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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723717/localized-muscle-vibration-reverses-quadriceps-muscle-hypotrophy-and-improves-physical-function-a-clinical-and-electrophysiological-study
#1
Maria Grazia Benedetti, Gennaro Boccia, Lorenzo Cavazzuti, Elena Magnani, Elisabetta Mariani, Alberto Rainoldi, Roberto Casale
Quadriceps weakness has been associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA). High-frequency localized muscle vibration (LMV) has been proposed recently for quadriceps strengthening in patients with knee OA. The purpose of this study was (a) to investigate the clinical effectiveness of high-frequency LMV on quadriceps muscle in patients with knee OA and (b) to disentangle, by means of surface electromyography (sEMG), the underlying mechanism. Thirty patients, aged between 40 and 65 years, and clinically diagnosed with knee OA were included in this randomized, controlled, single-blinded pilot study...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720489/simplified-membrane-feeding-of-bloodsucking-triatomines-hemiptera-reduviidae
#2
Glennyha F Duarte, Dayane B Macedo, Christian Luz
Laboratory-reared hematophagous triatomines that are the main vectors of Chagas disease are generally fed on small vertebrates or on blood-filled membrane devices. Such devices allow a large-scale rearing of these vectors without sacrificing host animals but are almost always expensive, fragile, not easily purchased, and usually difficult to use because they need to be sterilized before and carefully cleaned after each feeding. We present here a simple device to feed triatomines that is composed of a circular series of alternating short pieces of stainless steel and silicon tubing connected to a pump that circulates water heated at 50° C in a water bath...
July 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720183/g-loc-warning-algorithms-based-on-emg-features-of-the-gastrocnemius-muscle
#3
Sungho Kim, Taehwan Cho, Yongkyun Lee, Hyojin Koo, Booyong Choi, Dongsoo Kim
BACKGROUND: G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) is mainly caused by failure to sustain an oxygenated blood supply to the pilot's brain because of the sudden acceleration in the direction of the +Gz axis, and is considered a critical safety issue. The purpose of this study was to develop G-LOC warning algorithms based on monitoring electromyograms (EMG) of the gastrocnemius muscle on the calf. METHODS: EMG data was retrieved from a total of 67 pilots and pilot trainees of the Korean Air Force during high-G training on a human centrifugal simulator...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718217/a-3d-musculoskeletal-model-of-the-western-lowland-gorilla-hind-limb-moment-arms-and-torque-of-the-hip-knee-and-ankle
#4
Colleen Goh, Mary L Blanchard, Robin H Crompton, Michael M Gunther, Sophie Macaulay, Karl T Bates
Three-dimensional musculoskeletal models have become increasingly common for investigating muscle moment arms in studies of vertebrate locomotion. In this study we present the first musculoskeletal model of a western lowland gorilla hind limb. Moment arms of individual muscles around the hip, knee and ankle were compared with previously published data derived from the experimental tendon travel method. Considerable differences were found which we attribute to the different methodologies in this specific case...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717348/the-synergistic-effect-of-microwave-radiation-and-hypergravity-on-rats-and-the-intervention-effect-of-rana-sylvatica-le-conte-oil
#5
Wei Sun, Yudan Yang, Hongmei Yu, Luowei Wang, Su Pan
AIM: The phenomena of hypergravity and microwave radiation are widespread, which cause more and more concern for the hazards to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of microwave radiation and hypergravity on rats and observe the protective effect of Rana sylvatica Le conte oil. METHODS: Rats were exposed to microwave radiation and hypergravity, and the rat weight, the climbing pole height, serum enzyme activities, blood urea nitrogen concentration, and total antioxidant capacity were detected...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713262/effects-of-strength-training-and-anabolic-steroid-in-the-peripheral-nerve-and-skeletal-muscle-morphology-of-aged-rats
#6
Walter Krause Neto, Wellington de A Silva, Adriano P Ciena, Ricardo Aparecido Baptista Nucci, Carlos A Anaruma, Eliane F Gama
Thirty male 20-month-old Wistar rats were divided into groups: IC-initial control (n = 6), FC-final control (n = 6), AC-anabolic hormone control (n = 6), ST-strength trained (n = 6) and STA-strength trained with anabolic hormone (n = 6). All groups were submitted to adaptation, familiarization and maximum load carrying test (MLCT). Strength training (6-8×/session with loads of 50%-100% MLCT, 3×/week and pause of 120 s) was performed in ladder climbing (LC) for 15 weeks. The administration of testosterone propionate (TP) was performed 2×/week (10 mg/kg) in animals in the AC and STA groups...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711710/comparison-of-the-role-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-1-in-developmental-refinement-of-neuronal-connectivity-between-the-cerebellum-and-the-sensory-thalamus
#7
REVIEW
Madoka Narushima
Developmental refinement of neuronal connectivity is crucial for proper brain function. In the early phase of development, input fibers arrive at their target areas guided by specific molecular cues and form abundant immature synapses. Then, functionally important synapses are preserved and strengthened by neural activity while unnecessary synapses are eliminated. Afferent synapses in the sensory thalamus, such as from retina to lateral geniculate nucleus, and climbing fiber (CF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in the cerebellum are valuable models for studying this developmental refinement of synaptic connectivity because only a limited number of input fibers innervate a given postsynaptic thalamocortical (TC) neuron or PC...
