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Gene environment interactions

Xiao-Jiao Du, Ze-Yu Wang, Yu-Cai Wang
The development of delivery systems for small interfering RNA (siRNA) plays a key role in its clinical application. As the major delivery systems for siRNA, cationic polymer- or lipid-based vehicles are plagued by inherent issues. As proof of concept, a disulfide bond-containing amphiphilic Janus dendrimer (ssJD), which could be conveniently synthesized and readily scaled up with high reproducibility, was explored as a siRNA delivery system to circumvent these issues. The cationic hydrophilic head of this Janus dendrimer ensured strong and stable binding with negatively charged siRNA via electrostatic interactions, and the loaded siRNA was rapidly released from the obtained complexes under a redox environment...
June 14, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Mairin E Augustine, Esther M Leerkes, Andrew Smolen, Susan D Calkins
Gene-by-environment interactions between maternal sensitivity during infancy and child oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576) and D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 TaqIA, rs1822497) genotypes were explored as predictors of toddlers' well-regulated behavioral and physiological responses to maternal compliance demands. Maternal sensitivity was assessed across a range of mother-child interactions when children were 6 months and 1 year of age (N = 186), and toddler self-regulatory responses were assessed through compliance and vagal withdrawal during a toy clean-up task when children were 2 years of age...
June 13, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Rahmatollah Moradzadeh, Parvaneh Golmohammadi, Mohammad Hassan Kazemi-Galougahi, Majid Sartipi, Hooshmand Sharfi, Mohammad Ahmadpour
The aim of this study is evaluation of breast cancer risk factors distribution in two groups of healthy people referral to cancer registry and Shahid Mottahari center in Iran. This study is cross-sectional study which is part of the study to estimate Gene-Environment Interaction in women with breast cancer with case-control studies in Shiraz. In this study, two control groups have been used. The sample size of 300 was specified for each group. Selection sources of groups include Cancer Registry Center and referred people to surgical and internal ward of Shahid Mottahari Clinic...
August 2018: Data in Brief
K Saxena, J Webster, A Hallas-Potts, R Mackenzie, P A Spooner, D Thomson, P Kind, S Chatterji, R G M Morris
Social withdrawal is one phenotypic feature of the monogenic neurodevelopmental disorder fragile-X. Using a 'knockout' rat model of fragile-X, we examined whether deletion of the Fmr1 gene that causes this condition would affect the ability to form and express a social hierarchy as measured in a tube test. Male fragile-X 'knockout' rats living together could successfully form a social dominance hierarchy, but were significantly subordinate to wild-type animals in mixed group cages. Over 10 days of repeated testing, the fragile-X mutant rats gradually showed greater variance and instability of rank during their tube-test encounters...
June 13, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Erik Ingelsson, Mark I McCarthy
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and obesity already represent 2 of the most prominent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and are destined to increase in importance given the global changes in lifestyle. Ten years have passed since the first round of genome-wide association studies for T2D and obesity. During this decade, we have witnessed remarkable developments in human genetics. We have graduated from the despair of candidate gene-based studies that generated few consistently replicated genotype-phenotype associations, to the excitement of an exponential harvest of loci robustly associated with medical outcomes through ever larger genome-wide association study meta-analyses...
June 2018: Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine
James C Hart, Nicholas A Ellis, Michael B Eisen, Craig T Milller
Changes in developmental gene regulatory networks enable evolved changes in morphology. These changes can be in cis regulatory elements that act in an allele-specific manner, or changes to the overall trans regulatory environment that interacts with cis regulatory sequences. Here we address several questions about the evolution of gene expression accompanying a convergently evolved constructive morphological trait, increases in tooth number in two independently derived freshwater populations of threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus)...
June 13, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Mengyun Wu, Shuangge Ma
For the risk, progression, and response to treatment of many complex diseases, it has been increasingly recognized that genetic interactions (including gene-gene and gene-environment interactions) play important roles beyond the main genetic and environmental effects. In practical genetic interaction analyses, model mis-specification and outliers/contaminations in response variables and covariates are not uncommon, and demand robust analysis methods. Compared with their nonrobust counterparts, robust genetic interaction analysis methods are significantly less popular but are gaining attention fast...
