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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522655/choice-of-hemodialysis-access-in-older-adults-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#1
Rasheeda K Hall, Evan R Myers, Sylvia E Rosas, Ann M O'Hare, Cathleen S Colón-Emeric
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although arteriovenous fistulas have been found to be the most cost-effective form of hemodialysis access, the relative benefits of placing an arteriovenous fistula versus an arteriovenous graft seem to be least certain for older adults and when placed preemptively. However, older adults' life expectancy is heterogeneous, and most patients do not undergo permanent access creation until after dialysis initiation. We evaluated cost-effectiveness of arteriovenous fistula placement after dialysis initiation in older adults as a function of age and life expectancy...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508297/adaptation-to-stochastic-temporal-variations-in-intratumoral-blood-flow-the-warburg-effect-as-a-bet-hedging-strategy
#2
Curtis A Gravenmier, Miriam Siddique, Robert A Gatenby
While most cancers promote ingrowth of host blood vessels, the resulting vascular network usually fails to develop a mature organization, resulting in abnormal vascular dynamics with stochastic variations that include slowing, cessation, and even reversal of flow. Thus, substantial spatial and temporal variations in oxygen concentration are commonly observed in most cancers. Cancer cells, like all living systems, are subject to Darwinian dynamics such that their survival and proliferation are dependent on developing optimal phenotypic adaptations to local environmental conditions...
May 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507448/thiopurine-s-methyltransferase-polymorphisms-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-autoimmune-disorders-influence-on-treatment-response
#3
REVIEW
Rachid Abaji, Maja Krajinovic
The thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene encodes for the TPMT enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of thiopurine drugs. Genetic polymorphisms in this gene can affect the activity of the TPMT enzyme and have been correlated with variability in response to treatment with thiopurines. Advances in the pharmacogenetics of TPMT allowed the development of dosing recommendations and treatment strategies to optimize and individualize prescribing thiopurine in an attempt to enhance treatment efficacy while minimizing toxicity...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494798/androstenedione-response-to-recombinant-human-fsh-is-the-most-valid-predictor-of-the-number-of-selected-follicles-in-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-a-case-control-study
#4
Eser Sefik Ozyurek, Tevfik Yoldemir, Gokhan Artar
BACKGROUND: We aimed to test the hypothesis that the correlation of the changes in the blood Androstenedione (A4) levels to the number of selected follicles during ovulation induction with low-dose recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH) is as strong as the correlation to changes in the blood Estradiol (E2) levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Prospective Case-control study conducted from October 2014 to January 2016. 61 non-PCOS control (Group I) and 46 PCOS (Group II) patients treated with the chronic low-dose step up protocosl with rhFSH...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490835/from-non-preemptive-to-preemptive-scheduling-using-synchronization-synthesis
#5
Pavol Černý, Edmund M Clarke, Thomas A Henzinger, Arjun Radhakrishna, Leonid Ryzhyk, Roopsha Samanta, Thorsten Tarrach
We present a computer-aided programming approach to concurrency. The approach allows programmers to program assuming a friendly, non-preemptive scheduler, and our synthesis procedure inserts synchronization to ensure that the final program works even with a preemptive scheduler. The correctness specification is implicit, inferred from the non-preemptive behavior. Let us consider sequences of calls that the program makes to an external interface. The specification requires that any such sequence produced under a preemptive scheduler should be included in the set of sequences produced under a non-preemptive scheduler...
2017: Formal Methods in System Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490289/combating-mutations-in-genetic-disease-and-drug-resistance-understanding-molecular-mechanisms-to-guide-drug-design
#6
Amanda T S Albanaz, Carlos H M Rodrigues, Douglas E V Pires, David B Ascher
Mutations introduce diversity into genomes, leading to selective changes and driving evolution. These changes have contributed to the emergence of many of the current major health concerns of the 21st century, from the development of genetic diseases and cancers to the rise and spread of drug resistance. The experimental systematic testing of all mutations in a system of interest is impractical and not cost-effective, which has created interest in the development of computational tools to understand the molecular consequences of mutations to aid and guide rational experimentation...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484983/ischemic-preconditioning-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#7
REVIEW
Maranatha Ayodele, Sebastian Koch
Preconditioning is the premise that controlled preemptive exposure to sub-lethal doses of a stressor and can condition an organism or organ to later withstand a lethal dose. This process relies on marshaling endogenous survival resources that have evolved as part of an organism's evolutionary struggle to overcome at times harsh environmental conditions. This preconditioning response occurs through activation of myriad complex mechanisms that run the gamut from alterations in gene expression to the de novo synthesis and post-translational modification of proteins, and it may occur across exposure to a wide variety of stressors (i...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481857/the-evolution-of-pelvic-exenteration-practice-at-a-single-center-lessons-learned-from-over-500-cases
#8
Cherry E Koh, Michael J Solomon, Kilian G Brown, Kirk Austin, Christopher M Byrne, Peter Lee, Jane M Young
Considerable progress has been made in the management of patients with locally advanced or recurrent cancers of the pelvis over the past 60 years since the inception of pelvic exenteration. Early progress in pelvic exenteration was marred by the high surgical mortality and morbidity, which drew scepticism from the broader surgical community. Subsequent evolution in the procedure hinged on establishing surgical safety and a better understanding of outcome predictors. Surgical mortality from pelvic exenteration is now comparable to that of elective resection for primary colorectal cancers...
