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Implicit prejudice

Katy Greenland, Dimitrios Xenias, Gregory R Maio
HIGHLIGHTS  We show the promotion intervention has positive effects during intergroup contact, but that high levels of compunction can have negative effects. Intergroup contact is probably the longest standing and most comprehensively researched intervention to reduce discrimination. It is also part of ordinary social experience, and a key context in which discrimination is played out. In this paper, we explore two additional interventions which are also designed to reduce discrimination, but which have not yet been applied to real intergroup interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Jacob Orchard, Joseph Price
OBJECTIVE: Black mothers are 60 percent more likely than white mothers to have preterm births and twice as likely to have a baby with low birth weight. We examine whether these black-white gaps in birth outcomes are larger in counties with higher levels of racial prejudice. METHOD: We use data from the restricted-use natality files in the United States, which provide information on birth weight, gestation, and maternal characteristics for over 31 million births from 2002 to 2012, combined with county-level data measures of both explicit and implicit racial prejudice from Project Implicit from over a million individuals who took the Implicit Association Test during this same period...
May 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Colin A Zestcott, Tanya L Tompkins, Megan Kozak Williams, Kay Livesay, Kin L Chan
Tattoos are increasing in popularity, yet minimal research has examined implicit attitudes or the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes toward tattooed individuals. Seventy-seven online participants (Mage = 36.09, 52% women, 78% white, 26% tattooed) completed measures assessing implicit and explicit attitudes toward tattooed individuals. Results revealed evidence of negative implicit attitudes, which were associated with less perceived warmth, competence, and negative explicit evaluations. However, implicit attitudes were not correlated with measures of disgust or social distance...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Sudeep Bhatia
We use a theory of semantic representation to study prejudice and stereotyping. Particularly, we consider large datasets of newspaper articles published in the United States, and apply latent semantic analysis (LSA), a prominent model of human semantic memory, to these datasets to learn representations for common male and female, White, African American, and Latino names. LSA performs a singular value decomposition on word distribution statistics in order to recover word vector representations, and we find that our recovered representations display the types of biases observed in human participants using tasks such as the implicit association test...
March 31, 2017: Cognition
Daniel Drewniak, Tanja Krones, Verina Wild
OBJECTIVES: Recent investigations of ethnicity related disparities in health care have focused on the contribution of providers' implicit biases. A significant effect on health care outcomes is suggested, but the results are mixed. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to provide an overview and synthesize the current empirical research on the potential influence of health care professionals' attitudes and behaviors towards ethnic minority patients on health care disparities...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Carli Friedman
Siblings of people with disabilities have more exposure to people with disabilities than most nondisabled people, uniquely positioning them toward disability, yet less is known about how this might impact their attitudes. This study examined siblings' disability attitudes by determining siblings' explicit and implicit disability bias, mapping their 2-dimensional prejudice, and examining theoretical variables that might be relevant to their attitudes. To do so, the Disability Attitudes Implicit Association Test, the Symbolic Ableism Scale, and survey questions were administered to 48 siblings...
January 2017: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation
Scott O Lilienfeld
The microaggression concept has recently galvanized public discussion and spread to numerous college campuses and businesses. I argue that the microaggression research program (MRP) rests on five core premises, namely, that microaggressions (1) are operationalized with sufficient clarity and consensus to afford rigorous scientific investigation; (2) are interpreted negatively by most or all minority group members; (3) reflect implicitly prejudicial and implicitly aggressive motives; (4) can be validly assessed using only respondents' subjective reports; and (5) exert an adverse impact on recipients' mental health...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Jennifer L Howell, Kate A Ratliff
A robust body of literature on the better-than-average effect suggests that people believe that they are better than the average others across a variety of domains. In two studies, we examined whether these better-than-average beliefs occur for bias related to stereotyping and prejudice. Moreover, we investigated the hypothesis that better-than-average beliefs will predict defensive responding to feedback indicating personal bias (e.g., preferences for majority groups, societally endorsed stereotypes). Specifically, we examined defensive responses to implicit attitude feedback...
March 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
Jan Jones-Schenk
Bias, prejudice, cultural insensitivity, and eroding levels of empathy all affect the health and well being of patients and families and manifest or accelerate social disparities of health. For caregivers, educational offerings and activities targeting the affective domain can positively influence the development of greater empathy and improved social cognition. As difficult as it is to develop effective teaching methods for this domain, new strides in virtual reality technology and new research on implicit bias can provide the professional development educator with options in designing educational offerings that can help...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
Áine Lorié, Diego A Reinero, Margot Phillips, Linda Zhang, Helen Riess
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of studies examining how culture mediates nonverbal expressions of empathy with the aim to improve clinician cross-cultural competency. METHODS: We searched three databases for studies of nonverbal expressions of empathy and communication in cross-cultural clinical settings, yielding 16,143 articles. We examined peer-reviewed, experimental or observational articles. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Nonverbal expressions of empathy varied across cultural groups and impacted the quality of communication and care...
March 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
Carol T Miller, Susan E Varni, Sondra E Solomon, Michael J DeSarno, Janice Y Bunn
OBJECTIVES: This study examined how community levels of implicit HIV prejudice are associated with the psychological and physical well-being of people with HIV living in those same communities. It also examined whether community motivation to control prejudice and/or explicit HIV prejudice moderates the relationship of implicit prejudice and well-being. METHOD: Participants were 206 people with HIV living in 42 different communities in New England who completed measures that assessed psychological distress, thriving, and physical well-being...
