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Hippocampus and relational binding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195567/bdnf-val66met-association-with-serotonin-transporter-binding-in-healthy-humans
#1
P M Fisher, B Ozenne, C Svarer, D Adamsen, S Lehel, W F C Baaré, P S Jensen, G M Knudsen
The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key feature of the serotonin system, which is involved in behavior, cognition and personality and implicated in neuropsychiatric illnesses including depression. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms have predicted differences in 5-HTT levels in humans but with equivocal results, possibly due to limited sample sizes. Within the current study we evaluated these genetic predictors of 5-HTT binding with [(11)C]DASB positron emission tomography (PET) in a comparatively large cohort of 144 healthy individuals...
February 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162919/cholinergic-receptor-binding-in-alzheimer-disease-and-healthy-aging-assessment-in-vivo-with-positron-emission-tomography-imaging
#2
David L Sultzer, Rebecca J Melrose, Hannah Riskin-Jones, Theresa A Narvaez, Joseph Veliz, Timothy K Ando, Kevin O Juarez, Dylan G Harwood, Arthur L Brody, Mark A Mandelkern
OBJECTIVE: To compare regional nicotinic cholinergic receptor binding in older adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy older adults in vivo and to assess relationships between receptor binding and clinical symptoms. METHODS: Using cross-sectional positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging and structured clinical assessment, outpatients with mild to moderate AD (N = 24) and healthy older adults without cognitive complaints (C group; N = 22) were studied...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161158/fingolimod-fty720-attenuates-social-deficits-learning-and-memory-impairments-neuronal-loss-and-neuroinflammation-in-the-rat-model-of-autism
#3
Hongmei Wu, Xuelai Wang, Jingquan Gao, Shuang Liang, Yanqiu Hao, Caihong Sun, Wei Xia, Yonggang Cao, Lijie Wu
AIMS: To investigate the effect of FTY720 on the valproic acid (VPA) rat model of autism. MAIN METHODS: As an animal model of autism, we used intraperitoneal injection of VPA on embryonic day 12.5 in Wistar rats. The pups were given FTY720 orally at doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/kg daily from postnatal day 15 to 35. Social behavior, spatial learning and memory were assessed at the end of FTY720 treatment. The histological change, oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory responses, and apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampus were evaluated...
February 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139957/differential-effects-of-encoding-instructions-on-brain-activity-patterns-of-item-and-associative-memory
#4
Nina Becker, Grégoria Kalpouzos, Jonas Persson, Erika J Laukka, Yvonne Brehmer
Evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests a critical role of hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in associative relative to item encoding. Here, we investigated similarities and differences in functional brain correlates for associative and item memory as a function of encoding instruction. Participants received either incidental (animacy judgments) or intentional encoding instructions while fMRI was employed during the encoding of associations and items. In a subsequent recognition task, memory performance of participants receiving intentional encoding instructions was higher compared with those receiving incidental encoding instructions...
March 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137424/pr-independent-neurosteroid-regulation-of-%C3%AE-2-gaba-a-receptors-mrna-in-the-hippocampus-subfields
#5
Doodipala Samba Reddy, Omkaram Gangisetty, Xin Wu
Progesterone (P) binding to the intracellular progesterone receptors (PRs) plays a key role in epilepsy via modulation of GABA-A receptor plasticity in the brain. This is thought to occur via conversion of P to neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone, an allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptors. In the female brain, the composition of GABA-A receptors is not static and undergoes dynamic spatial changes in response to fluctuations in P and neurosteroid levels. Synaptic α2-containing GABA-A receptors contribute to phasic neuronal excitability and seizure susceptibility...
January 27, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124230/study-on-lentivirus-mediated-abca7-improves-neurocognitive-function-and-related-mechanisms-in-the-c57bl-6-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Mengqian Li, Yefeng Yuan, Bo Hu, Lei Wu
ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 (ABCA7) is expressed in the hippocampus and cortex of the brain and was confirmed to be involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have demonstrated that ABCA7 regulated Aβ production, lipid transport, leading to AD characteristic pathological changes. However, the role and mechanism of ABCA7 in the context of AD needs further research. We augmented the expression of ABCA7 using lentiviral vector carrying ABCA7 gene to investigate the effect of ABCA7 overexpression on AD mice; then, we further explored the underlying mechanism in vitro...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122879/18f-av-1451-positron-emission-tomography-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#7
Luca Passamonti, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Young T Hong, Kieren S J Allinson, David Williamson, Robin J Borchert, Saber Sami, Thomas E Cope, W Richard Bevan-Jones, P Simon Jones, Robert Arnold, Ajenthan Surendranathan, Elijah Mak, Li Su, Tim D Fryer, Franklin I Aigbirhio, John T O'Brien, James B Rowe
The ability to assess the distribution and extent of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy in vivo would help to develop biomarkers for these tauopathies and clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies. New radioligands for positron emission tomography have generated considerable interest, and controversy, in their potential as tau biomarkers. We assessed the radiotracer (18)F-AV-1451 with positron emission tomography imaging to compare the distribution and intensity of tau pathology in 15 patients with Alzheimer's pathology (including amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment), 19 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, and 13 age- and sex-matched controls...
