admitted to the ICU with sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. METHOD: PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE electronic databases were searched through November 18, 2015, without language restrictions...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Eun A Choe, Tae Gun Shin, Ik Joon Jo, Sung Yeon Hwang, Tae Rim Lee, Won Chul Cha, Min Seob Sim
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of low procalcitonin (PCT) levels among patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, and to investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes associated with low PCT levels. METHODS: We analyzed data from the sepsis registry for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in the emergency department. Based on a specific PCT cutoff value, patients were classified into two groups: a low PCT group, PCT <0...
July 2016: Shock
Sung Soo Kim, Yeyi Zhu, Katherine L Grantz, Stefanie N Hinkle, Zhen Chen, Maeve E Wallace, Melissa M Smarr, Nikira M Epps, Pauline Mendola
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether prepregnancy obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among women without chronic disease. METHODS: Singleton deliveries (N=112,309) among mothers without chronic diseases in the Consortium on Safe Labor, a retrospective U.S. cohort, were analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance estimation. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated perinatal risks in relation to prepregnancy obesity status adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, parity, insurance, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, and study site...
July 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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