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Hippocampus and relational binding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217494/regulation-of-the-kynurenine-metabolism-pathway-by-xiaoyao-san-and-the-underlying-effect-in-the-hippocampus-of-the-depressed-rat
#1
Jiajia Wang, Xiaofang Li, Shugui He, Lijun Hu, Jiewen Guo, Xiangning Huang, Jinqing Hu, Yaoqun Qi, Bin Chen, Dewei Shang, Yuguan Wen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xiaoyao San (XYS) is a classic Chinese herbal formula for treatment of depression. The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effects of XYS in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A CUMS rat model of depression was established via 4 weeks of unpredictable stimulation. Then the rats were orally administered paroxetine and XYS for 2 weeks with continued stress...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201187/shuyu-capsules-relieve-liver-qi-depression-by-regulating-erk-creb-bdnf-signal-pathway-in-central-nervous-system-of-rat
#2
Hongyan Wang, Yingquan Zhang, Helou Li, Wei Zeng, Mingqi Qiao
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible therapeutic mechanism of Shuyu capsules in liver-qi depression. Liver-qi depression rats were prepared based on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and delayed constraint. Rats were gavaged with Shuyu capsule, fluoxetine, Radix Bupleuri and Radix Paeoniae Alba to constrct rat models. Body weight test, sucrose preference test and open-field test were applied to test rat models. Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR was applied to determine the relative expression of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus and frontal lobe tissues...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201157/detection-of-the-line-1-retrotransposon-rna-binding-protein-orf1p-in-different-anatomical-regions-of-the-human-brain
#3
Debpali Sur, Raj Kishor Kustwar, Savita Budania, Anita Mahadevan, Dustin C Hancks, Vijay Yadav, S K Shankar, Prabhat K Mandal
Background: Recent reports indicate that retrotransposons - a type of mobile DNA - can contribute to neuronal genetic diversity in mammals. Retrotransposons are genetic elements that mobilize via an RNA intermediate by a "copy-and-paste" mechanism termed retrotransposition. Long Interspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is the only active autonomous retrotransposon in humans and its activity is responsible for ~ 30% of genomic mass. Historically, L1 retrotransposition was thought to be restricted to the germline; however, new data indicate L1 s are active in somatic tissue with certain regions of the brain being highly permissive...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200900/genistein-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neurotoxicity-and-improves-impaired-spatial-learning-and-memory-by-regulating-camp-creb-and-bdnf-trkb-pi3k-akt-signaling
#4
Tao Jiang, Xiu-Qin Wang, Chuan Ding, Xue-Lian Du
Anesthetics are used extensively in surgeries and related procedures to prevent pain. However, there is some concern regarding neuronal degeneration and cognitive deficits arising from regular anesthetic exposure. Recent studies have indicated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are involved in learning and memory processes. Genistein, a plant-derived isoflavone, has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects. The present study was performed to examine the protective effect of genistein against isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in rats...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186065/binge-alcohol-exposure-transiently-changes-the-endocannabinoid-system-a-potential-target-to-prevent-alcohol-induced-neurodegeneration
#5
Daniel J Liput, James R Pauly, Audra L Stinchcomb, Kimberly Nixon
Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration...
November 29, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175000/cyclic-nucleotide-signaling-changes-associated-with-normal-aging-and-age-related-diseases-of-the-brain
#6
REVIEW
Michy P Kelly
Deficits in brain function that are associated with aging and age-related diseases benefit very little from currently available therapies, suggesting a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is needed to develop improved drugs. Here, we review the literature to test the hypothesis that a break down in cyclic nucleotide signaling at the level of synthesis, execution, and/or degradation may contribute to these deficits. A number of findings have been reported in both the human and animal model literature that point to brain region-specific changes in Galphas (a...
November 23, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156327/asiatic-acid-and-maslinic-acid-attenuated-kainic-acid-induced-seizure-through-decreasing-hippocampal-inflammatory-and-oxidative-stress
#7
Zhi-Hong Wang, Mei-Chin Mong, Ya-Chen Yang, Mei-Chin Yin
Seizure is a neurological disorder including hippocampal oxidative and inflammatory stress, and glutamate toxicity. Thus, any agent(s) that mitigate(s) these events in hippocampus might attenuate seizure severity. The effects of asiatic acid (AA) or maslinic acid (MA) pre-administration at 20 or 40mg/kg body weight/day upon inflammatory, oxidative and apoptotic injury in hippocampus of kainic acid (KA)-treated mice were examined. KA induced seizure-like behavioral patterns, which was attenuated by AA or MA pre-administration...