January 24, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120208/huannao-yicong-formula-regulates-%C3%AE-secretase-activity-through-aph-1-and-pen-2-gene-ragulation-pathways-in-hippocampus-of-app-ps1-double-transgenic-mice
#8
Zhi-Yong Wang, Jian-Gang Liu, Yun Wei, Mei-Xia Liu, Qi Wang, Lin Liang, Hui-Min Yang, Hao Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Huannao Yicong Formula (, HYF) on learning and memory and it's regulating effect on γ-secretase related anterior pharynx defective 1 (APH-1), presenilin enhancer-2 (PEN-2) signaling pathway, so as to discuss and further clarify the mechanism of HYF on Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Sixty APP/PS1 transgenic mice, randomly allocated into 4 groups, the model group, the donepezil group (0.65 mg/kg), HYF low-dose group (HYF-L, 5.46 g/kg) and HYF high-dose group (HYF-H, 10...
January 24, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119059/chronic-fluoxetine-treatment-directs-energy-metabolism-towards-the-citric-acid-cycle-and-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-rat-hippocampal-nonsynaptic-mitochondria
#9
Dragana Filipović, Victor Costina, Ivana Perić, Andrijana Stanisavljević, Peter Findeisen
Fluoxetine (Flx) is the principal treatment for depression; however, the precise mechanisms of its actions remain elusive. Our aim was to identify protein expression changes within rat hippocampus regulated by chronic Flx treatment versus vehicle-controls using proteomics. Fluoxetine-hydrohloride (15 mg/kg) was administered daily to adult male Wistar rats for 3 weeks, and cytosolic and nonsynaptic mitochondrial hippocampal proteomes were analyzed. All differentially expressed proteins were functionally annotated according to biological process and molecular function using Uniprot and Blast2GO...
January 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118829/effect-of-xingpijieyu-decoction-on-spatial-learning-and-memory-and-camp-pka-creb-bdnf-pathway-in-rat-model-of-depression-through-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#10
Chunye Wang, Jianyou Guo, Rongjuan Guo
BACKGROUND: Depression is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive low mood and loss of pleasure or interest in usual activities, and often results in cognitive dysfunction. The disturbance of cognitive processes associated with depression, especially the impairment of learning and memory, exacerbates illness and increases recurrence of depression. XingPiJieYu (XPJY) is one of the most widely clinical formulas of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and can improve the symptoms of depression, including learning and memory...
January 24, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115522/the-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-5hmc-reader-uhrf2-is-required-for-normal-levels-of-5hmc-in-mouse-adult-brain-and-spatial-learning-and-memory
#11
Ruoyu Chen, Qiao Zhang, Xiaoya Duan, Philippe York, Guo-Dong Chen, Pengcheng Yin, Haijun Zhu, Meichen Xu, Peilin Chen, Qihan Wu, Dali Li, Jacques Samarut, Guoliang Xu, Pumin Zhang, Xiaohua Cao, Jiwen Li, Jiemin Wong
UHRF2 has been implicated as a novel regulator for both DNA methylation (5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5hmC), but its physiological function and role in DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation are unknown. Here we show that in mice Uhrf2 is more abundantly expressed in the brain and a few other tissues. Uhrf2 knockout mice are viable, fertile and exhibit no gross defect. Although there is no significant change of DNA methylation, the Uhrf2 null mice exhibit a reduction of 5hmC in the brain including cortex and hippocampus...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100742/visual-sampling-predicts-hippocampal-activity
#12
Zhong-Xu Liu, Kelly Shen, Rosanna K Olsen, Jennifer D Ryan
: Eye movements serve to accumulate information from the visual world, contributing to the formation of coherent memory representations that support cognition and behavior. The hippocampus and the oculomotor network are well connected anatomically through an extensive set of polysynaptic pathways. However, the extent to which visual sampling behavior is related to functional responses in the hippocampus during encoding has not been studied directly in human neuroimaging. In the current study, participants engaged in a face processing task while brain responses were recorded with fMRI and eye movements were monitored simultaneously...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100736/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-mbd1-regulates-neuronal-lineage-commitment-through-maintaining-adult-neural-stem-cell-identity
#13
Emily M Jobe, Yu Gao, Brian E Eisinger, Janessa K Mladucky, Charles C Giuliani, Laurel E Kelnhofer, Xinyu Zhao
: Methyl-CpG-binding domain 1 (MBD1) belongs to a family of methyl-CpG-binding proteins that are epigenetic "readers" linking DNA methylation to transcriptional regulation. MBD1 is expressed in neural stem cells residing in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus (aNSCs) and MBD1 deficiency leads to reduced neuronal differentiation, impaired neurogenesis, learning deficits, and autism-like behaviors in mice; however, the precise function of MBD1 in aNSCs remains unexplored. Here, we show that MBD1 is important for maintaining the integrity and stemness of NSCs, which is critical for their ability to generate neurons...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087828/tdp-43-pathology-and-memory-impairment-in-elders-without-pathologic-diagnoses-of-ad-or-ftld
#14
