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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090345/electronically-captured-patient-reported-physical-function-an-important-vital-sign-in-obesity-medicine
#1
J Fleming, G C Wood, C Seiler, A Cook, M R Lent, C D Still, P N Benotti, B A Irving
OBJECTIVES: Impaired physical function (i.e., inability to walk 200 feet, climb a flight of stairs or perform activities of daily living) predicts poor clinical outcomes and adversely impacts medical and surgical weight management. However, routine assessment physical function is seldom performed clinically. The PROMIS Physical Function Short Form 20a (SF-20a) is a validated questionnaire for assessing patient reported physical function, which includes published T-score percentiles adjusted for gender, age and education...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087070/can-evolution-supply-what-ecology-demands
#2
REVIEW
Hanna Kokko, Anurag Chaturvedi, Daniel Croll, Martin C Fischer, Frédéric Guillaume, Sophie Karrenberg, Ben Kerr, Gregor Rolshausen, Jessica Stapley
A simplistic view of the adaptive process pictures a hillside along which a population can climb: when ecological 'demands' change, evolution 'supplies' the variation needed for the population to climb to a new peak. Evolutionary ecologists point out that this simplistic view can be incomplete because the fitness landscape changes dynamically as the population evolves. Geneticists meanwhile have identified complexities relating to the nature of genetic variation and its architecture, and the importance of epigenetic variation is under debate...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086747/microrna-based-pan-cancer-diagnosis-and-treatment-recommendation
#3
Nikhil Cheerla, Olivier Gevaert
BACKGROUND: The current state-of-the-art in cancer diagnosis and treatment is not ideal; diagnostic tests are accurate but invasive, and treatments are "one-size fits-all" instead of being personalized. Recently, miRNA's have garnered significant attention as cancer biomarkers, owing to their ease of access (circulating miRNA in the blood) and stability. There have been many studies showing the effectiveness of miRNA data in diagnosing specific cancer types, but few studies explore the role of miRNA in predicting treatment outcome...
January 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079705/prescribed-drinking-leads-to-better-cycling-performance-than-ad-libitum-drinking
#4
Costas N Bardis, Stavros A Kavouras, J D Adams, Nickos D Geladas, Demosthenis B Panagiotakos, Labros S Sidossis
: Drinking ad libitum during exercise often leads to dehydration ranging from -1 to -3% of body weight. PURPOSE: To study the effect of a prescribed hydration protocol matching fluid losses on a simulated 30-km criterium-like cycling performance in the heat (31.6±0.5 °C). METHOD: Ten elite, heat-acclimatized, male endurance cyclists (30±5 y, 76.5±7.2 kg, 1.81±0.07 m, VO2peak: 61.3±5.2 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]min[BULLET OPERATOR]kg, body fat: 10...
January 10, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078084/promoting-workplace-stair-climbing-sometimes-not-interfering-is-the-best
#5
Andreas Åvitsland, Ane Kristiansen Solbraa, Amund Riiser
BACKGROUND: Stair climbing is a vigorous activity and can lead to several health benefits. Studies seeking to increase stair climbing in various public locations have shown positive effects, while results from similar studies conducted in the workplace are inconclusive. This study examined stair climbing in the workplace, and monitored effects from a single- and a combined intervention. Interventions were inspired by nudging, the libertarian method of influencing behavior. METHODS: By quasi-experimental design, stair- and elevator traffic in two office buildings was monitored preceding-, during- and following interventions with stair leading footprints alone, and combined with stair-riser banners...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077726/climbing-fibers-control-purkinje-cell-representations-of-behavior
#6
Martha L Streng, Laurentiu S Popa, Timothy J Ebner
: A crucial issue in understanding cerebellar function is the interaction between simple spike (SS) and complex spike (CS) discharge, the two fundamentally different activity modalities of Purkinje cells. Although several hypotheses have provided insights into the interaction, none fully explain or are completely consistent with the spectrum of experimental observations. Here, we show that during a pseudo-random manual tracking task in the monkey (Macaca mulatta), climbing fiber discharge dynamically controls the information present in the SS firing, triggering robust and rapid changes in the SS encoding of motor signals in 67% of Purkinje cells...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072817/drosophila-clock-is-required-in-brain-pacemaker-neurons-to-prevent-premature-locomotor-aging-independently-of-its-circadian-function
#7
Alexandra Vaccaro, Abdul-Raouf Issa, Laurent Seugnet, Serge Birman, André Klarsfeld
Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0) and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064146/chronic-exposure-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-causes-deviant-phenotype-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Avnika Singh Anand, Dipti N Prasad, Shashi Bala Singh, Ekta Kohli
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are commonly used nanomaterials (NMs) with versatile applications from high-end technologies to household products. This pervasive utilisation has brought human in the close interface with nanoparticles (NPs), hence questioning their safety prior to usage is a must. In this study, we have assessed the effects of chronic exposure to ZnO NPs (<50nm) on the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Potential toxic effects were studied by evaluating longevity, climbing ability, oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063720/a-case-of-cardiac-arrest-that-occurred-on-a-high-mountain-in-which-a-favorable-outcome-was-obtained
#9
Youichi Yanagawa, Kazuhiko Omori, Ikuto Takeuchi, Kei Jitsuiki, Toshihiko Yoshizawa, Kouhei Ishikawa, Yumi Kando, Mutsumu Fukata, Hiromichi Ohsaka
A 36-year-old man started to climb Mount Fuji (3776m above sea level: ASL), from the Gotemba new fifth station (2400m ASL). He had no significant medical history, and this was his first attempt to climb such a high mountain. He began feeling chest discomfort but continued to climb. When he reached the ninth station of the mountain (3600mASL), he lost consciousness. One individual immediately provided basic life support using an automated external defibrillator (AED) that was located in the station. After electroshocks, he regained consciousness...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063610/ultrasound-measurements-of-skeletal-muscle-architecture-are-associated-with-strength-and-functional-capacity-in-older-adults
#10
Isaac Selva Raj, Stephen R Bird, Anthony J Shield
The goal of this study was to determine whether ultrasound measures of muscle architecture can be used to infer strength and functional capacity in older adults. Thirty-six healthy older adults (aged 68.2 ± 5.3 y) undertook isokinetic dynamometry for isometric and isokinetic concentric knee extensor strength, the 6-m fast walk, timed up and go, stair climb and descent and vertical jump tests. Longitudinal brightness-mode ultrasound scans (probe frequency, 10 MHz) of the vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius medialis were obtained, and muscle architecture measures (thickness, fascicle pennation angle and fascicle length) were correlated with the aforementioned strength and functional measures...
January 4, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059775/design-and-energetic-evaluation-of-a-prosthetic-knee-joint-actuator-with-a-lockable-parallel-spring
#11
Joost Geeroms, Louis Flynn, Rene Enrique Jimenez Fabian, Bram Vanderborght, Dirk Lefeber
There are disadvantages to existing damping knee prostheses which cause an asymmetric gait and higher metabolic cost during level walking compared to non-amputees. Most existing active knee prostheses which could benefit the amputees use a significant amount of energy and require a considerable motor. In this work, a novel semi-active actuator with a lockable parallel spring for a prosthetic knee joint has been developed and tested. This actuator is able to provide an approximation of the behavior of a healthy knee during most of the gait cycle of level walking...
January 6, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056040/propentofylline-prevents-sickness-behavior-and-depressive-like-behavior-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-rats-via-neuroinflammatory-pathway
#12
Márcia M T Moraes, Marcella C Galvão, Danilo Cabral, Cideli P Coelho, Nicolle Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Maria F M Martins, Eduardo F Bondan, Maria M Bernardi, Thiago Berti Kirsten
Recent studies have demonstrated the intimate relationship between depression and immune disturbances. Aware of the efficacy limits of existing antidepressant drugs and the potential anti-inflammatory properties of propentofylline, we sought to evaluate the use of propentofylline as a depression treatment. We used a rat model of depression induced by repetitive lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administrations. We have studied sickness behavior, by assessing daily body weight, open field behavior, and TNF-α plasmatic levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054768/remote-controlling-dna-hydrogel-by-magnetic-field
#13
Xiaozhou Ma, Zhongqiang Yang, Yijie Wang, Guoliang Zhang, Yu Shao, Haoyang Jia, Tianyang Cao, Rui Wang, Dongsheng Liu
DNA hydrogel has aroused widespread attentions due to its unique properties. In this work, the DNA modified magnetic nanoparticles were integrated into the mainframe of DNA hydrogel, resulting in DNA-MNP hydrogel. Under the magnetic field, this hydrogel can be remotely deformed into various shapes, driven to jump between two planes and even climb the hill. By applying various triggers, such as temperature, enzyme and magnetic field, DNA-MNP hydrogel can specifically undergo sol-gel transition. This work not only imparts DNA hydrogel with a new fold of property but also opens a unique platform of such smart materials for its further applications...
