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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349630/developmental-changes-in-serotonergic-modulation-of-gabaergic-synaptic-transmission-and-postsynaptic-gabaa-receptor-composition-in-the-cerebellar-nuclei
#1
Fumihito Saitow, Masatoshi Nagano, Hidenori Suzuki
Outputs from the cerebellar nuclei (CN) are important for generating and controlling movement. The activity of CN neurons is controlled not only by excitatory inputs from mossy and climbing fibers and by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-based inhibitory transmission from Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex but is also modulated by inputs from other brain regions, including serotonergic fibers that originate in the dorsal raphe nuclei. We examined the modulatory effects of serotonin (5-HT) on GABAergic synapses during development, using rat cerebellar slices...
January 19, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349284/the-relationship-between-physical-functional-limitations-and-psychological-distress-considering-a-possible-mediating-role-of-pain-social-support-and-sense-of-mastery
#2
Ingeborg Flåten Backe, Grete Grindal Patil, Ragnhild Bang Nes, Jocelyne Clench-Aas
The aim of this study was to examine associations between selected physical functional limitations related to performing daily activities and psychological distress. We also aimed to investigate if these associations vary across age (moderation), and to explore pain, sense of mastery and social support as potential moderators and mediators. The study was based on pooled data from two rounds (2008 and 2012) of a Norwegian nationally representative cross-sectional health survey (N = 8520) including individuals aged ≥ 16 years (Age groups = 16-44 and ≥ 45 years)...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347800/roughness-enhanced-transport-in-a-tilted-ratchet-driven-by-l%C3%A3-vy-noise
#3
Yongge Li, Yong Xu, Jürgen Kurths
The enhanced transport of particles by roughness in a tilted rough ratchet potential subject to a Lévy noise is investigated in this paper. Due to the roughness, the transport process exhibits quite different properties compared to the smooth case. We find that the roughness on the potential wall functions like a ladder to provide the convenience for particles to climb up but hinder them to slide down. The mean first passage time from one well to its right adjacent well and the mean velocity are, respectively, calculated versus the roughness, the external force, and the Lévy stability index...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347632/dynamics-of-a-thermally-driven-film-climbing-the-outside-of-a-vertical-cylinder
#4
Linda B Smolka
The dynamics of a film climbing the outside of a vertical cylinder under the competing effects of a thermally driven surface tension gradient and gravity is examined through numerical simulations of a thin-film model for the film height. The model, including boundary conditions, depends on three parameters, the scaled cylinder radius R[over ̂], the upstream film height h_{∞}, and the downstream precursor film thickness b, and reduces to the model for Marangoni driven film climbing a vertical plate in the limit R[over ̂]→∞...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346563/lc3-immunostaining-in-the-inferior-olivary-nuclei-of-cats-with-niemann-pick-disease-type-c1-is-associated-with-patterned-purkinje-cell-loss
#5
Brittney L Gurda, Jessica H Bagel, Samantha J Fisher, Mark L Schultz, Andrew P Lieberman, Peter Hand, Charles H Vite, Gary P Swain
The feline model of Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) recapitulates the clinical, neuropathological, and biochemical abnormalities present in children with NPC1. The hallmarks of disease are the lysosomal storage of unesterified cholesterol and multiple sphingolipids in neurons, and the spatial and temporal distribution of Purkinje cell death. In feline NPC1 brain, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) accumulations, indicating autophagosomes, were found within axons and presynaptic terminals...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341873/differences-in-heart-rate-reserve-of-similar-physical-activities-during-work-and-in-leisure-time-a-study-among-danish-blue-collar-workers
#6
Pieter Coenen, Mette Korshøj, David M Hallman, Maaike A Huysmans, Allard J van der Beek, Leon M Straker, Andreas Holtermann
Recent studies suggest that while leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) promotes general health, engaging in occupational physical activity (OPA) may have negative health consequences. It has been hypothesized that the different health effects from OPA and LTPA can be explained by differences in physical activity (PA) intensity in these two domains. To assess the intensity of OPA and LTPA, we aimed to study the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) during similar types of OPA and LTPA during workdays. Data from the NOMAD study on Danish blue-collar workers (n=124) with objective measurements of PA (using accelerometers) and heart rate (using heart rate monitors) for 4 workdays were analysed...
January 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336959/psychological-attributes-of-ultramarathoners
#7
Katherine Buck, Jack Spittler, Alex Reed, Morteza Khodaee
INTRODUCTION: As the popularity of ultramarathon participation increases, there still exists a lack of understanding of the unique psychological characteristics of ultramarathon runners. The current study sought to investigate some of the psychological and behavioral factors that are involved in ultramarathon running. METHODS: We obtained information from participants of the Bear Chase Trail Race via an online survey. This race is a single-day, multidistance race consisting of a 10 k, half marathon, 50 k, 50 mi, and 100 k run in Lakewood, Colorado, at a base altitude of 1680 m with total altitude in climbs ranging from 663 to 2591 m...
