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Hippocampus and relational binding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100742/visual-sampling-predicts-hippocampal-activity
#1
Zhong-Xu Liu, Kelly Shen, Rosanna K Olsen, Jennifer D Ryan
: Eye movements serve to accumulate information from the visual world, contributing to the formation of coherent memory representations that support cognition and behavior. The hippocampus and the oculomotor network are well connected anatomically through an extensive set of polysynaptic pathways. However, the extent to which visual sampling behavior is related to functional responses in the hippocampus during encoding has not been studied directly in human neuroimaging. In the current study, participants engaged in a face processing task while brain responses were recorded with fMRI and eye movements were monitored simultaneously...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100736/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-mbd1-regulates-neuronal-lineage-commitment-through-maintaining-adult-neural-stem-cell-identity
#2
Emily M Jobe, Yu Gao, Brian E Eisinger, Janessa K Mladucky, Charles C Giuliani, Laurel E Kelnhofer, Xinyu Zhao
: Methyl-CpG-binding domain 1 (MBD1) belongs to a family of methyl-CpG-binding proteins that are epigenetic "readers" linking DNA methylation to transcriptional regulation. MBD1 is expressed in neural stem cells residing in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus (aNSCs) and MBD1 deficiency leads to reduced neuronal differentiation, impaired neurogenesis, learning deficits, and autism-like behaviors in mice; however, the precise function of MBD1 in aNSCs remains unexplored. Here, we show that MBD1 is important for maintaining the integrity and stemness of NSCs, which is critical for their ability to generate neurons...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087828/tdp-43-pathology-and-memory-impairment-in-elders-without-pathologic-diagnoses-of-ad-or-ftld
#3
Sukriti Nag, Lei Yu, Robert S Wilson, Er-Yun Chen, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) pathology with memory, other cognitive domains, and dementia in community-dwelling elders without pathologic diagnoses of Alzheimer disease (AD) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). METHODS: Of 1,058 autopsied participants, 343 (32.4%) did not have pathologic diagnoses of AD or FTLD. Diagnosis of dementia was based on clinical evaluation and cognitive performance tests, which were used to create summary measures of global cognition and of 5 cognitive domains...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077397/relationships-between-flortaucipir-pet-tau-binding-and-amyloid-burden-clinical-diagnosis-age-and-cognition
#4
Michael J Pontecorvo, Michael D Devous, Michael Navitsky, Ming Lu, Stephen Salloway, Frederick W Schaerf, Danna Jennings, Anupa K Arora, Anne McGeehan, Nathaniel C Lim, Hui Xiong, Abhinay D Joshi, Andrew Siderowf, Mark A Mintun
The advent of tau-targeted positron emission tomography tracers such as flortaucipir ((18)F-AV-1451, also known as (18)F-T807) have made it possible to investigate the sequence of development of tau and amyloid-β in relationship to age, and to the development of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease. In this study, flortaucipir tau and florbetapir amyloid positron emission tomography were obtained for 217 subjects including 16 young and 58 older cognitively normal subjects, 95 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination 24-30) and 48 subjects with clinically-defined possible or probable Alzheimer's disease (Mini-Mental State Examination >10)...
January 11, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065713/goldfish-hippocampal-pallium-is-essential-to-associate-temporally-discontiguous-events
#5
B Rodríguez-Expósito, A Gómez, I Martín-Monzón, M Reiriz, F Rodríguez, C Salas
There is general agreement that the hippocampus of vertebrates, from fish to mammals, is involved in map-like spatial memory. However, in mammals the role of the hippocampus goes beyond the spatial domain as it is also involved in binding the temporally separate events that compose episodic memories. In this regard, the hippocampus of mammals is essential for trace classical conditioning, in which a stimulus-free time gap separates the end of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US), but not in delay conditioning, in which both stimuli coincide in time...
January 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059801/repeated-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-induces-neural-plasticity-associated-gene-expression-in-the-rat-cortex-and-hippocampus
#6
Min Sun Kim, Ho Koo, Sang Who Han, Walter Paulus, Michael A Nitsche, Yun-Hee Kim, Jin A Yoon, Yong-Il Shin
BACKGROUND: Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS) induces a long-lasting increase in cortical excitability that can increase gene transcription in the brain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of genes related to activity-dependent neuronal plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus of young Sprague-Dawley rats following A-tDCS. METHODS: We applied A-tDCS over the right sensorimotor cortex epicranially with a circular electrode (3 mm diameter) at 250 μA for 20 min per day for 7 consecutive days...
January 4, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051768/creb-overexpression-in-dorsal-ca1-ameliorates-long-term-memory-deficits-in-aged-rats
#7
Xiao-Wen Yu, Daniel M Curlik, M Matthew Oh, Jerry Cp Yin, John F Disterhoft
The molecular mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in the intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents facilitates cognition, and increases intrinsic excitability. However, it has yet to be tested if increasing CREB expression also ameliorates age-related behavioral and biophysical deficits...
