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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087696/genetic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-gene-operon-for-trans-aconitic-acid-a-novel-nematicide-from-bacillus-thuringiensis
#1
Cuiying Du, Shiyun Cao, Xiangyu Shi, Xiangtao Nie, Jinshui Zheng, Yun Deng, Lifang Ruan, Donghai Peng, Ming Sun
Trans-aconitic acid (TAA) is an isomer of cis-aconitic acid (CAA), an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle that is synthesized by aconitase. Although TAA production has been detected in bacteria and plants for many years and is known to be a potent inhibitor of aconitase, its biosynthetic origins and the physiological relevance of its activity have remained unclear. We have serendipitously uncovered key information relevant to both of these questions. Specifically, in a search for novel nematicidal factors from Bacillus thuringiensis, a significant nematode pathogen harboring many protein virulence factors, we discovered a high-yielding component that showed activity against the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita and surprisingly identified it as TAA...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087659/plant-parasitic-nematodes-towards-understanding-molecular-players-in-stress-responses
#2
REVIEW
François-Xavier Gillet, Caroline Bournaud, Jose Dijair Antonino de Souza Júnior, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa
BACKGROUND: Plant-parasitic nematode interactions occur within a vast molecular plant immunity network. Following initial contact with the host plant roots, plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) activate basal immune responses. Defence priming involves the release in the apoplast of toxic molecules derived from reactive species or secondary metabolism. In turn, PPNs must overcome the poisonous and stressful environment at the plant-nematode interface. The ability of PPNs to escape this first line of plant immunity is crucial and will determine its virulence...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087593/norovirus-mediated-modification-of-the-translational-landscape-via-virus-and-host-induced-cleavage-of-translation-initiation-factors
#3
Edward Emmott, Frederic Sorgeloos, Sarah L Caddy, Surender Vashist, Stanislav Sosnovtsev, Richard Lloyd, Kate Heesom, Nicolas Locker, Ian Goodfellow
Noroviruses produce viral RNAs lacking a 5' cap structure and instead use a virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to viral RNA to interact with translation initiation factors and drive viral protein synthesis. Norovirus infection results in the induction of the innate response leading to interferon stimulated gene (ISG) transcription. However the translation of the induced ISG mRNAs is suppressed. A SILAC-based mass spectrometry approach was employed to analyse changes to protein abundance in both whole cell and m7GTP-enriched samples to demonstrate that diminished host mRNA translation correlates with changes to the composition of the eukaryotic initiation factor complex...
January 13, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087565/perturbation-of-retinoid-homeostasis-increases-malformation-risk-in-embryos-exposed-to-pregestational-diabetes
#4
Leo M Y Lee, Maran B W Leung, Rachel C Y Kwok, Yun-Chung Leung, Chi-Chiu Wang, Peter J McCaffery, Andrew J Copp, Alisa S W Shum
Pregestational diabetes is highly associated with increased risk of birth defects. However, factors that can increase or reduce expressivity and penetrance of malformations in diabetic pregnancies remain poorly identified. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) plays crucial roles in embryogenesis. Here, we find that Cyp26a1, which encodes a key enzyme for catabolic inactivation of RA required for tight control of local RA concentrations, is significantly down-regulated in embryos of diabetic mice. Embryonic tissues expressing Cyp26a1 show reduced efficiency of RA clearance...
January 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087008/apol1-genotype-blood-pressure-and-survival-in-african-americans-with-nondiabetic-nephropathy
#5
Todd W Robinson, Barry I Freedman
Several landmark trials have assessed the effects of aggressive hypertension control on the progression of nondiabetic chronic kidney disease. Results generally have been disappointing. With the realization that lowering blood pressure, including with renin-angiotensin system blockade, failed to reliably prevent end-stage kidney disease, studies now are analyzing longer-term effects of hypertension control on survival in chronic kidney disease. This commentary reviews the current findings and extends the discussion to apolipoprotein L1 gene by blood pressure (or gene by environment) interactions...
