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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522360/sex-with-no-regrets-how-sexual-reproduction-uses-a-no-regret-learning-algorithm-for-evolutionary-advantage
#1
Omer Edhan, Ziv Hellman, Dana Sherill-Rofe
The question of 'why sex' has long been a puzzle. The randomness of recombination, which potentially produces low fitness progeny, contradicts notions of fitness landscape hill climbing. We use the concept of evolution as an algorithm for learning unpredictable environments to provide a possible answer. While sex and asex both implement similar machine learning no-regret algorithms in the context of random samples that are small relative to a vast genotype space, the algorithm of sex constitutes a more efficient goal-directed walk through this space...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521189/does-a-video-displaying-a-stair-climbing-model-increase-stair-use-in-a-worksite-setting
#2
L Van Calster, A-S Van Hoecke, A Octaef, F Boen
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of improving the visibility of the stairwell and of displaying a video with a stair climbing model on climbing and descending stair use in a worksite setting. STUDY DESIGN: Intervention study. METHODS: Three consecutive one-week intervention phases were implemented: (1) the visibility of the stairs was improved by the attachment of pictograms that indicated the stairwell; (2) a video showing a stair climbing model was sent to the employees by email; and (3) the same video was displayed on a television screen at the point-of-choice (POC) between the stairs and the elevator...
May 15, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515684/selegiline-ameliorates-depression-like-behavior-in-mice-lacking-the-cd157-bst1-gene-a-risk-factor-for-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Satoka Kasai, Toru Yoshihara, Olga Lopatina, Katsuhiko Ishihara, Haruhiro Higashida
Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is accompanied by various non-motor symptoms including depression and anxiety, which may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Selegiline is an irreversible monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor, and is widely used in the treatment of PD and major depression. However, there are few reports about the effects of selegiline on non-motor symptoms in PD. The aim of this study was to explore the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of selegiline, using CD157/BST1 knockout (CD157 KO) mouse, a PD-related genetic model displaying depression and anxiety, compared with other antiparkinsonian drugs and an antidepressant, and was to investigate the effects of selegiline on biochemical parameters in emotion-related brain regions...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514522/use-of-reversible-contraceptive-methods-among-u-s-women-with-physical-or-sensory-disabilities
#4
Justine P Wu, Kimberly S McKee, Michael M McKee, Michelle A Meade, Melissa A Plegue, Ananda Sen
CONTEXT: Women with disabilities experience a higher rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes than women without disabilities. Preventing or delaying pregnancy when that is the best choice for a woman is a critical strategy to reducing pregnancy-related disparities, yet little is known about current contraceptive use among women with disabilities. METHODS: A cohort of 545 reproductive-age women with physical disabilities (i.e., difficulty walking, climbing, dressing or bathing) or sensory disabilities (i...
May 17, 2017: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514129/-hand-injuries-in-rock-climbers
#5
REVIEW
Hagay Orbach, Guy Rubin, Alejandro Wolovelsky, Micha Rinott, Uriel Giwnewer, Nimrod Rozen
Rock climbing, whether practiced in nature on cliffs and boulders or indoors on walls made of resin and wood, has gained tremendous popularity in recent decades. More people are exposed to injuries associated with the unique biomechanical forces of rock climbing. A series of repetitive high torque movements of the upper limbs are needed to ascend a wall or rockface. These movements subject the hand and wrist to large forces, potentially resulting in ligament and tendon sprains or rupture and even bone fracture...
July 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510200/cambial-variations-of-piper-piperaceae-in-taiwan
#6
Sheng-Zehn Yang, Po-Hao Chen
BACKGROUND: Cambial variations in lianas of Piperaceae in Taiwan have not been studied previously. The stem anatomy of seven Piper species from Taiwan was examined to document cambial variations and better distinguish the species when leaves are absent. RESULTS: A key for the seven species is provided, based on the internal stem anatomy. The seven Piper species climb via adventitious roots, and in cross section, the stems were generally eccentric and oblate, although a transversely elliptic stem was found in P...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509631/improving-balance-mobility-and-dual-task-performance-in-an-adolescent-with-cerebral-palsy-a-case-report
#7
Sarah Fisher-Pipher, Lisa K Kenyon, Marci Westman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Improving functional mobility is often a desired outcome for adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Traditional neurorehabilitation approaches are frequently directed at impairments; however, improvements may not be carried over into functional mobility. The purpose of this case report was to describe the examination, intervention, and outcomes of a task-oriented physical therapy intervention program to improve dynamic balance, functional mobility, and dual-task performance in an adolescent with CP...