January 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997999/behavior-dependent-activity-patterns-of-gabaergic-long-range-projecting-neurons-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#8
Linda Katona, Ben Micklem, Zsolt Borhegyi, Daniel A Swiejkowski, Ornella Valenti, Tim J Viney, Dimitrios Kotzadimitriou, Thomas Klausberger, Peter Somogyi
Long-range glutamatergic and GABAergic projections participate in temporal coordination of neuronal activity in distributed cortical areas. In the hippocampus, GABAergic neurons project to the medial septum and retrohippocampal areas. Many GABAergic projection cells express somatostatin (SOM+) and, together with locally terminating SOM+ bistratified and O-LM cells, contribute to dendritic inhibition of pyramidal cells. We tested the hypothesis that diversity in SOM+ cells reflects temporal specialization during behavior using extracellular single cell recording and juxtacellular neurobiotin-labeling in freely moving rats...
December 20, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939369/hippocampal-structure-predicts-cortical-indices-of-reactivation-of-related-items
#9
John A Walker, Kathy A Low, Mark A Fletcher, Neal J Cohen, Gabriele Gratton, Monica Fabiani
One of the key components of relational memory is the ability to bind together the constituent elements of a memory experience, and this ability is thought to be supported by the hippocampus. Previously we had shown that these relational bindings can be used to reactivate the cortical processors of an absent item in the presence of a relationally bound associate (Walker et al., 2014). Specifically, we recorded the event-related optical signal (EROS) when presenting the scene of a face-scene pair during a preview period immediately preceding a test display, and demonstrated reactivation of a face-processing cortical area (the superior temporal sulcus, STS) for scenes that had been previously paired with faces, relative to scenes that had not...
December 7, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939232/age-related-changes-of-metallothionein-1-2-and-metallothionein-3-expression-in-rat-brain
#10
Rosaria Scudiero, Luisa Cigliano, Mariailaria Verderame
Neurodegeneration is one of the main physiological consequences of aging on brain. Metallothioneins (MTs), low molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins that bind heavy-metal ions and oxygen-free radicals, are commonly expressed in various tissues of mammals. MTs are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and protection, and may be engaged in aging. Expression of the ubiquitous MTs (1 and 2) and the brain specific MT3 have been studied in many neurodegenerative disorders. The research results indicate that MTs may play important, although not yet fully known, roles in brain diseases; in addition, data lack the ability to identify the MT isoforms functionally involved...
December 8, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923928/visual-sampling-predicts-hippocampal-activity
#11
Zhong-Xu Liu, Kelly Shen, Rosanna K Olsen, Jennifer D Ryan
: Eye movements serve to accumulate information from the visual world, contributing to the formation of coherent memory representations that support cognition and behaviour. The hippocampus and the oculomotor network are well connected anatomically through an extensive set of polysynaptic pathways. However, the extent to which visual sampling behaviour is related to functional responses in the hippocampus during encoding has not been directly studied in human neuroimaging. In the current study, participants engaged in a face processing task while brain responses were recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and eye movements were simultaneously monitored...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920144/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-mbd1-regulates-neuronal-lineage-commitment-through-maintaining-adult-neural-stem-cell-identity
#12
Emily M Jobe, Yu Gao, Brian E Eisinger, Janessa K Mladucky, Charles C Giuliani, Laurel E Kelnhofer, Xinyu Zhao
: MBD1 belongs to a family of methyl-CpG binding proteins that are epigenetic "readers", linking DNA methylation to transcriptional regulation. MBD1 is expressed in neural stem cells residing in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus (aNSCs), and MBD1 deficiency leads to reduced neuronal differentiation, impaired neurogenesis, learning deficits, and autism-like behaviors in mice; however the precise function of MBD1 in aNSCs remains unexplored. Here, we show that MBD1 is important for maintaining the integrity and stemness of NSCs, which is critical for their ability to generate neurons...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915477/treadmill-exercise-improves-memory-function-depending-on-circadian-rhythm-changes-in-mice
#13
Dong Sup Hwang, Hyo Bum Kwak, Il Gyu Ko, Sung Eun Kim, Jun Jang Jin, Eun Sang Ji, Hyun Hee Choi, Oh Young Kwon
PURPOSE: Exercise enhances memory function by increasing neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and circadian rhythms modulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The circadian rhythm-dependent effects of treadmill exercise on memory function in relation with neurogenesis were investigated using mice. METHODS: The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, the 8-arm maze test was used to test spatial learning ability, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunofluorescence was used to assess neurogenesis...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915379/nr2a-and-nr2b-nmda-receptors-and-drebrin-within-postsynaptic-spines-of-the-hippocampus-correlate-with-hunger-evoked-exercise
#14
Yi-Wen Chen, Hannah Actor-Engel, Ang Doma Sherpa, Lauren Klingensmith, Tara G Chowdhury, Chiye Aoki
Hunger evokes foraging. This innate response can be quantified as voluntary wheel running following food restriction (FR). Paradoxically, imposing severe FR evokes voluntary FR, as some animals choose to run rather than eat, even during limited periods of food availability. This phenomenon, called activity-based anorexia (ABA), has been used to identify brain changes associated with FR and excessive exercise (EX), two core symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN), and to explore neurobiological bases of AN vulnerability...
