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Obesity and sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140970/clinical-impact-of-external-laryngeal-manipulation-during-laryngoscopy-on-tracheal-intubation-success-in-critically-ill-children
#1
Taiki Kojima, Elizabeth K Laverriere, Erin B Owen, Ilana Harwayne-Gidansky, Asha N Shenoi, Natalie Napolitano, Kyle J Rehder, Michelle A Adu-Darko, Sholeen T Nett, Debbie Spear, Keith Meyer, John S Giuliano, Keiko M Tarquinio, Ronald C Sanders, Jan Hau Lee, Dennis W Simon, Paula A Vanderford, Anthony Y Lee, Calvin A Brown, Peter W Skippen, Ryan K Breuer, Iris Toedt-Pingel, Simon J Parsons, Eleanor A Gradidge, Lily B Glater, Kathleen Culver, Simon Li, Lee A Polikoff, Joy D Howell, Gabrielle Nuthall, Gokul K Bysani, Ana L Graciano, Guillaume Emeriaud, Osamu Saito, Alberto Orioles, Karen Walson, Philipp Jung, Awni M Al-Subu, Takanari Ikeyama, Rakshay Shetty, Kathleen M Yoder, Vinay M Nadkarni, Akira Nishisaki
OBJECTIVES: External laryngeal manipulation is a commonly used maneuver to improve visualization of the glottis during tracheal intubation in children. However, the effectiveness to improve tracheal intubation attempt success rate in the nonanesthesia setting is not clear. The study objective was to evaluate the association between external laryngeal manipulation use and initial tracheal intubation attempt success in PICUs. DESIGN: A retrospective observational study using a multicenter emergency airway quality improvement registry...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129540/inhibitory-role-of-oxytocin-on-tnf%C3%AE-expression-assessed-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
S Garrido-Urbani, N Deblon, A L Poher, A Caillon, P Ropraz, F Rohner-Jeanrenaud, J Altirriba
AIM: Oxytocin administration to diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, monkeys and humans decreases body weight and fat mass with concomitant improvements in glucose metabolism. Moreover, several studies show an immunomodulatory role of oxytocin in a number of settings (such as atherosclerosis, injury, sepsis). This study aims to shed some light on the effects of oxytocin on macrophage polarization and cytokine production, as well as its possible impact on these parameters in adipose tissue in DIO mice with impaired glucose metabolism...
November 9, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116490/impact-of-sarcopenic-obesity-on-failure-to-rescue-from-major-complications-following-pancreaticoduodenectomy-for-cancer-results-from-a-multicenter-study
#3
Nicolò Pecorelli, Giovanni Capretti, Marta Sandini, Anna Damascelli, Giulia Cristel, Francesco De Cobelli, Luca Gianotti, Alessandro Zerbi, Marco Braga
BACKGROUND: Failure to rescue (FTR) is a quality-of-care indicator in pancreatic surgery, but may also identify patients who may not tolerate major postoperative complications despite being treated with best available care. Previous studies found that high visceral adipose tissue-to-skeletal muscle ratio is associated with poor outcomes following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). The aim of the study is to assess the impact of sarcopenic obesity on occurrence of FTR from major complications in cancer patients undergoing PD...
November 7, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100962/metabolic-features-of-macrophages-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancer
#4
Yi Rang Na, Sungmo Je, Seung Hyeok Seok
Macrophages are now considered to be important players in various inflammatory diseases as well as tumor progression. Emerging evidence reveals that macrophage metabolic features are deeply associated with their immune functions. Understanding the interaction between cellular metabolism and immune signaling pathways in macrophages can help us to develop appropriate therapeutic approaches for inflammatory diseases. In this review, we briefly summarize key metabolic features of M1 and M2 macrophages as well as signaling interactions between major metabolic molecules with TLRs and NLRs...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095009/incidence-of-high-body-mass-index-in-critically-ill-cancer-patients
#5
Silvio Antonio Ñamendys-Silva, Humberto Guevara-García, Juan A Arredondo-Armenta, Mireya Barragán-Dessavre, Andoreni R Bautista-Ocampo, Francisco J García-Guillén, Bertha M Córdova-Sánchez, Abelardo Meneses-García, Ángel Herrera-Gómez
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to describe the incidence of obesity and overweight in critically ill cancer patients, and to evaluate the clinical characteristics and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) outcomes of critically ill cancer patients with obesity and overweight. METHODS: An observational cohort study. There were no interventions. RESULTS: During the study period, 483 critically ill cancer patients were admitted to ICU, and 59.2% of them (258 patients) had high body mass index (BMI)...
July 28, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081504/body-mass-index-and-infectious-disease-mortality-in-midlife-in-a-cohort-of-2-3-million-adolescents
#6
G Twig, N Geva, H Levine, E Derazne, N Goldberger, Z Haklai, A Leiba, J D Kark
BACKGROUND: Obesity was linked to altered immunity, but also to favorable outcomes among patients with infectious disease (ID) in some settings. We assessed the association between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and ID mortality. METHODS: BMI of 2 294 139 Israeli adolescents (60% men; age 17.4±0.3 years) was measured between 1967 and 2010. The outcome, obtained by linkage with official national records, was death due to ID as the underlying cause. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were applied...