June 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480275/characteristics-and-mortality-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-with-cushing-s-syndrome-a-plea-for-timely-initiation-of-chemoprophylaxis
#9
Karlijn van Halem, Lucia Vrolijk, Alberto Martin Pereira, Markus Gerardus Johannes de Boer
In patients with Cushing's syndrome, development of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is associated with extreme cortisol production levels. In this setting, immune reconstitution after abrogation of cortisol excess appears to induce development of symptomatic PCP. The high mortality rate warrants timely initiation of chemoprophylaxis or even preemptive treatment of PCP.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475475/preemptive-analgesia-by-using-celecoxib-combined-with-tramadol-apap-alleviates-post-operative-pain-of-patients-undergoing-total-knee-arthroplasty
#10
Zhongwei Xu, Hua Zhang, Jiao Luo, Aiguo Zhou, Jian Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of preemptive analgesia (PA) by using celecoxib combined with low-dose tramadol/acetaminophen (tramadol/APAP) in treating post-operative pain of patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: A total of 132 patients scheduled for TKA were included in this study. Three-day pre-operative medication was administrated in PA group with subsequent effective intra- and post-operative multimodal analgesia, while control patients received multimodal analgesia without PA...
May 17, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474816/the-rise-of-glyphosate-and-new-opportunities-for-biosentinel-early-warning-studies
#11
Zoe Kissane, Jill M Shephard
Glyphosate has become the most commonly used herbicide worldwide, with a reputation of being environmentally benign, non-toxic and safe to wildlife and humans. However, studies have indicated its toxicity has been underestimated, and that its persistence in the environment is greater than once thought. Its actions as a neurotoxin and endocrine disruptor indicate its potential to act in similar ways to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as the organochlorine (OC) chemicals dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dioxin...
May 5, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474716/two-kinds-of-apoplexy-in-the-colonial-press
#12
Guillermo Delgado-García, Bruno Estañol-Vidal, Fernando Góngora-Rivera, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor
In 1787, three Colonial physicians quoted from Le Clerc (1726-1798) in the Gazeta de México. The French author lists six specific cases where bloodletting is often fatal, including two kinds of apoplexy: the serous and the lacteal. Both conditions are nowadays unknown to the majority of specialists in clinical neurology, and we therefore conducted an historical review of these conditions.
March 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469632/interplant-aboveground-signaling-prompts-upregulation-of-auxin-promoter-and-malate-transporter-as-part-of-defensive-response-in-the-neighboring-plants
#13
Connor Sweeney, Venkatachalam Lakshmanan, Harsh P Bais
When disrupted by stimuli such as herbivory, pathogenic infection, or mechanical wounding, plants secrete signals such as root exudates and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The emission of VOCs induces a response in the neighboring plant communities and can improve plant fitness by alerting nearby plants of an impending threat and prompting them to alter their physiology for defensive purposes. In this study, we investigated the role of plant-derived signals, released as a result of mechanical wounding, that may play a role in intraspecific communication between Arabidopsis thaliana communities...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468570/evaluation-of-cobas-ampliprep-cobas-taqman-cmv-test-for-use-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#14
Poornima Ramanan, Raymund R Razonable
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common opportunistic infection that contributes to poor outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Prevention of CMV end-organ disease in allogeneic HSCT recipients is commonly achieved by preemptive antiviral therapy of asymptomatic CMV reactivation that is detected by serial nucleic acid testing (NAT). However, there was no standardized CMV NAT until the development of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard. Areas covered: This article provides a comprehensive review on COBAS AmpliPrep/TaqMan (CAP/CTM) CMV assay (Roche) and emphasizes the limitations in the clinical use of CMV NAT in HSCT recipients...