December 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904490/antidepressant-effect-of-electroacupuncture-regulates-signal-targeting-in-the-brain-and-increases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels
#15
Dong-Mei Duan, Ya Tu, Ping Liu, Shuang Jiao
Electroacupuncture improves depressive behavior faster and with fewer adverse effects than antidepressant medication. However, the antidepressant mechanism of electroacupuncture remains poorly understood. Here, we established a rat model of chronic unpredicted mild stress, and then treated these rats with electroacupuncture at Yintang (EX-HN3) and Baihui (DU20) with sparse waves at 2 Hz and 0.6 mA for 30 minutes, once a day. We found increased horizontal and vertical activity, and decreased immobility time, at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882154/kai-xin-san-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-formulation-exerts-antidepressive-and-neuroprotective-effects-by-promoting-pcreb-upstream-pathways
#16
Xian-Zhe Dong, Dong-Xiao Wang, Bing-Ying Yu, Ping Liu, Yuan Hu
Kai-Xin-San (KXS) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used for the treatment of emotion-related disease. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine whether phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and upstream components, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phospho-ERK (pERK), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and pGSK3β are associated with the antidepressive effect of KXS...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881780/negative-allosteric-modulation-of-mglur5-partially-corrects-pathophysiology-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#17
Jifang Tao, Hao Wu, Amanda A Coronado, Elizabeth de Laittre, Emily K Osterweil, Yi Zhang, Mark F Bear
: Rett syndrome (RTT) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2), an epigenetic regulator of mRNA transcription. Here, we report a test of the hypothesis of shared pathophysiology of RTT and fragile X, another monogenic cause of autism and intellectual disability. In fragile X, the loss of the mRNA translational repressor FMRP leads to exaggerated protein synthesis downstream of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). We found that mGluR5- and protein-synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity were similarly altered in area CA1 of Mecp2 KO mice...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880914/neuronal-ctcf-is-necessary-for-basal-and-experience-dependent-gene-regulation-memory-formation-and-genomic-structure-of-bdnf-and-arc
#18
Dev Sharan Sams, Stefano Nardone, Dmitriy Getselter, Dana Raz, Moran Tal, Prudhvi Raj Rayi, Hanoch Kaphzan, Ofir Hakim, Evan Elliott
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an organizer of higher-order chromatin structure and regulates gene expression. Genetic studies have implicated mutations in CTCF in intellectual disabilities. However, the role of CTCF-mediated chromatin structure in learning and memory is unclear. We show that depletion of CTCF in postmitotic neurons, or depletion in the hippocampus of adult mice through viral-mediated knockout, induces deficits in learning and memory. These deficits in learning and memory at the beginning of adulthood are correlated with impaired long-term potentiation and reduced spine density, with no changes in basal synaptic transmission and dendritic morphogenesis and arborization...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865893/sex-and-genetic-differences-in-the-effects-of-acute-diesel-exhaust-exposure-on-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-mouse-brain
#19
Toby B Cole, Jacki Coburn, Khoi Dao, Pam Roqué, Yu-Chi Chang, Vrinda Kalia, Tomas R Guilarte, Jennifer Dziedzic, Lucio G Costa
In addition to increased morbidity and mortality caused by respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, air pollution may also contribute to central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to global air pollution, and diesel exhaust (DE) is its most important component. DE contains more than 40 toxic air pollutants and is a major constituent of ambient particulate matter (PM), particularly of ultrafine-PM. Limited information suggests that exposure to DE may cause oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the CNS...
December 30, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845167/synapse-organization-and-modulation-via-c1q-family-proteins-and-their-receptors-in-the-central-nervous-system
#20
REVIEW
Keiko Matsuda
Several C1q family members, related to the C1q complement component are extensively expressed in the central nervous system. Cbln1, which belongs to the Cbln subfamily of C1q proteins and released from cerebellar granule cells, plays an indispensable role in the synapse formation and function at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. This is achieved by formation of a trans-synaptic tripartite complex which is composed of one unit of the Cbln1 hexamer, monomeric neurexin (NRX) containing a splice site 4 insertion at presynaptic terminals and the postsynaptic GluD2 dimers...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience Research
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