October 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070011/the-obesity-conundrum-in-sepsis
#7
EDITORIAL
Pauline Yeung Ng, Matthias Eikermann
While the long-term negative effects of obesity on health is a well-studied phenomenon, its effects on acute illnesses seem to be the contrary. Several studies have indicated the possibility of an 'obesity paradox' in sepsis - where overweight and obese patients have better outcomes than normal weight patients. These meta-analyses including large numbers of patients across different countries raised an interesting but debatable topic. Results from meta-analyses of observational studies should be interpreted with caution, and a prove of association not be mistaken as prove of causality...
October 25, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050063/-update-in-obstetric-anesthesia-tried-and-trusted-methods-controversies-and-new-perspectives-part-1
#8
Peter Kranke, Thorsten Annecke, Dorothee H Bremerich, Daniel Chappell, Thierry Girard, Wiebke Gogarten, Robert Hanß, Lutz Kaufner, Sophie Neuhaus, Tobias Ninke, Thomas Standl, Stefan Weber, Yvonne Jelting, Thomas Volk
Since 1975, a plethora of lectures within the context of annual meetings relevant for the clinical care has been summarized in "what's new in obstetric anesthesia" by the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology which can be recommended to everyone interested in anaesthesiology in the delivery room. After the death of Gerard W. Ostheimer, Professor of Anaesthesiology at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, it became renamed the Gerard W. Ostheimer "what's new in obstetric anesthesia" lecture to honor his contributions to regional anesthesia and obstetric anaesthesia...
October 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026962/abdominal-contouring-outcomes-in-class-iii-obesity-analysis-of-the-acs-nsqip-database
#9
Husain T AlQattan, Leela S Mundra, Gustavo A Rubio, Seth R Thaller
BACKGROUND: Obesity may increase the risk of complications following abdominal contouring. The aim of this study is to evaluate panniculectomy outcomes in patients with class III obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m(2)). METHODS: The American College of Surgeon's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program ACS-NSQIP (2010-2014) was used to identify patients who underwent panniculectomy. Class III obesity patients were identified. Demographics, comorbidities and postoperative outcomes were evaluated...
October 12, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016490/neonatal-morbidity-and-maternal-complication-rates-in-women-with-a-delivery-body-mass-index-of-60-or-higher
#10
MULTICENTER STUDY
Tana Kim, Sabrina C Burn, Ananta Bangdiwala, Samantha Pace, Phillip Rauk
OBJECTIVE: To investigate neonatal morbidity and maternal complication rates with delivery body mass index (BMI) 60 or greater. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study included singleton pregnancies between 23 and 42 weeks of gestation from January 2005 to April 2016. Women with BMI 60 or greater were compared with a random sample of women with BMI 30-59. The primary outcome, composite neonatal morbidity, was defined as 5-minute Apgar score less than 7, hypoglycemia, respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, hospital stay greater than 5 days, neonatal intensive care unit admission, or neonatal death...
November 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946211/sulforaphane-prevents-dexamethasone-induced-muscle-atrophy-via-regulation-of-the-akt-foxo1-axis-in-c2c12-myotubes
#11
Young Hoon Son, Eun Jeong Jang, Young Woo Kim, Ju-Hee Lee
Muscle atrophy occurs in various catabolic conditions, including hormone imbalance, severe injury, sepsis, cancer, and aging. Dexamethasone (DEX) is a synthetic glucocorticoid and is used an anti-inflammatory agent. However, when chronically used, it is accompanied by side effects, such as, muscle atrophy, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. In this study, we investigated the effect of sulforaphane (SFN) on DEX-induced muscle atrophy and the underlying mechanisms involved. DEX induced muscle atrophy was accompanied by increased muscle specific ubiquitin E3 ligase markers, such as, Atrogin-1 and myostatin, and decreased MyoD in C2C12 myotubes...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919840/leptin-independently-predicts-development-of-sepsis-and-its-outcome
#12
Sofie Jacobsson, Peter Larsson, Göran Johansson, Margareta Norberg, Göran Wadell, Göran Hallmans, Ola Winsö, Stefan Söderberg
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening condition and obesity is related to the clinical outcome. The underlying reasons are incompletely understood, but the adipocyte derived hormones leptin and adiponectin may be involved. METHODS: Patients aged 18 years or more with documented first time sepsis events were included in a nested case-referent study if they had participated in previous health surveys. Two matched referents free of known sepsis were identified...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916639/small-rna-seq-during-acute-maximal-exercise-reveal-rnas-involved-in-vascular-inflammation-and-cardiometabolic-health
#13
Ravi Shah, Ashish S Yeri, Avash Das, Amanda Courtright-Lim, Olivia Ziegler, Ernest Gervino, Jeffrey Ocel, Pablo Quintero Pinzon, Luke Wooster, Cole Shields Bailey, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Lea Beaulieu, Jane E Freedman, Ionita Ghiran, Gregory D Lewis, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen, Saumya Das
OBJECTIVE: Exercise improves cardiometabolic and vascular function, though mechanisms remain unclear. Our objective was to demonstrate the diversity of circulating extracellular RNA (ex-RNA) release during acute exercise in humans and its relevance to exercise-mediated benefits on vascular inflammation. Approach and Results: We performed plasma small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in 26 individuals undergoing symptom-limited maximal treadmill exercise, with replication of our top candidate miRNA in a separate cohort of 59 individuals undergoing bicycle ergometry...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887432/maternal-pregravid-obesity-remodels-the-dna-methylation-landscape-of-cord-blood-monocytes-disrupting-their-inflammatory-program
