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Implicit prejudice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739294/the-mixed-outcomes-of-taking-ownership-for-implicit-racial-biases
#1
Erin Cooley, Ryan F Lei, Taylor Ellerkamp
One potential strategy for prejudice reduction is encouraging people to acknowledge, and take ownership for, their implicit biases. Across two studies, we explore how taking ownership for implicit racial bias affects the subsequent expression of overt bias. Participants first completed an implicit measure of their attitudes toward Black people. Then we either led participants to think of their implicit bias as their own or as stemming from external factors. Results revealed that taking ownership for high implicit racial bias had diverging effects on subsequent warmth toward Black people (Study 1) and donations to a Black nonprofit (Study 2) based on people's internal motivations to respond without prejudice (Internal Motivation Scale [IMS])...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704979/improving-emergency-health-care-workers-knowledge-competency-and-attitudes-toward-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-patients-through-interdisciplinary-cultural-competency-training
#2
Sarah Bristol, Teresa Kostelec, Ryan MacDonald
INTRODUCTION: Emergency staff members have a unique role in providing episodic care to marginalized populations. The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is a marginalized population that is routinely encountered by ED staff. Implicit prejudice may influence emergency staff interactions and contribute to distrust of health care providers by some members of the LGBT community. The purpose of our study is to evaluate aggregate ED health care team member's knowledge and attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people pre- and post-cultural competency training education...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616588/the-relationships-of-intergroup-ideologies-to-ethnic-prejudice-a-meta-analysis
#3
Bernard E Whitley, Gregory D Webster
This meta-analysis summarizes the results of research on the relationships of majority group members' endorsement of assimilation, colorblindness, multiculturalism, and the relative relationships of colorblindness and multiculturalism to ethnic prejudice. Random effects analyses found that assimilation was positively related to explicit prejudice ( g. = 0.80), multiculturalism was negatively related to both explicit ( g. = -0.26) and implicit prejudice ( g. = -0.19), and colorblindness was negatively related to explicit prejudice ( g...
April 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529443/shared-reality-through-social-tuning-of-implicit-prejudice
#4
REVIEW
Jeanine Lm Skorinko, Stacey Sinclair
Sharing reality with an interaction partner is a key element of social connections. One way in which shared reality can be formed in an interpersonal situation is through affiliative social tuning. Affliative social tuning occurs when individuals experience a desire to get along with their interaction partner and this affiliative motivation encourages the individual to spontaneously and genuinely align their attitudes and/or behaviors with their interaction partner to achieve a sense of shared reality. In this review, we examine when and how affiliative social tuning of implicit prejudice occurs...
February 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479328/a-chip-off-the-old-block-parents-subtle-ethnic-prejudice-predicts-children-s-implicit-prejudice
#5
Sabine Pirchio, Ylenia Passiatore, Angelo Panno, Fridanna Maricchiolo, Giuseppe Carrus
The increasing flow of immigrants in many European countries and the growing presence of children from immigrant families in schools makes it relevant to study the development of prejudice in children. Parents play an important role in shaping children's values and their attitudes toward members of other ethnic groups; an intergenerational transmission of prejudice has been found in a number of studies targeting adolescents. The present study aims to investigate the intergenerational transmission of ethnic prejudice in 3- to 9- year-old children and its relations to parenting styles...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453778/-i-m-happy-to-own-my-implicit-biases-public-encounters-with-the-implicit-association-test
#6
Jeffery Yen, Kevin Durrheim, Romin W Tafarodi
The implicit association test (IAT) and concept of implicit bias have significantly influenced the scientific, institutional, and public discourse on racial prejudice. In spite of this, there has been little investigation of how ordinary people make sense of the IAT and the bias it claims to measure. This article examines the public understanding of this research through a discourse analysis of reactions to the IAT and implicit bias in the news media. It demonstrates the ways in which readers interpreted, related to, and negotiated the claims of IAT science in relation to socially shared and historically embedded concerns and identities...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336732/-some-university-lecturers-wear-gay-pride-t-shirts-get-over-it-denials-of-homophobia-and-the-reproduction-of-heteronormativity-in-responses-to-a-gay-themed-t-shirt
#7
Victoria Clarke
