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Implicit prejudice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903648/using-groups-to-measure-intergroup-prejudice
#1
Erin Cooley, B Keith Payne
Implicit measures of racial attitudes often assess reactions to images of individuals to infer attitudes toward an entire social category. However, an increasing amount of research indicates that responses to individuals are highly dependent on context and idiosyncratic features of individual exemplars. Thus, using images of individuals to assess beliefs about a whole social category may not be ideal. Across three time points, we predicted that using images of groups would mitigate the influence of idiosyncratic features of individual targets and, thus, provide a better measurement tool to assess beliefs about a category to which all group members belong...
January 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854609/age-differences-in-explicit-and-implicit-age-attitudes-across-the-life-span
#2
William J Chopik, Hannah L Giasson
Purpose of the Study: Biased judgments about others can operate both within and outside of our conscious awareness. However, little attention has been paid to how implicit and explicit attitudes differ across the life span, particularly with respect to age bias. In the current study, we examined age differences in implicit and explicit attitudes towards older individuals. Design and Method: Participants (N = 704,151) ranging from age 15 to 94 completed the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures of bias against older adults...
August 1, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666645/electrophysiological-markers-of-prejudice-related-to-sexual-gender
#3
Alice Mado Proverbio, Andrea Orlandi, Evelina Bianchi
Previous studies have shown that Event-related potentials (ERPs) are sensitive to violations of gender-based stereotypes. In the present investigation, we used ERPs to measure the detection of a discrepancy between gender-based occupational stereotypes and written material presented to fifteen Italian viewers in a completely implicit task. No awareness or judgment about stereotypes was required, no decision had to be made on sentence acceptability or congruence, and no prime words related to gender were presented (which might reveal the matter of the investigation)...
June 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661703/the-insidious-effects-of-sexual-stereotypes-in-clinical-practice
#4
Antonio Prunas, Simona Sacchi, Marco Brambilla
The present study investigated the influence of sexual stereotyping on the diagnostic impressions and treatment expectations of gay and straight male patients. Italian male, straight, licensed psychotherapists (N = 152) were presented with clinical vignettes that described a gay (versus straight) male patient reporting either a straight-stereotypical disorder (i.e., rage dyscontrol) or a gay-stereotypical disorder (i.e., sexual compulsivity). Results revealed that treatment efficacy expectations were influenced by the patient's sexual orientation and the stereotypicality of the disorder...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659843/leaky-pipeline-myths-in-search-of-gender-effects-on-the-job-market-and-early-career-publishing-in-philosophy
#5
Sean Allen-Hermanson
That philosophy is an outlier in the humanities when it comes to the underrepresentation of women has been the occasion for much discussion about possible effects of subtle forms of prejudice, including implicit bias and stereotype threat. While these ideas have become familiar to the philosophical community, there has only recently been a surge of interest in acquiring field-specific data. This paper adds to quantitative findings bearing on hypotheses about the effects of unconscious prejudice on two important stages along career pathways: tenure-track hiring and early career publishing...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633619/the-affect-misattribution-procedure
#6
Sarah Teige-Mocigemba, Manuel Becker, Jeffrey W Sherman, Regina Reichardt, Karl Christoph Klauer
The Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) has been forwarded as one of the most promising alternatives to the Implicit Association Test and the evaluative-priming task for measuring attitudes such as prejudice indirectly. We investigated whether the AMP is indeed able to detect an evaluative out-group bias. In contrast to recent conclusions about the robustness of AMP effects, six out of seven pilot studies indicated that participants did not show any prejudice effects in the AMP. Yet, these pilot studies were not fully conclusive with regard to our research question because they investigated different domains of prejudice, used small sample sizes, and employed a modified AMP version...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439248/effects-of-promotion-and-compunction-interventions-on-real-intergroup-interactions-promotion-helps-but-high-compunction-hurts
#7
Katy Greenland, Dimitrios Xenias, Gregory R Maio
HIGHLIGHTS  We show the promotion intervention has positive effects during intergroup contact, but that high levels of compunction can have negative effects. Intergroup contact is probably the longest standing and most comprehensively researched intervention to reduce discrimination. It is also part of ordinary social experience, and a key context in which discrimination is played out. In this paper, we explore two additional interventions which are also designed to reduce discrimination, but which have not yet been applied to real intergroup interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404321/county-level-racial-prejudice-and-the-black-white-gap-in-infant-health-outcomes
#8
Jacob Orchard, Joseph Price
OBJECTIVE: Black mothers are 60 percent more likely than white mothers to have preterm births and twice as likely to have a baby with low birth weight. We examine whether these black-white gaps in birth outcomes are larger in counties with higher levels of racial prejudice. METHOD: We use data from the restricted-use natality files in the United States, which provide information on birth weight, gestation, and maternal characteristics for over 31 million births from 2002 to 2012, combined with county-level data measures of both explicit and implicit racial prejudice from Project Implicit from over a million individuals who took the Implicit Association Test during this same period...