February 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086860/nicotiana-attenuata-data-hub-nadh-an-integrative-platform-for-exploring-genomic-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-data-in-wild-tobacco
#6
Thomas Brockmöller, Zhihao Ling, Dapeng Li, Emmanuel Gaquerel, Ian T Baldwin, Shuqing Xu
BACKGROUND: Nicotiana attenuata (coyote tobacco) is an ecological model for studying plant-environment interactions and plant gene function under real-world conditions. During the last decade, large amounts of genomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic data have been generated with this plant which has provided new insights into how native plants interact with herbivores, pollinators and microbes. However, an integrative and open access platform that allows for the efficient mining of these -omics data remained unavailable until now...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086795/atherosclerotic-and-thrombotic-genetic-and-environmental-determinants-in-egyptian-coronary-artery-disease-patients-a-pilot-study
#7
Manal S Fawzy, Eman A Toraih, Nagwa M Aly, Abeer Fakhr-Eldeen, Dahlia I Badran, Mohammad H Hussein
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple genetic variants in combination with various environmental risk factors have been implicated. This study aimed to investigate the association of twelve thrombotic and atherosclerotic gene variants in combination with other environmental risk factors with CAD risk in a preliminary sample of Egyptian CAD patients. METHODS: Twenty three consecutive CAD patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography and 34 unrelated controls, have been enrolled in the study...
January 13, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086748/genetic-mechanisms-of-bone-digestion-and-nutrient-absorption-in-the-bone-eating-worm-osedax-japonicus-inferred-from-transcriptome-and-gene-expression-analyses
#8
Norio Miyamoto, Masa-Aki Yoshida, Hiroyuki Koga, Yoshihiro Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae) have adapted to whale fall environments by acquiring a novel characteristic called the root, which branches and penetrates into sunken bones. The worms lack a digestive tract and mouth opening, and it has been suggested that Osedax degrade vertebrate bones and uptake nutrients through acidification and secretion of enzymes from the root. Symbiotic bacteria in the root tissue may have a crucial role in the metabolism of Osedax...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081251/physical-activity-and-sedentary-behaviors-modify-the-association-between-melanocortin-4-receptor-gene-variant-and-obesity-in-chinese-children-and-adolescents
#9
Jie-Yun Song, Qi-Ying Song, Shuo Wang, Jun Ma, Hai-Jun Wang
Effects of MC4R variants in previous Chinese population studies were inconsistent. Gene-environment interactions might influence the effect of MC4R variants on obesity, which was still unclear. We performed the study to clarify the association of variants near MC4R gene with obesity-related phenotypes and gene-environment interactions in Chinese children and adolescents. Two common variants (rs12970134 and rs17782313) near MC4R were genotyped in 2179 children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in Beijing of China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079927/developmental-programming-interaction-between-prenatal-bpa-and-postnatal-overfeeding-on-cardiac-tissue-gene-expression-in-female-sheep
#10
L A Koneva, A K Vyas, R C McEachin, M Puttabyatappa, H-S Wang, M A Sartor, V Padmanabhan
Epidemiologic studies and studies in rodents point to potential risks from developmental exposure to BPA on cardiometabolic diseases. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly evident that the manifestation and severity of adverse outcomes is the result of interaction between developmental insults and the prevailing environment. Consistent with this premise, recent studies in sheep found prenatal BPA treatment prevented the adverse effects of postnatal obesity in inducing hypertension. The gene networks underlying these complex interactions are not known...