April 19, 2018: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Iryna Lobach, Joshua Sampson, Siarhei Lobach, Li Zhang
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) often measure gene-environment interactions (G × E). We consider the problem of accurately estimating a G × E in a case-control GWAS when a subset of the controls have silent, or undiagnosed, disease and the frequency of the silent disease varies by the environmental variable. We show that using case-control status without accounting for misdiagnosis can lead to biased estimates of the G × E. We further propose a pseudolikelihood approach to remove the bias and accurately estimate how the relationship between the genetic variant and the true disease status varies by the environmental variable...
June 13, 2018: Genetic Epidemiology
Zaigham Shahzad, Fabian Kellermeier, Emily M Armstrong, Simon Rogers, Guillaume Lobet, Anna Amtmann, Adrian Hills
If we want to understand how the environment has shaped the appearance and behavior of living creatures we need to compare groups of individuals that differ in genetic make-up and environment experience. For complex phenotypic features, such as body posture or facial expression in humans, comparison is not straightforward because some of the contributing factors cannot easily be quantified or averaged across individuals. Therefore, computational methods are used to reconstruct representative prototypes using a range of algorithms for filling in missing information and calculating means...
June 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Jinni Su, Andrew J Supple, Esther M Leerkes, Sally I-Chun Kuo
Using a large and nationally representative sample, we examined how adolescents' 5-HTTLPR genotype and perceived parenting quality independently and interactively associated with trajectories of alcohol use from early adolescence to young adulthood and whether/how gender may moderate these associations. The sample for this study included 13,749 adolescents (53.3% female; 56.3% non-Hispanic White, 21.5% Black, 16.0% Hispanic, and 6.1% Asian) followed prospectively from adolescence to young adulthood. Using growth mixture modeling, we identified four distinct trajectories of alcohol use (i...
June 13, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Xiongming Du, Shouye Liu, Junling Sun, Gengyun Zhang, Yinhua Jia, Zhaoe Pan, Haitao Xiang, Shoupu He, Qiuju Xia, Songhua Xiao, Weijun Shi, Zhiwu Quan, Jianguang Liu, Jun Ma, Baoyin Pang, Liru Wang, Gaofei Sun, Wenfang Gong, Johnie N Jenkins, Xiangyang Lou, Jun Zhu, Haiming Xu
BACKGROUND: Cottonseed is one of the most important raw materials for plant protein, oil and alternative biofuel for diesel engines. Understanding the complex genetic basis of cottonseed traits is requisite for achieving efficient genetic improvement of the traits. However, it is not yet clear about their genetic architecture in genomic level. GWAS has been an effective way to explore genetic basis of quantitative traits in human and many crops. This study aims to dissect genetic mechanism seven cottonseed traits by a GWAS for genetic improvement...
June 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Panteleimon D Mavroudis, Debra C DuBois, Richard R Almon, William J Jusko
Circadian clocks, present in almost all cells of the body, are entrained to rhythmic changes in the environment (e.g. light/dark cycles). Genes responsible for this timekeeping are named core-clock genes, which through transcriptional feedback interactions mediated by transcription factor binding to Ebox/RRE/Dbox elements can generate oscillatory activity of their expression. By regulating the transcription of other clock-controlled genes (CCGs) circadian information is transmitted to tissue and organ levels...
2018: PloS One
Gurpreet Kaur, Nilambra Dogra, Sandeep Singh
The alarming health issues especially the unusually high number of cancer cases in agriculture community of Bathinda district of Punjab (India) is a serious concern. There is limited knowledge about the role of gene-environment interactions in oncogenesis prevalent in this area. The aim of present study was to evaluate the association of oxidative stress with CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and PON1 genetic variation in the pesticide exposed (occupationally) population of Bathinda district of Punjab (India)...
June 11, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Xinshen Li, Xiaomei Huang, Gongyou Chen, Lifang Zou, Lingen Wei, Juling Hua
Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne phytopathogen associated with bacterial wilt disease of sesame. R. solanacearum is the predominant agent causing damping-off from tropical to temperate regions. Because bacterial wilt has decreased the sesame industry yield, we sequenced the SEPPX05 genome using PacBio and Illumina HiSeq 2500 systems and revealed that R. solanacearum strain SEPPX05 carries a bipartite genome consisting of a 3,930,849 bp chromosome and a 2,066,085 bp megaplasmid with 66.84% G+C content that harbors 5,427 coding sequences...