Sukriti Nag, Lei Yu, Robert S Wilson, Er-Yun Chen, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) pathology with memory, other cognitive domains, and dementia in community-dwelling elders without pathologic diagnoses of Alzheimer disease (AD) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). METHODS: Of 1,058 autopsied participants, 343 (32.4%) did not have pathologic diagnoses of AD or FTLD. Diagnosis of dementia was based on clinical evaluation and cognitive performance tests, which were used to create summary measures of global cognition and of 5 cognitive domains...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077397/relationships-between-flortaucipir-pet-tau-binding-and-amyloid-burden-clinical-diagnosis-age-and-cognition
#15
Michael J Pontecorvo, Michael D Devous, Michael Navitsky, Ming Lu, Stephen Salloway, Frederick W Schaerf, Danna Jennings, Anupa K Arora, Anne McGeehan, Nathaniel C Lim, Hui Xiong, Abhinay D Joshi, Andrew Siderowf, Mark A Mintun
The advent of tau-targeted positron emission tomography tracers such as flortaucipir ((18)F-AV-1451, also known as (18)F-T807) have made it possible to investigate the sequence of development of tau and amyloid-β in relationship to age, and to the development of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease. In this study, flortaucipir tau and florbetapir amyloid positron emission tomography were obtained for 217 subjects including 16 young and 58 older cognitively normal subjects, 95 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination 24-30) and 48 subjects with clinically-defined possible or probable Alzheimer's disease (Mini-Mental State Examination >10)...
January 11, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065713/goldfish-hippocampal-pallium-is-essential-to-associate-temporally-discontiguous-events
#16
B Rodríguez-Expósito, A Gómez, I Martín-Monzón, M Reiriz, F Rodríguez, C Salas
There is general agreement that the hippocampus of vertebrates, from fish to mammals, is involved in map-like spatial memory. However, in mammals the role of the hippocampus goes beyond the spatial domain as it is also involved in binding the temporally separate events that compose episodic memories. In this regard, the hippocampus of mammals is essential for trace classical conditioning, in which a stimulus-free time gap separates the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US), but not for delay conditioning, in which both stimuli coincide in time...
January 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059801/repeated-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-induces-neural-plasticity-associated-gene-expression-in-the-rat-cortex-and-hippocampus
#17
Min Sun Kim, Ho Koo, Sang Who Han, Walter Paulus, Michael A Nitsche, Yun-Hee Kim, Jin A Yoon, Yong-Il Shin
BACKGROUND: Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS) induces a long-lasting increase in cortical excitability that can increase gene transcription in the brain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of genes related to activity-dependent neuronal plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus of young Sprague-Dawley rats following A-tDCS. METHODS: We applied A-tDCS over the right sensorimotor cortex epicranially with a circular electrode (3 mm diameter) at 250 μA for 20 min per day for 7 consecutive days...
January 4, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051768/creb-overexpression-in-dorsal-ca1-ameliorates-long-term-memory-deficits-in-aged-rats
#18
Xiao-Wen Yu, Daniel M Curlik, M Matthew Oh, Jerry Cp Yin, John F Disterhoft
The molecular mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in the intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents facilitates cognition, and increases intrinsic excitability. However, it has yet to be tested if increasing CREB expression also ameliorates age-related behavioral and biophysical deficits...
January 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997999/behavior-dependent-activity-patterns-of-gabaergic-long-range-projecting-neurons-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#19
Linda Katona, Ben Micklem, Zsolt Borhegyi, Daniel A Swiejkowski, Ornella Valenti, Tim J Viney, Dimitrios Kotzadimitriou, Thomas Klausberger, Peter Somogyi
Long-range glutamatergic and GABAergic projections participate in temporal coordination of neuronal activity in distributed cortical areas. In the hippocampus, GABAergic neurons project to the medial septum and retrohippocampal areas. Many GABAergic projection cells express somatostatin (SOM+) and, together with locally terminating SOM+ bistratified and O-LM cells, contribute to dendritic inhibition of pyramidal cells. We tested the hypothesis that diversity in SOM+ cells reflects temporal specialization during behavior using extracellular single cell recording and juxtacellular neurobiotin-labeling in freely moving rats...
December 20, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939369/hippocampal-structure-predicts-cortical-indices-of-reactivation-of-related-items
#20
John A Walker, Kathy A Low, Mark A Fletcher, Neal J Cohen, Gabriele Gratton, Monica Fabiani
One of the key components of relational memory is the ability to bind together the constituent elements of a memory experience, and this ability is thought to be supported by the hippocampus. Previously we had shown that these relational bindings can be used to reactivate the cortical processors of an absent item in the presence of a relationally bound associate (Walker et al., 2014). Specifically, we recorded the event-related optical signal (EROS) when presenting the scene of a face-scene pair during a preview period immediately preceding a test display, and demonstrated reactivation of a face-processing cortical area (the superior temporal sulcus, STS) for scenes that had been previously paired with faces, relative to scenes that had not...
January 27, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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