January 12, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079614/the-role-of-gene-environment-interplay-in-occupational-and-environmental-diseases-current-concepts-and-knowledge-gaps
#11
Elizabeth Kwo, David Christiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The interplay between genetic susceptibilities and environmental exposures in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases is an area of increased scientific, epidemiologic, and social interest. Given the variation in methodologies used in the field, this review aims to create a framework to help understand occupational exposures as they currently exist and provide a foundation for future inquiries into the biological mechanisms of the gene-environment interactions. Understanding of this complex interplay will be important in the context of occupational health, given the public health concerns surrounding a variety of occupational exposures...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077981/dna-polymerase-kappa-protects-human-cells-against-mmc-induced-genotoxicity-through-error-free-translesion-dna-synthesis
#12
Yuki Kanemaru, Tetsuya Suzuki, Akira Sassa, Kyomu Matsumoto, Noritaka Adachi, Masamitsu Honma, Satoshi Numazawa, Takehiko Nohmi
BACKGROUND: Interactions between genes and environment are critical factors for causing cancer in humans. The genotoxicity of environmental chemicals can be enhanced via the modulation of susceptible genes in host human cells. DNA polymerase kappa (Pol κ) is a specialized DNA polymerase that plays an important role in DNA damage tolerance through translesion DNA synthesis. To better understand the protective roles of Pol κ, we previously engineered two human cell lines either deficient in expression of Pol κ (KO) or expressing catalytically dead Pol κ (CD) in Nalm-6-MSH+ cells and examined cytotoxic sensitivity against various genotoxins...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073954/gene-obesogenic-environment-interactions-in-the-uk-biobank-study
#13
Jessica Tyrrell, Andrew R Wood, Ryan M Ames, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Robin N Beaumont, Samuel E Jones, Marcus A Tuke, Katherine S Ruth, Rachel M Freathy, George Davey Smith, Stéphane Joost, Idris Guessous, Anna Murray, David P Strachan, Zoltán Kutalik, Michael N Weedon, Timothy M Frayling
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that modern obesogenic environments accentuate the genetic risk of obesity. However, these studies have proven controversial as to which, if any, measures of the environment accentuate genetic susceptibility to high body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We used up to 120 000 adults from the UK Biobank study to test the hypothesis that high-risk obesogenic environments and behaviours accentuate genetic susceptibility to obesity...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071748/nrf2-regulates-gene-environment-interactions-in-an-animal-model-of-intrauterine-inflammation-implications-for-preterm-birth-and-prematurity
#14
Thomas E Sussan, Kuladeep Sudini, C Conover Talbot, Xiaobin Wang, Marsha Wills-Karp, Irina Burd, Shyam Biswal
Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality, and surviving infants are at increased risk for lifelong disabilities. Intrauterine inflammation is an etiological factor that drives PTB, and oxidative stress is associated with PTB. Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that is the key regulator of the response to oxidative and inflammatory stress. Here, we used the established mouse model of intrauterine inflammation-induced PTB to determine whether Nrf2 is a modifier of susceptibility to PTB and prematurity-related morbidity and mortality in the offspring...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070759/qtls-for-heading-date-and-plant-height-under-multiple-environments-in-rice
#15
Zhongmin Han, Wei Hu, Cong Tan, Yongzhong Xing
Both heading date and plant height are important traits related to grain yield in rice. In this study, a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both traits under 3 long-day (LD) environments and 1 short-day (SD) environment. A total of eight QTLs for heading date and three QTLs for plant height were detected by composite interval mapping under LD conditions. Additional one QTL for heading date and three QTLs for plant height were identified by Two-QTL model under LD conditions...