#14
Suhas Sureshchandra, Randall M Wilson, Maham Rais, Nicole E Marshall, Jonathan Q Purnell, Kent L Thornburg, Ilhem Messaoudi
Prepregnancy maternal obesity is associated with adverse outcomes for the offspring, including increased incidence of neonatal bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. We recently reported that umbilical cord blood (UCB) monocytes from babies born to obese mothers generate a reduced IL-6/TNF-α response to TLR 1/2 and 4 ligands compared to those collected from lean mothers. These observations suggest altered development of the offspring's immune system, which in turn results in dysregulated function...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884000/catabolic-and-anabolic-faces-of-insulin-resistance-and-their-disorders-a-new-insight-into-circadian-control-of-metabolic-disorders-leading-to-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Polina M Schwartsburd
Maintenance of glucose homeostasis during circadian behavioral cycles is critical. The processes controlling the switch between predominant lipolysis/fatty oxidation during fasting and predominant lipid storage/glucose oxidation following feeding are determined principally by insulin. Chronic elevated threshold of insulin resistance (IR) is a key pathological feature of obesity, Type 2 diabetes, sepsis and cancer cachexia; however, a temporal reduced threshold of IR is widely met in fasting/hibernation, pregnancy, antibacterial immunity, exercise and stress...
August 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866827/fistula-following-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-a-proposed-classification-and-algorithm-for-optimal-management
#16
G Al Hajj, R Chemaly
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an accepted restrictive procedure with a hormonal component. There is no definitive course of treatment for post-LSG fistula; it remains a feared complication. We aimed to classify post-LSG fistulas and propose an algorithm to optimize their treatment. METHODS: Following primary and revisional LSG in obese patients, a retrospective observational study of fistulas was undertaken. Radiological studies were performed to identify anatomically distinct types of fistulas...
September 2, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860018/comparison-of-in-hospital-outcomes-of-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-versus-surgical-aortic-valve-replacement-in-obese-body-mass-index%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-30%C3%A2-kg-m2-patients
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
Tomo Ando, Emmanuel Akintoye, Naveen Trehan, Tesfaye Telila, Alexandros Briasoulis, Hisato Takagi, Cindy L Grines, Luis Afonso
The comparative outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) versus surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) patients are underexplored. Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was queried from 2011 to 2014, and those who underwent TAVI or SAVR with obesity were identified. A complete case analysis with multivariate analysis was performed to adjust for the difference in underlying co-morbidities. We identified a total of 12,525 patients (989 TAVI and 11,536 SAVR)...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859605/the-role-of-increased-body-mass-index-in-outcomes-of-sepsis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Sicong Wang, Xu Liu, Qixing Chen, Can Liu, Changshun Huang, Xiangming Fang
BACKGROUND: The role of increased body mass index (BMI) in sepsis is controversial. We aimed to evaluate the associations between overweight (25 kg/m(2) < BMI ≤ 29.9 kg/m(2)), obese (30 kg/m(2) < BMI ≤ 39.9 kg/m(2)) and morbidly obese (BMI > 40 kg/m(2)) BMIs and outcomes in septic patients. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov databases for studies published by December 1, 2016...
August 31, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858182/metabolic-syndrome-and-30-day-outcomes-in-elective-lumbar-spinal-fusion
#19
Andrew S Chung, David Campbell, Robert Waldrop, Dennis Crandall
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate the effect of MetS on 30-day morbidity and mortality following elective lumbar spinal fusion SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a variable combination of hypertension, obesity, elevated fasting plasma glucose, and dyslipidemia.MetS has been associated with an increased risk of post-operative morbidity and mortality in multiple surgical settings. To our knowledge, the effect of MetS on 30-day outcomes following elective lumbar spinal fusion has not been well studied...
August 29, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837586/nampt-serum-levels-are-selectively-elevated-in-acute-infectious-disease-and-in-acute-relapse-of-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-in-children
#20
Julia Gesing, Kathrin Scheuermann, Isabel Viola Wagner, Dennis Löffler, Daniela Friebe, Wieland Kiess, Volker Schuster, Antje Körner
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) is an inflammatory adipocytokine shown to interact in immune modulation in chronic inflammatory diseases, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, cancer and obesity in adulthood. It is, however, not clear whether this association reflects a chronic elevation or acute inflammatory response. We analyzed NAMPT concentrations in distinct states of inflammation in 102 children and found consistently significantly increased NAMPT levels in subjects with acute infections...
2017: PloS One
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