This article explores an incident involving a gay pride T-shirt, printed with the slogan "Some people are gay. Get over it!," that I wore during a university lecture, and students' predominantly negative responses to it. I use the lens of modern prejudice research, particularly discursive psychological approaches to modern prejudice, to interpret the students' responses to a qualitative survey about their views on the T-shirt. They related strong feelings of upset and anger, particularly because I had-in their view-implicitly accused them of being homophobic...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225371/breaking-the-prejudice-habit-mechanisms-timecourse-and-longevity
#8
Patrick S Forscher, Chelsea Mitamura, Emily L Dix, William T L Cox, Patricia G Devine
The prejudice habit-breaking intervention (Devine et al., 2012) and its offshoots (e.g., Carnes et al., 2012) have shown promise in effecting long-term change in key outcomes related to intergroup bias, including increases in awareness, concern about discrimination, and, in one study, long-term decreases in implicit bias. This intervention is based on the premise that unintentional bias is like a habit that can be broken with sufficient motivation, awareness, and effort. We conducted replication of the original habit-breaking intervention experiment in a sample more than three times the size of the original ( N = 292)...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147006/the-influence-of-skin-colour-on-the-experience-of-ownership-in-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#9
Marilia Lira, Julia H Egito, Patricia A Dall'Agnol, David M Amodio, Óscar F Gonçalves, Paulo S Boggio
Racial prejudice is associated with a fundamental distinction between "us" and "them"-a distinction linked to the perceived overlap between representations of the self and others. Implicit prejudice has been shown to reduce the intensity of White individuals' hand ownership sensation as induced by the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) with dark rubber hands. However, evidence for this link to implicit prejudice comes from self-report questionnaire data regarding the RHI. As an alternative, we assessed the onset time of the RHI...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048976/healthy-out-group-members-are-represented-psychologically-as-infected-in-group-members
#10
Michael Bang Petersen
A range of studies have demonstrated that people implicitly treat out-groups as the carriers of pathogens and that considerable prejudice against out-groups is driven by concerns about pathogens. Yet the psychological categories that are involved and the selection pressures that underlie these categories remain unclear. A common view is that human pathogen-avoidance psychology is specifically adapted to avoid out-groups because of their potentially different pathogens. However, the series of studies reported here shows that there is no dedicated category for reasoning about out-groups in terms of pathogens...
December 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903648/using-groups-to-measure-intergroup-prejudice
#11
Erin Cooley, B Keith Payne
Implicit measures of racial attitudes often assess reactions to images of individuals to infer attitudes toward an entire social category. However, an increasing amount of research indicates that responses to individuals are highly dependent on context and idiosyncratic features of individual exemplars. Thus, using images of individuals to assess beliefs about a whole social category may not be ideal. Across three time points, we predicted that using images of groups would mitigate the influence of idiosyncratic features of individual targets and, thus, provide a better measurement tool to assess beliefs about a category to which all group members belong...
January 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854609/age-differences-in-explicit-and-implicit-age-attitudes-across-the-life-span
#12
William J Chopik, Hannah L Giasson
Purpose of the Study: Biased judgments about others can operate both within and outside of our conscious awareness. However, little attention has been paid to how implicit and explicit attitudes differ across the life span, particularly with respect to age bias. In the current study, we examined age differences in implicit and explicit attitudes towards older individuals. Design and Method: Participants (N = 704,151) ranging from age 15 to 94 completed the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures of bias against older adults...
August 1, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666645/electrophysiological-markers-of-prejudice-related-to-sexual-gender
#13
Alice Mado Proverbio, Andrea Orlandi, Evelina Bianchi
Previous studies have shown that Event-related potentials (ERPs) are sensitive to violations of gender-based stereotypes. In the present investigation, we used ERPs to measure the detection of a discrepancy between gender-based occupational stereotypes and written material presented to fifteen Italian viewers in a completely implicit task. No awareness or judgment about stereotypes was required, no decision had to be made on sentence acceptability or congruence, and no prime words related to gender were presented (which might reveal the matter of the investigation)...