January 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052778/co-morbid-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-depression-a-bayesian-network-approach
#14
R J McNally, P Mair, B L Mugno, B C Riemann
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often co-morbid with depression. Using the methods of network analysis, we computed two networks that disclose the potentially causal relationships among symptoms of these two disorders in 408 adult patients with primary OCD and co-morbid depression symptoms. METHOD: We examined the relationship between the symptoms constituting these syndromes by computing a (regularized) partial correlation network via the graphical LASSO procedure, and a directed acyclic graph (DAG) via a Bayesian hill-climbing algorithm...
January 5, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049063/activity-of-pericampylus-glaucus-and-periglaucine-a-in-vitro-against-nasopharangeal-carcinoma-and-anti-inflammatory-activity
#15
Fiona Natalia Shipton, Teng-Jin Khoo, Md Shahadat Hossan, Christophe Wiart
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: P. glaucus is a climbing plant found across Asia and used in traditional medicine to treat a number of conditions including splenomegaly, fever, cough, laryngitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, headache, hair loss, snake bite, boar bite, factures, boils, tumours, tetanus, rheumatic pain, itches and eclampsia. AIM OF THE STUDY: To test extracts of P. glaucus in a number of bioassays and determine the legitimacy of its traditional use...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046972/mo-a-201-00-a-cliff-s-notes-version-of-proton-therapy
#16
Jon Kruse
: Proton therapy is a rapidly growing modality in the fight against cancer. From a high-level perspective the process of proton therapy is identical to x-ray based external beam radiotherapy. However, this course is meant to illustrate for x-ray physicists the many differences between x-ray and proton based practices. Unlike in x-ray therapy, proton dose calculations use CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to determine proton stopping power and calculate the range of a beam in a patient. Errors in stopping power dominate the dosimetric uncertainty in the beam direction, while variations in patient position determine uncertainties orthogonal to the beam path...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046311/mo-a-201-01-a-cliff-s-notes-version-of-proton-therapy
#17
J Kruse
: Proton therapy is a rapidly growing modality in the fight against cancer. From a high-level perspective the process of proton therapy is identical to x-ray based external beam radiotherapy. However, this course is meant to illustrate for x-ray physicists the many differences between x-ray and proton based practices. Unlike in x-ray therapy, proton dose calculations use CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to determine proton stopping power and calculate the range of a beam in a patient. Errors in stopping power dominate the dosimetric uncertainty in the beam direction, while variations in patient position determine uncertainties orthogonal to the beam path...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043222/public-health-action-following-an-outbreak-of-toxigenic-cutaneous-diphtheria-in-an-auckland-refugee-resettlement-centre
#18
Gary E Reynolds, Helen Saunders, Angela Matson, Fiona O'Kane, Sally A Roberts, Salvin K Singh, Lesley M Voss, Tomasz Kiedrzynski
Global forced displacement has climbed to unprecedented levels due largely to regional conflict. Degraded public health services leave displaced people vulnerable to multiple environmental and infectious hazards including vaccine preventable disease. While diphtheria is rarely notified in New Zealand, a 2 person outbreak of cutaneous diphtheria occurred in refugees from Afghanistan in February 2015 at the refugee resettlement centre in Auckland. Both cases had uncertain immunisation status. The index case presented with a scalp lesion during routine health screen and toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated...
December 24, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042020/strength-training-to-enhance-early-recovery-steer-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Eileen Danaher Hacker, Eileen Collins, Chang Park, Tara Peters, Pritesh Patel, Damiano Rondelli
Intensive cancer treatment followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) results in moderate to severe fatigue and physical inactivity leading to diminished functional ability. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of an exercise intervention, Strength Training to Enhance Early Recovery (STEER), on physical activity, fatigue, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life following HCT. This single-blind, randomized clinical trial compared strength training (n = 33) to usual care plus attention-control with health-education (n = 34)...
December 29, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041592/visual-impairment-at-baseline-is-associated-with-future-poor-physical-functioning-among-middle-aged-women-the-study-of-women-s-health-across-the-nation-michigan-site
#20
Navasuja Chandrasekaran, Sioban Harlow, Sayoko Moroi, David Musch, Qing Peng, Carrie Karvonen-Gutierrez
OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence suggests that the prevalence rates of poor functioning and of disability are increasing among middle-aged individuals. Visual impairment is associated with poor functioning among older adults but little is known about the impact of vision on functioning during midlife. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of visual impairment on future physical functioning among middle-aged women. STUDY DESIGN: In this longitudinal study, the sample consisted of 483 women aged 42 to 56 years, from the Michigan site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation...
February 2017: Maturitas
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