January 11, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329954/comparative-myology-of-the-ankle-of-leopardus-wiedii-and-l-geoffroyi-carnivora-felidae-functional-consistency-with-osteology-locomotor-habits-and-hunting-in-captivity
#8
Miriam M Morales, S Rocío Moyano, Agustina M Ortiz, Marcos D Ercoli, Luis I Aguado, Sergio A Cardozo, Norberto P Giannini
Leopardus wiedii (margay) is the only arboreal Neotropical felid able to climb head-first down trees, due to its ability to rotate its tarsal joint 180°. A closely related, similar-sized species, L. geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat) exhibits more typical terrestrial habits and lacks the arboreal capabilities of L. wiedii. There is osteological evidence that supports a mechanical specialization of L. wiedii's tarsal joint for inversion, but there have been no studies on the myology of this specialization. Based on comparative gross-anatomy dissections of zeugo- and autopodial muscles related to the ankle joint of one margay specimen and two Geoffroýs cats, we identified myological specializations of L...
December 26, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324667/dietary-resveratrol-does-not-affect-life-span-body-composition-stress-response-and-longevity-related-gene-expression-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Stefanie Staats, Anika E Wagner, Bianca Kowalewski, Florian T Rieck, Sebastian T Soukup, Sabine E Kulling, Gerald Rimbach
In this study, we tested the effect of the stilbene resveratrol on life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and the expression of genes encoding proteins centrally involved in ageing pathways in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female w1118 D. melanogaster were fed diets based on sucrose, corn meal, and yeast. Flies either received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 µmol/L resveratrol. Dietary resveratrol did not affect mean, median, and maximal life span of male and female flies...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323417/loss-of-ethanol-inhibition-of-nmdar-mediated-currents-and-plasticity-of-cerebellar-synapses-in-mice-expressing-the-glun1-f639a-subunit
#10
Paula A Zamudio-Bulcock, Gregg E Homanics, John J Woodward
BACKGROUND: Glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are well known for their sensitivity to ethanol inhibition. However, the specific manner in which ethanol inhibits channel activity and how such inhibition affects neurotransmission, and ultimately behavior, remain unclear. Replacement of phenylalanine 639 with alanine (F639A) in the GluN1 subunit reduces ethanol inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptors. Mice expressing this subunit show reduced ethanol-induced anxiolysis, blunted locomotor stimulation following low dose ethanol administration and faster recovery of motor function after moderate doses of ethanol suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction may contribute to some of these behaviors...
January 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320818/zoonotic-trematode-metacercariae-in-fish-from-yangon-myanmar-and-their-adults-recovered-from-experimental-animals
#11
Jong-Yil Chai, Woon-Mok Sohn, Byoung-Kuk Na, Jong-Bok Park, Hoo-Gn Jeoung, Eui-Hyug Hoang, Thi Thi Htoon, Htay Htay Tin
A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of zoonotic trematode (ZT) metacercariae in fish from a local market in Yangon City, Myanmar. A total of 264 fish (12 species) were collected through 4 times from December 2013 to June 2015. All collected fish were transferred to our laboratory on ice and examined by the artificial digestion method. More than 7 species of ZT metacercariae, i.e., Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus spp., Stellantchasmus falcatus, Pygidiopsis cambodiensis, and Procerovum sp...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318571/fiber-type-composition-of-epaxial-muscles-is-geared-toward-facilitating-rapid-spinal-extension-in-the-leaper-galago-senegalensis
#12
Emranul Huq, Andrea B Taylor, Zuowei Su, Christine E Wall
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the vertical leaper Galago senegalensis will have epaxial extensor muscles with a fast fiber phenotype to facilitate rapid spinal extension during leaping in comparison to the slow-moving quadruped Nycticebus coucang. To test this, we determined the percentage of fiber cross-sectional area (%CSA) devoted to Type 2 fibers in epaxial muscles of G. senegalensis compared to those of N. coucang. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to identify Type 1, Type 2, and hybrid fibers in iliocostalis, longissimus, and multifidus muscles of G...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316623/neurodegeneration-and-sensorimotor-deficits-in-the-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Saurav Bhowmick, Veera D'Mello, Nizmi Ponery, P M Abdul-Muneer
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in persistent sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, which occur through a cascade of deleterious pathophysiological events over time. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that neurodegeneration caused by TBI leads to impairments in sensorimotor function. TBI induces the activation of the caspase-3 enzyme, which triggers cell apoptosis in an in vivo model of fluid percussion injury (FPI). We analyzed caspase-3 mediated apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and annexin V western blotting...