May 16, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508291/lobular-homology-in-cerebellar-hemispheres-of-humans-non-human-primates-and-rodents-a-structural-axonal-tracing-and-molecular-expression-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Yuanjun Luo, Hirofumi Fujita, Hermina Nedelescu, Mohammad Shahangir Biswas, Chika Sato, Sarah Ying, Mayu Takahashi, Keiichi Akita, Tatsuya Higashi, Ichio Aoki, Izumi Sugihara
Comparative neuroanatomy provides insights into the evolutionary functional adaptation of specific mammalian cerebellar lobules, in which the lobulation pattern and functional localization are conserved. However, accurate identification of homologous lobules among mammalian species is challenging. In this review, we discuss the inter-species homology of crus I and II lobules which occupy a large volume in the posterior cerebellar hemisphere, particularly in humans. Both crus I/II in humans are homologous to crus I/II in non-human primates, according to Paxinos and colleagues; however, this area has been defined as crus I alone in non-human primates, according to Larsell and Brodal...
May 15, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507154/information-socialtaxis-and-efficient-collective-behavior-emerging-in-groups-of-information-seeking-agents
#9
Ehud D Karpas, Adi Shklarsh, Elad Schneidman
Individual behavior, in biology, economics, and computer science, is often described in terms of balancing exploration and exploitation. Foraging has been a canonical setting for studying reward seeking and information gathering, from bacteria to humans, mostly focusing on individual behavior. Inspired by the gradient-climbing nature of chemotaxis, the infotaxis algorithm showed that locally maximizing the expected information gain leads to efficient and ethological individual foraging. In nature, as well as in theoretical settings, conspecifics can be a valuable source of information about the environment...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507015/preserving-healthy-muscle-during-weight-loss
#10
REVIEW
Edda Cava, Nai Chien Yeat, Bettina Mittendorfer
Weight loss is the cornerstone of therapy for people with obesity because it can ameliorate or completely resolve the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary artery disease, and obesity-associated cancers. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss-associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about weight-loss-induced muscle loss and its implications for overall physical function (e...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506903/ethnozoological-assessment-of-animals-used-by-mon-traditional-medicine-vendors-at-kyaiktiyo-myanmar
#11
Vincent Nijman, Chris R Shepherd
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Wild animals are widely used in traditional Asian medicine but information from Myanmar is lacking. We show that a wide range of animals are used at a pilgrimage site, mostly for their rendered fats and oils to be used in mixed concoctions. The majority of species were sold to be used to treat aching joints, muscle ache and skin diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess wildlife for sale for medicinal purposes, and document their medicinal use at Kyaiktiyo, a pilgrimage site at a 1100m tall mountain, with many of the pilgrims climbing to the top...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505265/the-influence-of-the-topography-of-the-ailao-mountains-on-congregated-landings-of-airborne-sogatella-furcifera-hemiptera-delphacidae-populations
#12
Yan Wu, Xi-Jie Li, Xiao Chen, Gao Hu, Yan-Yue Hu, Kai Xiong, Guo Zhang, Jian Zhu, Shao-Lei Chen, Ming-Hong Lu, Ai-Dong Chen, Bao-Ping Zhai
The Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is an important migrating rice pest whose outbreak may be caused by large-scale congregated landings. Hitherto, the meteorological factors that influence congregated landings were thought to be rainfall and downdraft. However, for migratory insects on a plateau, low temperature may be another key factor leading to congregated landings. However, no reports have been published. Therefore, this paper evaluates the reason for a large-scale congregated landing in the mountainous area in Yuanjiang via light trap monitoring...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503523/treadmill-exercise-ameliorates-depressive-symptoms-through-increasing-serotonin-expression-in-postpartum-depression-rats
#13
Eun-Sang Ji, Jae-Min Lee, Tae-Woon Kim, You-Mi Kim, Yeon-Soo Kim, Kijeong Kim
Postpartum depression (PPD) is defined as the depressive symptoms that occur from the moment of delivery until 12 months after delivery. PPD symptoms are closely associated with reduced activity of the serotonergic system. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of 5-HT biosynthesis in the serotonergic neurons. Exercise exerts anti-depressive effect on depression patients as well as on animal models of depression...
