Read by QxMD icon Read

Implicit prejudice

Jennifer L Howell, Kate A Ratliff
A robust body of literature on the better-than-average effect suggests that people believe that they are better than the average others across a variety of domains. In two studies, we examined whether these better-than-average beliefs occur for bias related to stereotyping and prejudice. Moreover, we investigated the hypothesis that better-than-average beliefs will predict defensive responding to feedback indicating personal bias (e.g., preferences for majority groups, societally endorsed stereotypes). Specifically, we examined defensive responses to implicit attitude feedback...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
Jan Jones-Schenk
Bias, prejudice, cultural insensitivity, and eroding levels of empathy all affect the health and well being of patients and families and manifest or accelerate social disparities of health. For caregivers, educational offerings and activities targeting the affective domain can positively influence the development of greater empathy and improved social cognition. As difficult as it is to develop effective teaching methods for this domain, new strides in virtual reality technology and new research on implicit bias can provide the professional development educator with options in designing educational offerings that can help...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
Áine Lorié, Diego A Reinero, Margot Phillips, Linda Zhang, Helen Riess
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of studies examining how culture mediates nonverbal expressions of empathy with the aim to improve clinician cross-cultural competency. METHODS: We searched three databases for studies of nonverbal expressions of empathy and communication in cross-cultural clinical settings, yielding 16,143 articles. We examined peer-reviewed, experimental or observational articles. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Nonverbal expressions of empathy varied across cultural groups and impacted the quality of communication and care...
September 25, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
Carol T Miller, Susan E Varni, Sondra E Solomon, Michael J DeSarno, Janice Y Bunn
OBJECTIVES: This study examined how community levels of implicit HIV prejudice are associated with the psychological and physical well-being of people with HIV living in those same communities. It also examined whether community motivation to control prejudice and/or explicit HIV prejudice moderates the relationship of implicit prejudice and well-being. METHOD: Participants were 206 people with HIV living in 42 different communities in New England who completed measures that assessed psychological distress, thriving, and physical well-being...
August 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Calvin K Lai, Allison L Skinner, Erin Cooley, Sohad Murrar, Markus Brauer, Thierry Devos, Jimmy Calanchini, Y Jenny Xiao, Christina Pedram, Christopher K Marshburn, Stefanie Simon, John C Blanchar, Jennifer A Joy-Gaba, John Conway, Liz Redford, Rick A Klein, Gina Roussos, Fabian M H Schellhaas, Mason Burns, Xiaoqing Hu, Meghan C McLean, Jordan R Axt, Shaki Asgari, Kathleen Schmidt, Rachel Rubinstein, Maddalena Marini, Sandro Rubichi, Jiyun-Elizabeth L Shin, Brian A Nosek
Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested 9 interventions (8 real and 1 sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In 2 studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all 9 interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to several days. We also found that these interventions did not change explicit racial preferences and were not reliably moderated by motivations to respond without prejudice. Short-term malleability in implicit preferences does not necessarily lead to long-term change, raising new questions about the flexibility and stability of implicit preferences...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Nicolas Souchon, Gregory R Maio, Paul H P Hanel
OBJECTIVE: We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. METHODOLOGY: Studies 1 (n = 192) and 2 (n = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values and spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (n = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Personality
Pamela B Dunagan, Laura P Kimble, Susan Sweat Gunby, Margaret M Andrews
BACKGROUND: Attitudes of prejudice in nursing students have the potential to impact patient care and ultimately may contribute to culturally based health disparities. The purpose of this study was to describe attitudes of prejudice reported by baccalaureate nursing students. METHOD: Baccalaureate nursing students were recruited through Web networking and e-mailing. Participants responded to a Web-based survey that contained an open-ended item requesting them to describe a time when they held an attitude of prejudice...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
Melanie Killen, Laura Elenbaas, Adam Rutland
Social exclusion and inclusion from groups, as well as the distribution of resources, are fundamental aspects of social life, and serve as sources of conflicts that bear on issues of fairness and equality, beginning in childhood. For the most part, research on social exclusion and allocation of resources has not focused on the issue of group membership. Yet, social exclusion from groups and the denial of resources reflect societal issues pertaining to social inequality and its counterpoint, fair treatment of others...
April 2016: Human Development
Elizabeth M Kiebel, Sandra L McFadden, Julie C Herbstrith
Overt sexual prejudice is declining, but heterosexuals who report little to no prejudice may still harbor subtle biases against gay men and lesbians. We examined implicit prejudice in a sample of 37 heterosexual college students who reported little or no sexual prejudice, using the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) and psychophysiological measures of affect. Skin conductance, heart rate, and facial electromyographic responses were recorded as participants viewed photos of mixed- and same-sex couples kissing and rated them on valence, arousal and disgustingness...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Alejandro J Estudillo, Markus Bindemann
This study investigated whether multisensory stimulation with other-race faces can reduce racial prejudice. In three experiments, the faces of Caucasian observers were stroked with a cotton bud while they watched a black face being stroked in synchrony on a computer screen. This was compared with a neutral condition, in which no tactile stimulation was administered (Experiment 1 and 2), and with a condition in which observers' faces were stroked in asynchrony with the onscreen face (Experiment 3). In all experiments, observers experienced an enfacement illusion after synchronous stimulation, whereby they reported to embody the other-race face...