May 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375810/what-do-you-think-about-ink-an-examination-of-implicit-and-explicit-attitudes-toward-tattooed-individuals
#9
Colin A Zestcott, Tanya L Tompkins, Megan Kozak Williams, Kay Livesay, Kin L Chan
Tattoos are increasing in popularity, yet minimal research has examined implicit attitudes or the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes toward tattooed individuals. Seventy-seven online participants (Mage = 36.09, 52% women, 78% white, 26% tattooed) completed measures assessing implicit and explicit attitudes toward tattooed individuals. Results revealed evidence of negative implicit attitudes, which were associated with less perceived warmth, competence, and negative explicit evaluations. However, implicit attitudes were not correlated with measures of disgust or social distance...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371699/the-semantic-representation-of-prejudice-and-stereotypes
#10
Sudeep Bhatia
We use a theory of semantic representation to study prejudice and stereotyping. Particularly, we consider large datasets of newspaper articles published in the United States, and apply latent semantic analysis (LSA), a prominent model of human semantic memory, to these datasets to learn representations for common male and female, White, African American, and Latino names. LSA performs a singular value decomposition on word distribution statistics in order to recover word vector representations, and we find that our recovered representations display the types of biases observed in human participants using tasks such as the implicit association test...
July 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236689/do-attitudes-and-behavior-of-health-care-professionals-exacerbate-health-care-disparities-among-immigrant-and-ethnic-minority-groups-an-integrative-literature-review
#11
REVIEW
Daniel Drewniak, Tanja Krones, Verina Wild
OBJECTIVES: Recent investigations of ethnicity related disparities in health care have focused on the contribution of providers' implicit biases. A significant effect on health care outcomes is suggested, but the results are mixed. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to provide an overview and synthesize the current empirical research on the potential influence of health care professionals' attitudes and behaviors towards ethnic minority patients on health care disparities...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187699/siblings-of-people-with-disabilities-explicit-and-implicit-disability-attitude-divergence
#12
Carli Friedman
Siblings of people with disabilities have more exposure to people with disabilities than most nondisabled people, uniquely positioning them toward disability, yet less is known about how this might impact their attitudes. This study examined siblings' disability attitudes by determining siblings' explicit and implicit disability bias, mapping their 2-dimensional prejudice, and examining theoretical variables that might be relevant to their attitudes. To do so, the Disability Attitudes Implicit Association Test, the Symbolic Ableism Scale, and survey questions were administered to 48 siblings...
January 2017: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073337/microaggressions
#13
Scott O Lilienfeld
The microaggression concept has recently galvanized public discussion and spread to numerous college campuses and businesses. I argue that the microaggression research program (MRP) rests on five core premises, namely, that microaggressions (1) are operationalized with sufficient clarity and consensus to afford rigorous scientific investigation; (2) are interpreted negatively by most or all minority group members; (3) reflect implicitly prejudicial and implicitly aggressive motives; (4) can be validly assessed using only respondents' subjective reports; and (5) exert an adverse impact on recipients' mental health...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709628/not-your-average-bigot-the-better-than-average-effect-and-defensive-responding-to-implicit-association-test-feedback
#14
Jennifer L Howell, Kate A Ratliff
A robust body of literature on the better-than-average effect suggests that people believe that they are better than the average others across a variety of domains. In two studies, we examined whether these better-than-average beliefs occur for bias related to stereotyping and prejudice. Moreover, we investigated the hypothesis that better-than-average beliefs will predict defensive responding to feedback indicating personal bias (e.g., preferences for majority groups, societally endorsed stereotypes). Specifically, we examined defensive responses to implicit attitude feedback...