November 17, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141213/cpeb2-activates-grasp1-mrna-translation-and-promotes-ampa-receptor-surface-expression-long-term-potentiation-and-memory
#8
Wen-Hsin Lu, Nai-Hsing Yeh, Yi-Shuian Huang
Activity-dependent synthesis of plasticity-related proteins is necessary to sustain long-lasting synaptic modifications and consolidate memory. We investigated the role of the translational regulator cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB2) in learning and memory because regulated mRNA translation contributes to synaptic plasticity. Forebrain-restricted CPEB2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice exhibited impaired hippocampus-dependent memory in contextual fear conditioning and Morris water maze tests...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137271/environmental-conditions-differentially-affect-neurobehavioral-outcomes-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#9
Mu-Huo Ji, Hui Tang, Dan Luo, Li-Li Qiu, Min Jia, Hong-Mei Yuan, Shan-Wu Feng, Jian-Jun Yang
Brain dysfunction remains a common complication after sepsis development and is an independent risk factor for a poorer prognosis and an increased mortality. Here we tested the hypothesis that the behavioral outcomes after lipopolysaccharides (LPS) administration are exacerbated by an impoverished environment (IE) and alleviated by an enriched environment (EE), respectively. Mice were randomly allocated in a standard environment (SE), an EE, or an IE for 4 weeks after LPS or normal saline (NS) administration...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135331/imaging-microglial-activation-and-amyloid-burden-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
Dunja Knezevic, Nicolaas Paul Lg Verhoeff, Sina Hafizi, Antonio P Strafella, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Tarek Rajji, Bruce G Pollock, Sylvain Houle, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is defined as a transitional state between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given the replicated finding of increased microglial activation in AD, we sought to investigate whether microglial activation is also elevated in aMCI and whether it is related to amyloid beta (Aβ) burden in-vivo . Eleven aMCI participants and 14 healthy volunteers completed positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [(18)F]-FEPPA and [(11)C]-PIB. Given the known sensitivity in affinity of second-generation TSPO radioligands, participants were genotyped for the TSPO polymorphism and only high-affinity binders were included...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133437/abnormal-microglia-and-enhanced-inflammation-related-gene-transcription-in-mice-with-conditional-deletion-of-ctcf-in-camk2a-cre-expressing-neurons
#11
Bryan E McGill, Ruteja A Barve, Susan E Maloney, Amy Strickland, Nicholas Rensing, Peter Wang, Michael Wong, Richard Head, David F Wozniak, Jeffrey Milbrandt
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an 11 zinc finger DNA-binding domain protein that regulates gene expression by modifying three dimensional chromatin structure. Human mutations in CTCF cause intellectual disability and autistic features. Knocking out Ctcf in mouse embryonic neurons is lethal by neonatal age, but the effects of CTCF deficiency in postnatal neurons are less well studied. We knocked out Ctcf postnatally in glutamatergic forebrain neurons under the control of Camk2a-CreCtcfloxP/loxP ;Camk2a-Cre+ (Ctcf CKO) mice of both sexes were viable and exhibited profound deficits in spatial learning/memory, impaired motor co-ordination, and decreased sociability by 4 months of age...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126931/phytochemical-allylguaiacol-exerts-a-neuroprotective-effect-on-hippocampal-cells-and-ameliorates-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-in-mice
#12
Hye-Sun Lim, Bu-Yeo Kim, Yu Jin Kim, Soo-Jin Jeong
Allylguaiacol is a phytochemical occurring in various plants such as cloves, cinnamon, basil, and nutmeg. Pharmacological effects of allylguaiacol include antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activity. Although allylguaiacol is considered to have neuroprotective effects, there is no report on its regulatory mechanisms at the molecular level. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of allylguaiacol as an antioxidant and neuroprotective agent using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated HT22 hippocampal cells...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121345/early-postnatal-exposure-to-airborne-fine-particulate-matter-induces-autism-like-phenotypes-in-male-rats
#13
Kang Li, Li Li, Bo Cui, Zhihui Gai, Qiuyue Li, Shumei Wang, Jun Yan, Bencheng Lin, Lei Tian, Huanliang Liu, Xiaohua Liu, Zhuge Xi
Epidemiological studies have revealed that ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure is closely associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is a relative paucity of laboratory data to support this epidemic finding. In order to assess the relationship between PM2.5 exposure and ASD, neonatal male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were chosen and exposed to PM2.5 (2 or 20 mg/kg body weight, once a day) by intranasal instillation from postnatal day (PND) 8 to 22. It was found that when exposed to PM2...
November 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111458/low-functional-programming-of-the-creb-bdnf-trkb-pathway-mediates-cognitive-impairment-in-male-offspring-after-prenatal-dexamethasone-exposure
#14
Wanting Dong, Dan Xu, Zewen Hu, Xia He, Zijing Guo, Zhexiao Jiao, Ying Yu, Hui Wang
Adverse intrauterine environments can increase susceptibility to neuropsychiatric diseases that are related to cognitive impairment. In this study, we observed the cognitive impairment of male offspring rats after prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) and explored the associated intrauterine programming mechanism. Pregnant Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with 0.2mg/kgd dexamethasone from gestational day 9 (GD9) to GD20. A cohort of the pregnant rat group was sacrificed on GD20, and the male fetal rats were collected...