June 2018: Genes & Genomics
Lihua Bie, Likai Du, Qiaoxia Yuan, Jun Gao
CpG methylation can regulate gene expression by altering the specific binding of protein and DNA. In order to understand how a single 5mC regulates protein-DNA interactions, we have compared the structures and dynamics of CEBP/βprotein-DNA complexes before and after methylation, and the results indicate that even a single 5mC can regulate protein-DNA recognition by steric-hindrance effect of methyl group and changing the hydrogen bond interactions. The interactions between the methyl group, mCpG motif, and the conserved residue arginine make the protein read out the variation of local environment, which further enhances the specific recognition and affects the base pair stacking...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Xiaoran Duan, Yongli Yang, Sihua Wang, Xiaolei Feng, Tuanwei Wang, Pengpeng Wang, Wu Yao, Liuxin Cui, Wei Wang
Cholinesterase activity (ChA), the effective biomarker for organophosphate pesticide exposure, is possibly affected by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cell-cycle-related genes. One hundred and eighty workers with long-term exposure to omethoate and 115 healthy controls were recruited to explore the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. The acetylthiocholine and dithio-bis-(nitrobenzoic acid) method was used to detect the cholinesterase activities in whole blood, erythrocytes and plasma. Genetic polymorphisms were determined by the PCR-RFLP and direct PCR electrophoresis methods...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Ying Sun, Jiao Fang, Yuhui Wan, Jingjing Hu, Yuanyuan Xu, Fangbiao Tao
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether polygenic susceptibility for body mass index (BMI) interacts with cumulative stress exposure, potentially exacerbating and buffering the effects of chronic stress, to predict obesity during childhood. METHODS: Data were analyzed from an established prospective puberty cohort in Anhui province, China. A total of 1000 children (421 boys and 579 girls, mean (standard deviation) age 8.97 (0.86) years) who had complete DNA genotyping, hair cortisol concentration and BMI were eligible for the study...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Camille Clerissi, Marie Touchon, Delphine Capela, Mingxing Tang, Stéphane Cruveiller, Matthew A Parker, Lionel Moulin, Catherine Masson-Boivin, Eduardo P C Rocha
The emergence of symbiotic interactions has been studied using population genomics in nature and experimental evolution in the laboratory, but the parallels between these processes remain unknown. Here we compare the emergence of rhizobia after the horizontal transfer of a symbiotic plasmid in natural populations of Cupriavidus taiwanensis, over 10 MY ago, with the experimental evolution of symbiotic Ralstonia solanacearum for a few hundred generations. In spite of major differences in terms of time span, environment, genetic background, and phenotypic achievement, both processes resulted in rapid genetic diversification dominated by purifying selection...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Xin Li, Tingting Guo, Qi Mu, Xianran Li, Jianming Yu
Observed phenotypic variation in living organisms is shaped by genomes, environment, and their interactions. Flowering time under natural conditions can showcase the diverse outcome of the gene-environment interplay. However, identifying hidden patterns and specific factors underlying phenotypic plasticity under natural field conditions remains challenging. With a genetic population showing dynamic changes in flowering time, here we show that the integrated analyses of genomic responses to diverse environments is powerful to reveal the underlying genetic architecture...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sergio Rivas, Inés M Antón, Francisco Wandosell
Wild-type p53 (wtp53) is described as a tumour suppressor gene, and mutations in p53 occur in many human cancers. Indeed, in high-grade malignant glioma, numerous molecular genetics studies have established central roles of RTK-PI3K-PTEN and ARF-MDM2-p53 INK4a-RB pathways in promoting oncogenic capacity. Deregulation of these signalling pathways, among others, drives changes in the glial/stem cell state and environment that permit autonomous growth. The initially transformed cell may undergo subsequent modifications, acquiring a more complete tumour-initiating phenotype responsible for disease advancement to stages that are more aggressive...
June 9, 2018: Cancers
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