April 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502820/cancer-incidence-prevalence-and-mortality-in-the-oldest-old-a-comprehensive-review
#14
REVIEW
Shantell C Nolen, Marcella A Evans, Avital Fischer, Maria M Corrada, Claudia H Kawas, Daniela A Bota
Chronic health conditions are commonplace in older populations. The process of aging impacts many of the world's top health concerns. With the average life expectancy continuing to climb, understanding patterns of morbidity in aging populations has become progressively more important. Cancer is an age-related disease, whose risk has been proven to increase with age. Limited information is published about the epidemiology of cancer and the cancer contribution to mortality in the 85+ age group, often referred to as the oldest-old...
May 11, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502463/greening-the-radiology-department-not-a-big-mountain-to-climb
#15
Ashish Chawla, Dinesh Chinchure, Laurel Owen Marchinkow, Peter L Munk, Wilfred C G Peh
An environmental-friendly radiology department should be a requirement of the future era. The aim of this article is to make radiologists aware of their responsibilities for a greener world. We have suggested a number of minor but important changes in various sections of a radiology department that can make the radiology department more environmentally friendly. These small steps require relatively little effort on our part but cumulatively, may have a huge positive impact on our environment.
May 11, 2017: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500228/a-liana-from-the-lower-miocene-of-panama-and-the-fossil-record-of-connaraceae
#16
Nathan A Jud, Chris W Nelson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Permineralized wood is common in the Miocene beds exposed during the expansion of the Panama Canal. We describe a stem with the distinctive anatomy of a liana and evaluate the evolutionary, biogeographic, and ecological significance of this discovery. METHODS: The object of the study was obtained from a collection of fossil woods and fruits from a locality in the lower Miocene Cucaracha Formation, where the formation is exposed by the Culebra Cut of the Panama Canal...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495974/long-term-depression-of-intrinsic-excitability-accompanied-by-the-synaptic-depression-in-the-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#17
Hyun Geun Shim, Dong Cheol Jang, Jaegeon Lee, Geehoon Chung, Sukchan Lee, Yong Gyu Kim, Da Eun Jeon, Sang Jeong Kim
Long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fibres (PF) to cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC) synapse is implicated in the output of PC, the sole output of the cerebellar cortex. Besides the synaptic plasticity, intrinsic excitability is also one of the components which determines the PC output. Although long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability (LTP-IE) has been suggested, it has yet to be investigated how PF-PC LTD modifies intrinsic excitability of PC. Here, we show that pairing of the PF and climbing fibre (CF) for PF-PC LTD induction evokes long-term depression of intrinsic excitability (LTD-IE) in the cerebellar PCs from male C57BL/6 mice...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495961/an-evolutionarily-conserved-role-of-presenilin-in-neuronal-protection-in-the-aging-drosophila-brain
#18
Jongkyun Kang, Sarah Shin, Norbert Perrimon, Jie Shen
Mutations in the Presenilin genes are the major genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease. Presenilin and Nicastrin are essential components of γ-secretase, a multi-subunit protease that cleaves Type I transmembrane proteins. Genetic studies in mice previously demonstrated that conditional inactivation of Presenilin or Nicastrin in excitatory neurons of the postnatal forebrain results in memory deficits, synaptic impairment and age-dependent neurodegeneration. The roles of Drosophila Presenilin (Psn) and Nicastrin (Nct) in the adult fly brain, however, are unknown...
May 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494261/relationship-between-physical-performance-and-self-reported-function-in-healthy-individuals-across-the-lifespan
#19
Jennifer N Baldwin, Marnee J McKay, Claire E Hiller, Niamh Moloney, Elizabeth J Nightingale, Joshua Burns
BACKGROUND: Functional outcome measures in clinical trials of musculoskeletal conditions need to be meaningful to individuals. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between physical performance and self/proxy-reported function in 1000 healthy children and adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study (1000 Norms Project). METHODS: One thousand males and females aged 3-101 years, healthy by self-report and without major physical disability, were recruited...
May 2, 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492374/a-miniaturized-wall-climbing-segment-robot-inspired-by-caterpillar-locomotion
#20
Il Whan Han, Hoon Yi, Chang-Woo Song, Hoon-Eui Jeong, Seung-Yop Lee
Caterpillars are very successful soft-bodied climbers that navigate in complex environments. This paper develops a multi-segmented robot climbing on vertical surfaces using dry adhesive pads, inspired by caterpillar locomotion. The miniaturized robot consists of four segments, and each segment uses a solenoid actuator with a permanent magnet plunger. The head and body segments adapt a novel mechanism and Scott-Russell linkages to generate a bi-directional plane motion using one solenoid actuator, resulting to reliable attaching and peeling motions of gecko pads...
May 11, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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