October 27, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100904/nicotine-induced-creb-and-deltafosb-activity-is-modified-by-caffeine-in-the-brain-reward-system-of-the-rat
#15
Przemysław Kowiański, Grażyna Lietzau, Aleksandra Steliga, Ewelina Czuba, Beata Ludkiewicz, Monika Waśkow, Jan H Spodnik, Janusz Moryś
Coffee and nicotine consumption are frequently combined, indicating possible intensifying effect of caffeine on smoking behavior, although neurobiological background of this phenomenon remains unknown. We aimed at determining the effect of caffeine and nicotine, applied separately or simultaneously, on activation of six structures of the brain reward system: nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), amygdala (Amg), hippocampus (Hip), medial prefrontal cortex (mPfr) and dorsal striatum (CdP) in the adult male Wistar rats...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097807/tdp-43-accelerates-age-dependent-degeneration-of-interneurons
#16
Hitomi Tsuiji, Ikuyo Inoue, Mari Takeuchi, Asako Furuya, Yuko Yamakage, Seiji Watanabe, Masato Koike, Mitsuharu Hattori, Koji Yamanaka
TDP-43 is an RNA-binding protein important for many aspects of RNA metabolism. Abnormal accumulation of TDP-43 in the cytoplasm of affected neurons is a pathological hallmark of the neurodegenerative diseases frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Several transgenic mouse models have been generated that recapitulate defects in TDP-43 accumulation, thus causing neurodegeneration and behavioural impairments. While aging is the key risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, the specific effect of aging on phenotypes in TDP-43 transgenic mice has not been investigated...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092799/novel-drosophila-model-for-psychiatric-disorders-including-autism-spectrum-disorder-by-targeting-of-atp-binding-cassette-protein-a
#17
Ibuki Ueoka, Hitoshi Kawashima, Atsushi Konishi, Mikio Aoki, Ryo Tanaka, Hideki Yoshida, Toru Maeda, Mamiko Ozaki, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interactions, as well as restricted, stereotyped patterns of behavior and interests. In addition, alterations in circadian sleep-wake rhythm are common in young children with ASD. Mutations in ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 13 (ABCA13) have been recently identified in a monkey that displays behavior associated with ASD. ABCA13, a member of the ABCA family of proteins, is predicted to transport lipid molecules and is expressed in the human trachea, testis, bone marrow, hippocampus, cortex, and other tissues...
October 29, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090669/mir-132-down-regulates-methyl-cpg-binding-protein-2-mecp2-during-cognitive-dysfunction-following-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#18
Zhao-Hui Yao, Xiao-Li Yao, Yong Zhang, Shao-Feng Zhang, Jichang Hu
BACKGROUND: Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion (CCH) is an important vascular risk factor for vascular-related dementia cognitive impairment and there are no effective measures for the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficit by CCH and the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Methyl cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) binding protein 2 (MeCP2), regulated by microRNA 132 (miR-132), is as a transcriptional repressor in high concentrations in the brain, regulates the expression of synaptic proteins and neuroplasticity, and may be involved in the cognitive deficit after CCH...
November 1, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089991/effect-of-hyperthermia-on-calbindin-d-28k-immunoreactivity-in-the-hippocampal-formation-following-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-gerbils
#19
Jae-Chul Lee, Jeong-Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, In Hye Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Geum-Sil Cho, Bich-Na Shin, In Koo Hwang, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Il Jun Kang, Young Joo Lee, Yang Hee Kim
Calbindin D-28K (CB), a Ca(2+)-binding protein, maintains Ca(2+) homeostasis and protects neurons against various insults. Hyperthermia can exacerbate brain damage produced by ischemic insults. However, little is reported about the role of CB in the brain under hyperthermic condition during ischemic insults. We investigated the effects of transient global cerebral ischemia on CB immunoreactivity as well as neuronal damage in the hippocampal formation under hyperthermic condition using immunohistochemistry for neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and CB, and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining in gerbils...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078046/dendritic-polyglycerol-sulfates-in-the-prevention-of-synaptic-loss-and-mechanism-of-action-on-glia
#20
Dusica Maysinger, Jeff Ji, Alexandre Moquin, Shireen Hossain, Mark A Hancock, Issan Zhang, Philip K Y Chang, Matthew Rigby, Madeleine Anthonisen, Peter Grutter, John C S Breitner, R Anne McKinney, Sabine Reimann, Rainer Haag, Gerhard Multhaup
Dendritic polyglycerols (dPG), particularly dendritic polyglycerol sulfates (dPGS), have been intensively studied due to their intrinsic anti-inflammatory activity. As related to brain pathologies involving neuroinflammation, the current study examined if dPG and dPGS can (i) regulate neuroglial activation, and (ii) normalize the morphology and function of excitatory postsynaptic dendritic spines adversely affected by the neurotoxic 42 amino acid amyloid-β (Aβ42) peptide of Alzheimer disease (AD). The exact role of neuroglia, such as microglia and astrocytes, remains controversial especially their positive and negative impact on inflammatory processes in AD...
October 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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