July 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710881/an-ethanolic-extract-of-desmodium-adscendens-exhibits-antipsychotic-like-activity-in-mice
#8
Patrick Amoateng, Samuel Adjei, Dorcas Osei-Safo, Kennedy K E Kukuia, Thomas K Karikari, Alexander K Nyarko
BACKGROUND: Desmodium adscendens extract (DAE) is used traditionally in Ghana for the management of psychosis. The present study aimed at providing pharmacological evidence for its ethnomedical use by testing the hypothesis that an ethanolic extract of Desmodium adscendens may possess antipsychotic properties. METHODS: The primary behavioral effects of DAE on the central nervous system of mice were investigated using Irwin's test paradigm. Novelty-induced and apomorphine-induced locomotor and rearing behaviors in mice were explored in an open-field observational test system...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709354/crossing-fitness-canyons-by-a-finite-population
#9
David B Saakian, Alexander S Bratus, Chin-Kun Hu
We consider the Wright-Fisher model of the finite population evolution on a fitness landscape defined in the sequence space by a path of nearly neutral mutations. We study a specific structure of the fitness landscape: One of the intermediate mutations on the mutation path results in either a large fitness value (climbing up a fitness hill) or a low fitness value (crossing a fitness canyon), the rest of the mutations besides the last one are neutral, and the last sequence has much higher fitness than any intermediate sequence...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704627/task-specific-training-for-adults-with-chronic-knee-pain-a-case-series
#10
Allyn M Bove, Nancy Baker, Heather Livengood, Visnja King, Joseph Mancino, Adam Popchak, G Kelley Fitzgerald
Study Design Case series. Background Recent evidence suggests that traditional impairment-based rehabilitation approaches for patients with knee pain may not result in improved function or reduced disability. This case series describes a novel task-specific training approach to exercise therapy for patients with chronic knee pain and reports changes in measures of clinical outcome (pain and physical function) following participation in the training program. Case Description Seven patients with chronic knee pain aged ≥ 40 years were included...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701621/antipsychotic-like-activity-of-scopoletin-and-rutin-against-the-positive-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-in-mouse-models
#11
Vijayapandi Pandy, Kamini Vijeepallam
In an earlier report, we demonstrated an antipsychotic-like activity of a methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn fruit in mouse models and postulated the contribution of its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin. Moreover, the antidopaminergic activities of scopoletin and rutin were reported in isolated vas deferens preparations. In the present study, scopoletin and rutin were assessed for antipsychotic-like activity using apomorphine-induced climbing behavior and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy in mice...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701537/climbing-fibers-predict-movement-kinematics-and-performance-errors
#12
Martha L Streng, Laurentiu S Popa, Timothy J Ebner
Requisite for understanding cerebellar function is a complete characterization of the signals provided by complex spike (CS) discharge of Purkinje cells, the output neurons of the cerebellar cortex. Numerous studies have provided insights into CS function, with the most predominant view being that they are evoked by error events. However, several reports suggest that CSs encode other aspects of movements and do not always respond to errors or unexpected perturbations. Here, we evaluated CS firing during a pseudo-random manual tracking task in the monkey (Macaca mulatta)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698888/modulation-of-complex-spike-duration-and-probability-during-cerebellar-motor-learning-in-visually-guided-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements-of-monkeys
#13
Yan Yang, Stephen G Lisberger
Activation of an inferior olivary neuron powerfully excites Purkinje cells via its climbing fiber input and triggers a characteristic high-frequency burst, known as the complex spike (CS). The theory of cerebellar learning postulates that the CS induces long-lasting depression of the strength of synapses from active parallel fibers onto Purkinje cells, and that synaptic depression leads to changes in behavior. Prior reports showed that a CS on one learning trial is linked to a properly timed depression of simple spikes on the subsequent trial, as well as a learned change in pursuit eye movement...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698703/why-are-suicide-rates-climbing-after-years-of-decline
#14
Nancy Valko
There is evidence that the increasing rates of suicide can be linked to the legalization of physician-assisted suicide. Factors such as suicide contagion and the increasing positive media reporting on such suicides are also relevant and have led to different standards of treatment for suicidal people who claim the right to have their suicides medically assisted.