June 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661703/the-insidious-effects-of-sexual-stereotypes-in-clinical-practice
#14
Antonio Prunas, Simona Sacchi, Marco Brambilla
The present study investigated the influence of sexual stereotyping on the diagnostic impressions and treatment expectations of gay and straight male patients. Italian male, straight, licensed psychotherapists (N = 152) were presented with clinical vignettes that described a gay (versus straight) male patient reporting either a straight-stereotypical disorder (i.e., rage dyscontrol) or a gay-stereotypical disorder (i.e., sexual compulsivity). Results revealed that treatment efficacy expectations were influenced by the patient's sexual orientation and the stereotypicality of the disorder...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659843/leaky-pipeline-myths-in-search-of-gender-effects-on-the-job-market-and-early-career-publishing-in-philosophy
#15
Sean Allen-Hermanson
That philosophy is an outlier in the humanities when it comes to the underrepresentation of women has been the occasion for much discussion about possible effects of subtle forms of prejudice, including implicit bias and stereotype threat. While these ideas have become familiar to the philosophical community, there has only recently been a surge of interest in acquiring field-specific data. This paper adds to quantitative findings bearing on hypotheses about the effects of unconscious prejudice on two important stages along career pathways: tenure-track hiring and early career publishing...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633619/the-affect-misattribution-procedure
#16
Sarah Teige-Mocigemba, Manuel Becker, Jeffrey W Sherman, Regina Reichardt, Karl Christoph Klauer
The Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) has been forwarded as one of the most promising alternatives to the Implicit Association Test and the evaluative-priming task for measuring attitudes such as prejudice indirectly. We investigated whether the AMP is indeed able to detect an evaluative out-group bias. In contrast to recent conclusions about the robustness of AMP effects, six out of seven pilot studies indicated that participants did not show any prejudice effects in the AMP. Yet, these pilot studies were not fully conclusive with regard to our research question because they investigated different domains of prejudice, used small sample sizes, and employed a modified AMP version...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439248/effects-of-promotion-and-compunction-interventions-on-real-intergroup-interactions-promotion-helps-but-high-compunction-hurts
#17
Katy Greenland, Dimitrios Xenias, Gregory R Maio
HIGHLIGHTS  We show the promotion intervention has positive effects during intergroup contact, but that high levels of compunction can have negative effects. Intergroup contact is probably the longest standing and most comprehensively researched intervention to reduce discrimination. It is also part of ordinary social experience, and a key context in which discrimination is played out. In this paper, we explore two additional interventions which are also designed to reduce discrimination, but which have not yet been applied to real intergroup interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404321/county-level-racial-prejudice-and-the-black-white-gap-in-infant-health-outcomes
#18
Jacob Orchard, Joseph Price
OBJECTIVE: Black mothers are 60 percent more likely than white mothers to have preterm births and twice as likely to have a baby with low birth weight. We examine whether these black-white gaps in birth outcomes are larger in counties with higher levels of racial prejudice. METHOD: We use data from the restricted-use natality files in the United States, which provide information on birth weight, gestation, and maternal characteristics for over 31 million births from 2002 to 2012, combined with county-level data measures of both explicit and implicit racial prejudice from Project Implicit from over a million individuals who took the Implicit Association Test during this same period...
May 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375810/what-do-you-think-about-ink-an-examination-of-implicit-and-explicit-attitudes-toward-tattooed-individuals
#19
Colin A Zestcott, Tanya L Tompkins, Megan Kozak Williams, Kay Livesay, Kin L Chan
Tattoos are increasing in popularity, yet minimal research has examined implicit attitudes or the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes toward tattooed individuals. Seventy-seven online participants (Mage = 36.09, 52% women, 78% white, 26% tattooed) completed measures assessing implicit and explicit attitudes toward tattooed individuals. Results revealed evidence of negative implicit attitudes, which were associated with less perceived warmth, competence, and negative explicit evaluations. However, implicit attitudes were not correlated with measures of disgust or social distance...
2018: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371699/the-semantic-representation-of-prejudice-and-stereotypes
#20
Sudeep Bhatia
We use a theory of semantic representation to study prejudice and stereotyping. Particularly, we consider large datasets of newspaper articles published in the United States, and apply latent semantic analysis (LSA), a prominent model of human semantic memory, to these datasets to learn representations for common male and female, White, African American, and Latino names. LSA performs a singular value decomposition on word distribution statistics in order to recover word vector representations, and we find that our recovered representations display the types of biases observed in human participants using tasks such as the implicit association test...
July 2017: Cognition
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