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Gene environment interactions

Huiping Zhang, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is influenced by gene-environment interactions. Environmental factors can affect gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. This review outlines the findings regarding the association of DNA methylation and AUDs. METHODS: We searched PubMed (by April 2016) and identified 29 studies that examined the association of DNA methylation and AUDs. We also evaluated the methods used in these studies...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Tzipporah M Kormos, Joachim D Pleil
Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Jeganathan Manivannan, Manjunath Prashanth, Venkatesan Saravana Kumar, Manickaraj Shairam, Jayachandran Subburaj
Since there is no precise therapy for treating vascular calcification by directly targeting the vascular wall, we aim to unveil novel drug targets through mining the molecular effect of a high phosphate environment on vascular cells through computational methods. Here, we hypothesize that manipulation of the vascular pathogenic network by small molecule therapeutics predicted from prior knowledge might offer great promise. With this, we intend to understand the publicly available transcriptomic data of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells exposed to the high phosphate induced vascular calcification milieu and to re-examine the above published experiments for reasons different from those examined in the previous studies through multilevel systems biological understanding...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Drew D Kiraly, Deena M Walker, Erin S Calipari, Benoit Labonte, Orna Issler, Catherine J Pena, Efrain A Ribeiro, Scott J Russo, Eric J Nestler
Addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants represents a major public health crisis. The development and persistence of addictive behaviors comes from a complex interaction of genes and environment - the precise mechanisms of which remain elusive. In recent years a surge of evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome can have tremendous impact on behavioral via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In this study we characterized the influence of the gut microbiota on cocaine-mediated behaviors. Groups of mice were treated with a prolonged course of non-absorbable antibiotics via the drinking water, which resulted in a substantial reduction of gut bacteria...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Vipin Tyagi, M D Mustafa, Tusha Sharma, B D Banerjee, Rafat S Ahmed, A K Tripathi, Kiran Guleria
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Preterm birth (PTB) is an important cause of prenatal death, neonatal morbidity and mortality and adult illness. Increased inflammation occurs in normal parturition, and inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress are found to be higher in PTB cases. The present study was planned to investigate the association of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with mRNA expression of inflammatory pathway genes such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in preterm delivery (PTD) cases...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Yael Bar-Lavan, Netta Shemesh, Anat Ben-Zvi
Quality control is an essential aspect of cellular function, with protein folding quality control being carried out by molecular chaperones, a diverse group of highly conserved proteins that specifically identify misfolded conformations. Molecular chaperones are thus required to support proteins affected by expressed polymorphisms, mutations, intrinsic errors in gene expression, chronic insult or the acute effects of the environment, all of which contribute to a flux of metastable proteins. In this article, we review the four main chaperone families in metazoans, namely Hsp60 (where Hsp is heat-shock protein), Hsp70, Hsp90 and sHsps (small heat-shock proteins), as well as their co-chaperones...
October 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
Anke Hüls, Ursula Krämer, Christian Herder, Karin Fehsel, Christian Luckhaus, Sabine Stolz, Andrea Vierkötter, Tamara Schikowski
BACKGROUND: Long-term air pollution exposure has been associated with chronic inflammation providing a link to the development of chronic health effects. Furthermore, there is evidence that pathways activated by endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress induce airway inflammation and thereby play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of genetic variation of the ER stress pathway on air pollution-induced inflammation...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Research
Gaurav V Sanghvi, Praveen Baskaran, Waltraud Röseler, Bogdan Sieriebriennikov, Christian Rödelsperger, Ralf J Sommer
Nematodes, the earth's most abundant metazoa are found in all ecosystems. In order to survive in diverse environments, they have evolved distinct feeding strategies and they can use different food sources. While some nematodes are specialists, including parasites of plants and animals, others such as Pristionchus pacificus are omnivorous feeders, which can live on a diet of bacteria, protozoans, fungi or yeast. In the wild, P. pacificus is often found in a necromenic association with beetles and is known to be able to feed on a variety of microbes as well as on nematode prey...
2016: PloS One
Randy Chi Fai Cheung, Tzi Bun Ng, Jack Ho Wong
Antifreeze proteins are ice-binding or ice-structuring proteins that prevent water from freezing by adsorbing to the ice surface and stopping the growth of minute ice crystals to large crystals in a non-colligative manner. The antifreeze proteins are found in species like fish, arthropods, plants, algae, fungi, yeasts and bacteria. The diversity, distribution and classification of antifreeze proteins were highlighted in this review. Antifreeze proteins help the organisms adapt to and survive in subzero temperature environments...
October 12, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Dennis van der Meer, Catharina A Hartman, Raimon H R Pruim, Maarten Mennes, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Stephen V Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Pieter J Hoekstra
We recently reported that the serotonin transporter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the relation between stress exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) severity. This gene-environment interaction (GxE) has been previously tied to the processing of emotional stimuli, which is increasingly recognized to be a key factor in ADHD-related impairment. The executive control and default mode brain networks play an important role in the regulation of emotion processing, and altered connectivity of these networks has also been associated with ADHD...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Constantine A Simintiras, Thomas Fröhlich, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Georg J Arnold, Susanne E Ulbrich, Henry J Leese, Roger G S Sturmey
Oviduct fluid is the microenvironment that supports early reproductive processes including fertilisation, embryo cleavage, and genome activation. However, the composition and regulation of this critical environment remains rather poorly defined. This study uses an in vitro preparation of the bovine oviduct epithelium, to investigate the formation and composition of in vitro derived oviduct fluid (ivDOF) within a controlled environment. We confirm the presence of oviduct specific glycoprotein 1 in ivDOF and show that the amino acid and carbohydrate content resembles that of previously reported in vivo data...