January 6, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315350/gluteal-muscle-damage-leads-to-higher-in-vivo-hip-joint-loads-3-months-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#14
Philipp Damm, Jip Zonneveld, Sophie Brackertz, Florian Streitparth, Tobias Winkler
BACKGROUND: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is in most cases improving patients´ life quality immediately after surgery. However, a closer look at these patients, especially with modern gait analysis methods, reveals also negative consequences due to the surgical approach related injury to the pelvic muscles. We hypothesized that this damage will have a negative impact on hip joint contact forces during activities of daily living (ADL). METHODS: 10 patients undergoing THA received an instrumented hip joint implant enabling real time in vivo measurements of hip joint loads using a direct lateral approach...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315315/quantification-of-intramuscular-fat-in-patients-with-late-onset-pompe-disease-by-conventional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-long-term-follow-up-of-enzyme-replacement-therapy
#15
André Lollert, Clemens Stihl, Andreas M Hötker, Eugen Mengel, Jochem König, Katharina Laudemann, Seyfullah Gökce, Christoph Düber, Gundula Staatz
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate a quantitative method based on conventional T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assess fatty muscular degeneration in patients with late-onset Pompe disease and to compare it with semi-quantitative visual evaluation (the Mercuri score). In addition, a long-term retrospective data analysis was performed to evaluate treatment response to enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alfa. METHODS: MR images of the lumbar spine were acquired in 41 patients diagnosed with late-onset Pompe disease from 2006 through 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310652/what-makes-patients-aware-of-their-artificial-knee-joint
#16
F L Loth, M C Liebensteiner, J M Giesinger, K Giesinger, H R Bliem, B Holzner
BACKGROUND: Joint awareness was recently introduced as a new concept for outcome assessment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Findings from qualitative and psychometric studies suggest that joint awareness is a distinct concept especially relevant to patients with good surgical outcome and patients at late follow-up time points. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of the concept of joint awareness by identifying situations in which patients are aware of their artificial knee joint and to investigate what bodily sensations and psychological factors raise a patient's awareness of her/his knee...
January 8, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305941/traumatic-urethraggia-in-adolescence-ushering-in-the-new-age-of-extreme-sports
#17
I Hodge, A Adam, M Chennapragada, A Tiu, A V Deshpande
Herein we describe a case of a 14-year-old with straddle injury to the base of the penis, sustained during an indoor rock climbing accident, who presented with severe urethrragia. Urethral injury was confirmed with retrograde urethrography. The patient became haemodynamically unstable from persistent blood loss, and corporal arterial injury was diagnosed on CT angiography. The urethraggia was successfully controlled with angioembolisation. The unique aspects of this case were the challenges in establishing the diagnosis on the background of the abnormal presentation of vascular injury of blood loss as opposed to painless priapism...
January 3, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304497/predictors-of-hematological-abnormalities-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-treated-with-fingolimod-and-dimethyl-fumarate-and-impact-of-treatment-switch-on-lymphocyte-and-leukocyte-count
#18
M Baharnoori, C T Gonzalez, A Chua, C Diaz-Cruz, B C Healy, J Stankiewicz, H L Weiner, T Chitnis
BACKGROUND: There is limited data regarding the predictors of hematological abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with dimethyl fumarate (DMF) or fingolimod (FNG), and the impact of treatment switch on lymphocyte and leukocyte count METHODS: We identified 405 patients on DMF and 300 patients on FNG (treatment duration: at least 12 month) within a large prospective study of MS patients conducted at the Partners MS Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital (CLIMB study) between Jan 2011 to Feb 2016...
December 14, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300061/fabrication-of-an-artificial-nanosucker-device-with-a-large-area-nanotube-array-of-metallic-glass
#19
Wei-Ting Chen, Karthikeyan Manivannan, Chia-Chi Yu, Jinn P Chu, Jem-Kun Chen
The concurrent attachment and detachment movements of geckos on virtually any type of surface via their foot pads have inspired us to develop a thermal device with numerous arrangements of a multi-layer thin film together with electrodes that can help modify the temperature of the surface via application of a voltage. A sequential fabrication process was employed on a large-scale integration to generate well-defined contact hole arrays of photoresist for use as templates on the electrode-based device. The photoresist templates were then subjected to sputter deposition of the metallic glass Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5...
January 18, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298956/inversion-of-friction-anisotropy-in-a-bio-inspired-asymmetrically-structured-surface
#20
Halvor T Tramsen, Stanislav N Gorb, Hao Zhang, Poramate Manoonpong, Zhendong Dai, Lars Heepe
Friction anisotropy is an important property of many surfaces that usually facilitate the generation of motion in a preferred direction. Such surfaces are very common in biological systems and have been the templates for various bio-inspired materials with similar tribological properties. So far friction anisotropy is considered to be the result of an asymmetric arrangement of surface nano- and microstructures. However, here we show by using bio-inspired sawtooth-structured surfaces that the anisotropic friction properties are not only controlled by an asymmetric surface topography, but also by the ratio of the sample-substrate stiffness, the aspect ratio of surface structures, and by the substrate roughness...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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