January 9, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070463/impact-of-birth-weight-and-postnatal-diet-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-young-adult-guinea-pigs
#16
Kait Al, Ousseynou Sarr, Kristyn Dunlop, Gregory B Gloor, Gregor Reid, Jeremy Burton, Timothy R H Regnault
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is essential to metabolic health, and the prevalence of the Western diet (WD) high in fat and sugar is increasing, with evidence highlighting a negative interaction between the GIT and WD, resulting in liver dysfunction. Additionally, an adverse in utero environment such as placental insufficiency resulting in low birth weight (LBW) offspring, contributes to an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as fatty liver infiltration and liver dysfunction in later life...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069824/arta-dependent-processing-of-a-tat-substrate-containing-a-conserved-tripartite-structure-that-is-not-localized-at-the-c-terminus
#17
Mohd Farid Abdul Halim, Jonathan D Stoltzfus, Stefan Schulze, Micheal Hippler, Mechthild Pohlschroder
: Most prokaryotic secreted proteins are transported to the cell surface using either the general secretion (Sec) or twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway. A majority of secreted proteins are anchored to the cell surface while the remainder are released into the extracellular environment. The anchored surface proteins play a variety of important roles in cellular processes, ranging from facilitating interactions between cells to maintaining cell stability. The extensively studied S-layer glycoprotein (SLG) of Haloferax volcanii, previously thought to be anchored via C-terminal intercalation into the membrane, was recently shown to be lipidated and to have its C-terminal segment removed in processes dependent upon archaeosortase A (ArtA), a recently discovered enzyme...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069295/short-term-memory-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-against-bacterial-pathogens-involves-creb-transcription-factor
#18
Udayakumar Prithika, Ramaraj Vikneswari, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan
One of the key issues pertaining to the control of memory is to respond to a consistently changing environment or microbial niche present in it. Human cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor which plays a crucial role in memory has a homolog in C. elegans, crh-1. crh-1 appears to influence memory processes to certain extent by habituation of the host to a particular environment. The discrimination between the pathogen and a non-pathogen is essential for C. elegans in a microbial niche which determines its survival...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068486/the-changing-epidemiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Kristen Lyall, Lisa Croen, Julie Daniels, M Daniele Fallin, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Brian K Lee, Bo Y Park, Nathaniel W Snyder, Diana Schendel, Heather E Volk, Gayle C Windham, Craig Newschaffer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Current prevalence is estimated to be at least 1.5% in developed countries, with recent increases primarily among those without comorbid intellectual disability. Genetic studies have identified a number of rare de novo mutations and gained footing in the areas of polygenic risk, epigenetics, and gene-by-environment interaction...
December 21, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061857/coordinated-regulation-of-acid-resistance-in-escherichia-coli
#20
Patricia Aquino, Brent Honda, Suma Jaini, Anna Lyubetskaya, Krutika Hosur, Joanna G Chiu, Iriny Ekladious, Dongjian Hu, Lin Jin, Marianna K Sayeg, Arion I Stettner, Julia Wang, Brandon G Wong, Winnie S Wong, Stephen L Alexander, Cong Ba, Seth I Bensussen, David B Bernstein, Dana Braff, Susie Cha, Daniel I Cheng, Jang Hwan Cho, Kenny Chou, James Chuang, Daniel E Gastler, Daniel J Grasso, John S Greifenberger, Chen Guo, Anna K Hawes, Divya V Israni, Saloni R Jain, Jessica Kim, Junyu Lei, Hao Li, David Li, Qian Li, Christopher P Mancuso, Ning Mao, Salwa F Masud, Cari L Meisel, Jing Mi, Christine S Nykyforchyn, Minhee Park, Hannah M Peterson, Alfred K Ramirez, Daniel S Reynolds, Nae Gyune Rim, Jared C Saffie, Hang Su, Wendell R Su, Yaqing Su, Meng Sun, Meghan M Thommes, Tao Tu, Nitinun Varongchayakul, Tyler E Wagner, Benjamin H Weinberg, Rouhui Yang, Anastasia Yaroslavsky, Christine Yoon, Yanyu Zhao, Alicia J Zollinger, Anne M Stringer, John W Foster, Joseph Wade, Sahadaven Raman, Natasha Broude, Wilson W Wong, James E Galagan
BACKGROUND: Enteric Escherichia coli survives the highly acidic environment of the stomach through multiple acid resistance (AR) mechanisms. The most effective system, AR2, decarboxylates externally-derived glutamate to remove cytoplasmic protons and excrete GABA. The first described system, AR1, does not require an external amino acid. Its mechanism has not been determined. The regulation of the multiple AR systems and their coordination with broader cellular metabolism has not been fully explored...
January 6, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
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