May 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696958/rock-climbing-related-bone-marrow-edema-of-the-hand-a-follow-up-study
#15
Christoph Lutter, Thomas Hochholzer, Thomas Bayer, Volker Schöffl
OBJECTIVE: Sport climbers strain passive and active anatomical structures of their hands and fingers to the maximum during training or competition. This study was designed to investigate bone marrow edema (BME) in rock climbing athletes. DESIGN: Systematic detection, treatment, and follow-up investigation of rock climbing athletes with BME of the hand. SETTING: Primary-level orthopedic surgery and sports medicine division of a large academic medical center...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692621/challenges-in-the-management-of-geriatric-trauma-a-case-report
#16
Ashley Gaebel, Megan Keiser
This article describes geriatric trauma and commonly associated difficulties emphasizing both the epidemiology and assessment of geriatric trauma. There is little data guiding decisions for trauma patients 65 years or older, as there are many unique characteristics to the geriatric population, including comorbidities, medications, and the aging physiology. The geriatric population in the United States has been steadily climbing for the last 20 years and is projected to continue on this trend. Although each patient presents differently, there remains a need for the consistent utilization of standard guidelines to help dictate care for geriatric patients, particularly for patients not receiving care at a trauma center...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691919/modeling-and-analysis-of-a-meso-hydraulic-climbing-robot-with-artificial-muscle-actuation
#17
Edward M Chapman, Tyler E Jenkins, Matthew Bryant
This paper presents a fully coupled electro-hydraulic model of a bio-inspired climbing robot actuated by fluidic artificial muscles (FAMs). This analysis expands upon previous FAM literature by considering not only the force and contraction characteristics of the actuator, but the complete hydraulic and electromechanical circuits as well as the dynamics of the climbing robot. This analysis allows modeling of the time-varying applied pressure, electrical current, and actuator contraction for accurate prediction of the robot motion, energy consumption, and mechanical work output...
July 10, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691319/fitness-plus-american-society-of-anesthesiologists-grade-improve-outcome-prediction-after-endovascular-aneurysm-repair
#18
Margaret Boult, Prue Cowled, Mary Barnes, Robert A Fitridge
BACKGROUND: Although the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade was established for statistical purposes, it is often used prognostically. However, older patients undergoing elective surgery are typically ASA III, which limits patient stratification. We look at the prognostic effect on early complications and survival of using ASA and self-reported physical fitness to stratify patients undergoing endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. METHODS: Data were extracted from a trial database...
July 10, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688455/foot-use-during-vertical-climbing-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#19
R E Wunderlich, S B Ischinger
Upright bipedalism is a hallmark of hominin locomotion, however debates continue regarding the extent of arboreal locomotion and the nature of bipedalism practiced by early hominins. Pedal form and function play a prominent role in these debates, as the foot is the element that directly interacts with the locomotor substrate. Recent finds have substantially increased the availability of associated foot remains of early hominins and emphasized the enigmatic nature of the early evolution of human bipedalism. New discoveries of associated forefoot remains have afforded the opportunity to assess relative proportions across the forefoot of fossil hominins and illuminated the need for data on relative loading across the forefoot in extant hominoids...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684883/top-of-climb-matching-method-for-reducing-aircraft-trajectory-prediction-errors
#20
David P Thipphavong
The inaccuracies of the aircraft performance models utilized by trajectory predictors with regard to takeoff weight, thrust, climb profile, and other parameters result in altitude errors during the climb phase that often exceed the vertical separation standard of 1000 feet. This study investigates the potential reduction in altitude trajectory prediction errors that could be achieved for climbing flights if just one additional parameter is made available: top-of-climb (TOC) time. The TOC-matching method developed and evaluated in this paper is straightforward: a set of candidate trajectory predictions is generated using different aircraft weight parameters, and the one that most closely matches TOC in terms of time is selected...
September 2016: Journal of Aircraft
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