August 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Calvin K Lai, Allison L Skinner, Erin Cooley, Sohad Murrar, Markus Brauer, Thierry Devos, Jimmy Calanchini, Y Jenny Xiao, Christina Pedram, Christopher K Marshburn, Stefanie Simon, John C Blanchar, Jennifer A Joy-Gaba, John Conway, Liz Redford, Rick A Klein, Gina Roussos, Fabian M H Schellhaas, Mason Burns, Xiaoqing Hu, Meghan C McLean, Jordan R Axt, Shaki Asgari, Kathleen Schmidt, Rachel Rubinstein, Maddalena Marini, Sandro Rubichi, Jiyun-Elizabeth L Shin, Brian A Nosek
Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested 9 interventions (8 real and 1 sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In 2 studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all 9 interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to several days. We also found that these interventions did not change explicit racial preferences and were not reliably moderated by motivations to respond without prejudice. Short-term malleability in implicit preferences does not necessarily lead to long-term change, raising new questions about the flexibility and stability of implicit preferences...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Nicolas Souchon, Gregory R Maio, Paul H P Hanel
OBJECTIVE: We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. METHODOLOGY: Studies 1 (n = 192) and 2 (n = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values and spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (n = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Personality
Pamela B Dunagan, Laura P Kimble, Susan Sweat Gunby, Margaret M Andrews
BACKGROUND: Attitudes of prejudice in nursing students have the potential to impact patient care and ultimately may contribute to culturally based health disparities. The purpose of this study was to describe attitudes of prejudice reported by baccalaureate nursing students. METHOD: Baccalaureate nursing students were recruited through Web networking and e-mailing. Participants responded to a Web-based survey that contained an open-ended item requesting them to describe a time when they held an attitude of prejudice...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
Melanie Killen, Laura Elenbaas, Adam Rutland
Social exclusion and inclusion from groups, as well as the distribution of resources, are fundamental aspects of social life, and serve as sources of conflicts that bear on issues of fairness and equality, beginning in childhood. For the most part, research on social exclusion and allocation of resources has not focused on the issue of group membership. Yet, social exclusion from groups and the denial of resources reflect societal issues pertaining to social inequality and its counterpoint, fair treatment of others...
April 2016: Human Development
Elizabeth M Kiebel, Sandra L McFadden, Julie C Herbstrith
Overt sexual prejudice is declining, but heterosexuals who report little to no prejudice may still harbor subtle biases against gay men and lesbians. We examined implicit prejudice in a sample of 37 heterosexual college students who reported little or no sexual prejudice, using the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) and psychophysiological measures of affect. Skin conductance, heart rate, and facial electromyographic responses were recorded as participants viewed photos of mixed- and same-sex couples kissing and rated them on valence, arousal, and disgustingness...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Alejandro J Estudillo, Markus Bindemann
This study investigated whether multisensory stimulation with other-race faces can reduce racial prejudice. In three experiments, the faces of Caucasian observers were stroked with a cotton bud while they watched a black face being stroked in synchrony on a computer screen. This was compared with a neutral condition, in which no tactile stimulation was administered (Experiment 1 and 2), and with a condition in which observers' faces were stroked in asynchrony with the onscreen face (Experiment 3). In all experiments, observers experienced an enfacement illusion after synchronous stimulation, whereby they reported to embody the other-race face...
May 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Rickard Carlsson, Jens Agerström
To what extent the IAT (Implicit Association Test, Greenwald et al., 1998) predicts racial and ethnic discrimination is a heavily debated issue. The latest meta-analysis by Oswald et al. (2013) suggests a very weak association. In the present meta-analysis, we switched the focus from the predictor to the criterion, by taking a closer look at the discrimination outcomes. We discovered that many of these outcomes were not actually operationalizations of discrimination, but rather of other related, but distinct, concepts, such as brain activity and voting preferences...
August 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Petra C Schmid, David M Amodio
Power is thought to increase discrimination toward subordinate groups, yet its effect on different forms of implicit bias remains unclear. We tested whether power enhances implicit racial stereotyping, in addition to implicit prejudice (i.e., evaluative associations), and examined the effect of power on the automatic processing of faces during implicit tasks. Study 1 showed that manipulated high power increased both forms of implicit bias, relative to low power. Using a neural index of visual face processing (the N170 component of the ERP), Study 2 revealed that power affected the encoding of White ingroup vs...
February 24, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Giulia Galli, Bigna Lenggenhager, Giorgio Scivoletto, Marco Molinari, Mariella Pazzaglia
CONTEXT: Scientific research has consistently shown that prejudicial behaviour may contribute to discrimination and disparities in social groups. However, little is known about whether and how implicit assumptions and direct contact modulate the interaction and quality of professional interventions in education and health contexts. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to examine implicit and explicit attitudes towards wheelchair users. METHODS: We investigated implicit and explicit attitudes towards wheelchair users in three different groups: patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI); health professionals with intense contact with wheelchair users, and healthy participants without personal contact with wheelchair users...
December 2015: Medical Education
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