October 13, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Sean Mendez, Louis Watanabe, Rachel Hill, Meredith Owens, Jason Moraczewski, Glenn C Rowe, Nicole C Riddle, Laura K Reed
Obesity is one of the dramatic health issues affecting developed and developing nations, and exercise is a well-established intervention strategy. While exercise-by-genotype interactions have been shown in humans, overall little is known. Using the natural negative geotaxis of Drosophila melanogaster, an important model organism for the study of genetic interactions, a novel exercise machine, the TreadWheel, can be used to shed light on this interaction. The mechanism for inducing exercise with the TreadWheel is inherently gentle, thus minimizing possible confounding effects of other stressors...
2016: PloS One
Kalsea J Koss, E Mark Cummings, Patrick T Davies, Susan Hetzel, Dante Cicchetti
Depressive symptoms are prevalent and rise during adolescence. The present study is a prospective investigation of environmental and genetic factors that contribute to the growth in depressive symptoms and the frequency of heightened symptoms during adolescence. Participants included 206 mother-father-adolescent triads (M age at Time 1 = 13.06 years, SD = .51, 52% female). Harsh parenting was observationally assessed during a family conflict paradigm. DNA was extracted from saliva samples and genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Guopeng Wei, Chieh Lo, Connor Walsh, N Luisa Hiller, Radu Marculescu
As understanding of bacterial regulatory systems and pathogenesis continues to increase, QSI has been a major focus of research. However, recent studies have shown that mechanisms of resistance to quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors (QSIs) exist, calling into question their clinical value. We propose a computational framework that considers bacteria genotypes relative to QS genes and QS-regulated products including private, quasi-public, and public goods according to their impacts on bacterial fitness. Our results show (1) QSI resistance spreads when QS positively regulates the expression of private or quasi-public goods...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhang Ke, Feng Guangde, Zhang Baoyun, Xiang Wei, Chen Long, Yang Fang, Chu Mingxing, Wang Pingqing
Livestock phenotypes are determined by the interaction of a variety of factors, including the genome, the epigenome and the environment. Epigenetics refers to gene expression changes without DNA sequence alterations. Epigenetic markers mainly include DNA methylation, histone modifications, non-coding RNAs, and imprinting genes. More and more researches show that epigenetic markers play an important role in the traits of pigs by modulating phenotype changes via gene expression. However, the role of epigenetic markers has caught little attention in swine breeding...
July 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Thorhildur Halldorsdottir, Elisabeth B Binder
Gene-by-environment interactions (G×Es) can provide important biological insights into psychiatric disorders and may consequently have direct clinical implications. In this review, we begin with an overview of the major challengesG×E studies have faced (e.g., difficulties replicating findings and high false discovery rates). In light of these challenges, this review focuses on describing examples in which we might begin to understand G×Es on the molecular, cellular, circuit, and behavioral level and link this interaction to altered risk for the development of psychiatric disorders...
September 30, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Juliane Macheleidt, Derek J Mattern, Juliane Fischer, Tina Netzker, Jakob Weber, Volker Schroeckh, Vito Valiante, Axel A Brakhage
Fungi have the capability to produce a tremendous number of so-called secondary metabolites, which possess a multitude of functions, e.g., communication signals during coexistence with other microorganisms, virulence factors during pathogenic interactions with plants and animals, and in medical applications. Therefore, research on this topic has intensified significantly during the past 10 years and thus knowledge of regulatory mechanisms and the understanding of the role of secondary metabolites have drastically increased...
October 5, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
Sang-Yong Eom, Seon-Mi Hong, Dong-Hyuk Yim, Hyo-Jin Kwon, Dae-Hoon Kim, Hyo-Yung Yun, Young-Jin Song, Sei-Jin Youn, Taisun Hyun, Joo-Seung Park, Byung Sik Kim, Yong-Dae Kim, Heon Kim
Although several studies reported genetic polymorphisms in protein kinase AMP-activated alpha 1 catalytic subunit (PRKAA1) and their associations with gastric cancer risk, few have evaluated associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and PRKAA1 gene-environment interactions. Here, we evaluated the effects of interactions between H. pylori infection and PRKAA1 polymorphisms on gastric cancer risk in Koreans. In this hospital-based case-control study, PRKAA1 genotypes were analyzed and H. pylori infection and CagA status were examined using a serologic method in 846 pairs of gastric cancer patients and controls matched for age and sex...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Maryam Kavousi, Lawrence F Bielak, Patricia A Peyser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a brief synopsis of sexual dimorphism in atherosclerosis with an emphasis on genetic studies aimed to better understand the atherosclerotic process and clinical outcomes in women. Such studies are warranted because development of atherosclerosis, impact of several traditional risk factors, and burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) differ between women and men. RECENT FINDINGS: While most candidate gene studies pool women and men and adjust for sex, some sex-specific studies provide evidence of association between candidate genes and prevalent and incident CHD in women...
November 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Paula Moran, Jennifer Stokes, Julia Marr, Gavin Bock, Lieve Desbonnet, John Waddington, Colm O'Tuathaigh
The study of gene × environment, as well as epistatic interactions in schizophrenia, has provided important insight into the complex etiopathologic basis of schizophrenia. It has also increased our understanding of the role of susceptibility genes in the disorder and is an important consideration as we seek to translate genetic advances into novel antipsychotic treatment targets. This review summarises data arising from research involving the modelling of gene × environment interactions in schizophrenia using preclinical genetic models...
2016: Neural Plasticity
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