May 4, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468529/pharmacogenomics-in-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-promises-and-limitations
#15
Zeina N Al-Mahayri, George P Patrinos, Bassam R Ali
Despite the significant advances achieved in pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) treatment, adverse side effects of drugs remain a challenging issue. Numerous ALL pharmacogenomic studies have been conducted to elucidate the predisposing genetic factors for their development. Plausible pharmacogenomic data are available for the osteonecrosis associated with glucocorticoids, the neurotoxicity associated with vincristine and the cardiotoxicity related to anthracyclines. However, these data have not been fully translated into the clinic due to several limitations, most importantly the lack of reliable evidence...
May 4, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466392/preemptive-panel-based-pharmacogenetic-testing-the-time-is-now
#16
Kristin W Weitzel, Larisa H Cavallari, Lawrence J Lesko
While recent discoveries have paved the way for the use of genotype-guided prescribing in some clinical environments, significant debate persists among clinicians and researchers about the optimal approach to pharmacogenetic testing in clinical practice. One crucial factor in this debate surrounds the timing and methodology of genotyping, specifically whether genotyping should be performed reactively for targeted genes when a single drug is prescribed, or preemptively using a panel-based approach prior to drug prescribing...
May 2, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459662/clinical-outcomes-with-antiviral-prophylaxis-or-preemptive-therapy-for-cytomegalovirus-disease-after-liver-transplantation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Yang Hui, Cui Xiangli, Wang Xin, Qiu Shuang, Liu Lihong
Objectives:We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the clinical outcomes of patients after liver transplantation accepting antiviral prophylaxis (AP) or preemptive therapy (PT) for preventing cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, Cochrane, Embase was conducted up to June 1, 2016. References of the retrieved articles were also reviewed and relevant studies were included. The primary outcomes were incidence of CMV infection, incidence of CMV disease, mortality and opportunistic infection...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445807/rewiring-brain-circuits-to-block-cataplexy-in-murine-models-of-narcolepsy
#18
REVIEW
Meng Liu, Carlos Blanco-Centurion, Priyattam J Shiromani
Narcolepsy was first identified almost 130 years ago, but it was only 15 years ago that it was identified as a neurodegenerative disease linked to a loss of orexin neurons in the brain. It is unclear what causes the orexin neurons to die, but our strategy has been to place the gene for orexin into surrogate neurons in the validated mouse models of narcolepsy, and test whether it can block narcolepsy symptoms, such as cataplexy. In both the orexin knockout and the orexin-ataxin-3 mouse models of narcolepsy we have found that cataplexy can be blocked if the surrogate neurons are part of the circuit responsible for cataplexy...
April 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442955/no-preemptive-analgesic-effect-of-preoperative-ketorolac-administration-following-total-abdominal-hysterectomy-a-randomized-study
#19
Beatriz Nistal-Nuño
BACKGROUND: Experimental models using short-duration noxious stimuli have led to the concept of preemptive analgesia. Ketorolac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been shown to have a postoperative narcotic-sparing effect when given preoperatively and alternatively to not have this effect. This study was undertaken to determine whether a single intravenous (IV) dose of ketorolac would result in decreased postoperative pain and narcotic requirements. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 48 women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were studied...
April 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438721/clinical-profile-and-mutation-spectrum-of-long-qt-syndrome-in-saudi-arabia-the-impact-of-consanguinity
#20
Zuhair N Al-Hassnan, Majid Al-Fayyadh, Bander Al-Ghamdi, Azam Shafquat, Yaseen Mallawi, Faten Al-Hadeq, Sahar Tulbah, Zarghuna M A Shinwari, Abdulrahman Almesned, Ali Alakhfash, Fadel Al Fadly, Ahmed S Hersi, Abdullah Alhayani, Amal Al-Hashem, Dia Arafah, Nduna Dzimiri, Brian Meyer, Monther Rababh, Waleed Al-Manea
BACKGROUND: Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited, potentially fatal arrhythmogenic disorder. At least 16 genes have been implicated in LQTS; the yield of genetic analysis of 3 genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A) is about 70%, with KCNQ1 mutations accounting for ∼50% of positive cases. LQTS is mostly inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Systemic analysis of LQTS has not been previously conducted in a population with a high degree of consanguinity. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and molecular profiles of LQTS in the highly consanguineous Saudi population...
April 22, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
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