March 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699431/getting-to-the-root-of-disparities-social-cognition-and-the-affective-domain
#15
Jan Jones-Schenk
Bias, prejudice, cultural insensitivity, and eroding levels of empathy all affect the health and well being of patients and families and manifest or accelerate social disparities of health. For caregivers, educational offerings and activities targeting the affective domain can positively influence the development of greater empathy and improved social cognition. As difficult as it is to develop effective teaching methods for this domain, new strides in virtual reality technology and new research on implicit bias can provide the professional development educator with options in designing educational offerings that can help...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693082/culture-and-nonverbal-expressions-of-empathy-in-clinical-settings-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Áine Lorié, Diego A Reinero, Margot Phillips, Linda Zhang, Helen Riess
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of studies examining how culture mediates nonverbal expressions of empathy with the aim to improve clinician cross-cultural competency. METHODS: We searched three databases for studies of nonverbal expressions of empathy and communication in cross-cultural clinical settings, yielding 16,143 articles. We examined peer-reviewed, experimental or observational articles. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Nonverbal expressions of empathy varied across cultural groups and impacted the quality of communication and care...
March 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505199/macro-level-implicit-hiv-prejudice-and-the-health-of-community-residents-with-hiv
#17
Carol T Miller, Susan E Varni, Sondra E Solomon, Michael J DeSarno, Janice Y Bunn
OBJECTIVES: This study examined how community levels of implicit HIV prejudice are associated with the psychological and physical well-being of people with HIV living in those same communities. It also examined whether community motivation to control prejudice and/or explicit HIV prejudice moderates the relationship of implicit prejudice and well-being. METHOD: Participants were 206 people with HIV living in 42 different communities in New England who completed measures that assessed psychological distress, thriving, and physical well-being...
August 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454041/reducing-implicit-racial-preferences-ii-intervention-effectiveness-across-time
#18
Calvin K Lai, Allison L Skinner, Erin Cooley, Sohad Murrar, Markus Brauer, Thierry Devos, Jimmy Calanchini, Y Jenny Xiao, Christina Pedram, Christopher K Marshburn, Stefanie Simon, John C Blanchar, Jennifer A Joy-Gaba, John Conway, Liz Redford, Rick A Klein, Gina Roussos, Fabian M H Schellhaas, Mason Burns, Xiaoqing Hu, Meghan C McLean, Jordan R Axt, Shaki Asgari, Kathleen Schmidt, Rachel Rubinstein, Maddalena Marini, Sandro Rubichi, Jiyun-Elizabeth L Shin, Brian A Nosek
Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested 9 interventions (8 real and 1 sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In 2 studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all 9 interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to several days. We also found that these interventions did not change explicit racial preferences and were not reliably moderated by motivations to respond without prejudice. Short-term malleability in implicit preferences does not necessarily lead to long-term change, raising new questions about the flexibility and stability of implicit preferences...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392549/does-spontaneous-favorability-to-power-vs-universalism-values-predict-spontaneous-prejudice-and-discrimination
#19
Nicolas Souchon, Gregory R Maio, Paul H P Hanel, Brigitte Bardin
OBJECTIVE: We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. METHOD: Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27224464/baccalaureate-nursing-students-attitudes-of-prejudice-a-qualitative-inquiry
#20
Pamela B Dunagan, Laura P Kimble, Susan Sweat Gunby, Margaret M Andrews
BACKGROUND: Attitudes of prejudice in nursing students have the potential to impact patient care and ultimately may contribute to culturally based health disparities. The purpose of this study was to describe attitudes of prejudice reported by baccalaureate nursing students. METHOD: Baccalaureate nursing students were recruited through Web networking and e-mailing. Participants responded to a Web-based survey that contained an open-ended item requesting them to describe a time when they held an attitude of prejudice...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
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