May 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Rickard Carlsson, Jens Agerström
To what extent the IAT (Implicit Association Test, Greenwald et al., 1998) predicts racial and ethnic discrimination is a heavily debated issue. The latest meta-analysis by Oswald et al. (2013) suggests a very weak association. In the present meta-analysis, we switched the focus from the predictor to the criterion, by taking a closer look at the discrimination outcomes. We discovered that many of these outcomes were not actually operationalizations of discrimination, but rather of other related, but distinct, concepts, such as brain activity and voting preferences...
August 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Petra C Schmid, David M Amodio
Power is thought to increase the discrimination of low-status groups, yet its effect on different forms of implicit bias remains unclear. We tested whether power enhances implicit racial stereotyping, in addition to implicit prejudice (i.e., evaluative associations), and examined the effect of power on the automatic processing of faces during implicit tasks. Study 1 showed that manipulated high power increased both forms of implicit bias, relative to low power. Using a neural index of visual face processing (the N170 component of the ERP), Study 2 revealed that power affected the encoding of White ingroup vs...
January 22, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Giulia Galli, Bigna Lenggenhager, Giorgio Scivoletto, Marco Molinari, Mariella Pazzaglia
CONTEXT: Scientific research has consistently shown that prejudicial behaviour may contribute to discrimination and disparities in social groups. However, little is known about whether and how implicit assumptions and direct contact modulate the interaction and quality of professional interventions in education and health contexts. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to examine implicit and explicit attitudes towards wheelchair users. METHODS: We investigated implicit and explicit attitudes towards wheelchair users in three different groups: patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI); health professionals with intense contact with wheelchair users, and healthy participants without personal contact with wheelchair users...
December 2015: Medical Education
Yunzhe Liu, Wanjun Lin, Pengfei Xu, Dandan Zhang, Yuejia Luo
Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception. Here, we examined the neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice using a passive viewing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that compared with the disgusted faces of in-groups, the disgusted faces of out-groups result in increased amygdala and insular engagement, positive coupling of the insula with amygdala-based emotional system, and negative coupling of the insula with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-based regulatory system...
December 2015: Human Brain Mapping
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Journal of Applied Psychology
Jessica M Keith, Loisa Bennetto, Ronald D Rogge
Increases in intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) diagnoses coupled with higher rates of inclusion in school and community settings, has created more opportunities for exposure and integration between those with IDD and the mainstream population. Previous research has found that increased contact can lead to more positive attitudes toward those with IDD. The current study further investigated this impact of contact on attitudes by examining the influence of the quality and quantity of contact on both explicit and implicit levels of prejudice, while also considering potential mediation via intergroup anxiety and implicit attitudes...
December 2015: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Chris Loersch, Bruce D Bartholow, Mark Manning, Jimmy Calanchini, Jeffrey W Sherman
Recent research has shown that alcohol consumption can exacerbate expressions of racial bias by increasing reliance on stereotypes. However, little work has investigated how alcohol affects intergroup evaluations. The current work sought to address the issue in the context of the correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of anti-black attitudes. Participants were randomly assigned to consume an alcoholic (target BAC of 0.08%), placebo, or control beverage prior to completing implicit and explicit measures of racial attitudes...
March 2015: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations: GPIR
Janice A Sabin, Rachel G Riskind, Brian A Nosek
OBJECTIVES: We examined providers' implicit and explicit attitudes toward lesbian and gay people by provider gender, sexual identity, and race/ethnicity. METHODS: We examined attitudes toward heterosexual people versus lesbian and gay people in Implicit Association Test takers: 2338 medical doctors, 5379 nurses, 8531 mental health providers, 2735 other treatment providers, and 214,110 nonproviders in the United States and internationally between May 2006 and December 2012...
September 2015: American Journal of Public Health
Sumie Okazaki
A problem in ethnic minority mental health that can be solved in the foreseeable future is understanding how subtle and covert forms of racism affect psychological health of racial minorities. Although scientific psychology has generated a large body of literature on racial prejudice, stereotypes, intergroup attitudes, and racial bias and their often implicit and automatic nature, relatively little is known about the effects of these subtle racial bias on minority individuals. Following a selective review of recent developments in experimental psychology and multicultural psychology, I suggest some promising approaches and opportunities for future integration that would advance the field...
January 2009: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Nour Kteily, Emile Bruneau, Adam Waytz, Sarah Cotterill
Dehumanization is a central concept in the study of intergroup relations. Yet although theoretical and methodological advances in subtle, "everyday" dehumanization have progressed rapidly, blatant dehumanization remains understudied. The present research attempts to refocus theoretical and empirical attention on blatant dehumanization, examining when and why it provides explanatory power beyond subtle dehumanization. To accomplish this, we introduce and validate a blatant measure of dehumanization based on the popular depiction of evolutionary progress in the "Ascent of Man...
November 2015: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"