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Hippocampus and relational binding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722103/decreased-levels-of-active-upa-and-klk8-assessed-by-111-in-mica-401-binding-correlate-with-the-seizure-burden-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Stephan Missault, Lore Peeters, Halima Amhaoul, David Thomae, Annemie Van Eetveldt, Barbara Favier, Anagha Thakur, Jeroen Van Soom, Asla Pitkänen, Koen Augustyns, Jurgen Joossens, Steven Staelens, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
OBJECTIVE: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 8 (KLK8) are serine proteases that contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling after brain injury. They can be labelled with the novel radiotracer [(111) In]MICA-401. As the first step in exploring the applicability of [(111) In]MICA-401 in tracing the mechanisms of postinjury ECM reorganization in vivo, we performed in vitro and ex vivo studies, assessing [(111) In]MICA-401 distribution in the brain in two animal models: kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE) and controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 19, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694833/huanglian-jie-du-tang-extract-ameliorates-depression-like-behaviors-through-bdnf-trkb-creb-pathway-in-rats-with-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#2
Yi-Lu Ye, Kai Zhong, Dan-Dan Liu, Jing Xu, Bei-Bei Pan, Xiang Li, Yue-Ping Yu, Qi Zhang
Neuroinflammation is considered as one of the common pathogeneses of depression. Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang (HJDT) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula. The present study investigates the antidepressant-like effect of HJDT and its possible mechanism in rats. Rats were given HJDT (2, 4, and 8 g/kg, intragastrically), paroxetine (1.8 mg/kg, intragastrically), or an equivalent volume of saline for 42 days. The depression-related behaviors, including sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), novel objective recognition task (NORT), and forced swimming test (FST), were detected...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687800/pkc%C3%AE-mediated-phosphorylation-of-lsd1-is-required-for-presynaptic-plasticity-and-hippocampal-learning-and-memory
#3
Chae-Seok Lim, Hye Jin Nam, Jaehyun Lee, Dongha Kim, Ja Eun Choi, SukJae Joshua Kang, Somi Kim, Hyopil Kim, Chuljung Kwak, Kyu-Won Shim, Siyong Kim, Hyoung-Gon Ko, Ro Un Lee, Eun-Hae Jang, Juyoun Yoo, Jaehoon Shim, Md Ariful Islam, Yong-Seok Lee, Jae-Hyung Lee, Sung Hee Baek, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a histone demethylase that participates in transcriptional repression or activation. Recent studies reported that LSD1 is involved in learning and memory. Although LSD1 phosphorylation by PKCα was implicated in circadian rhythmicity, the importance of LSD1 phosphorylation in learning and memory is unknown. In this study, we examined the roles of LSD1 in synaptic plasticity and memory using Lsd1 (SA/SA) knock-in (KI) mice, in which a PKCα phosphorylation site is mutated...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656081/effect-of-rosiglitazone-on-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-and-a%C3%AE-clearance-in-streptozotocin-induced-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Li Wang, Wei Liu, Ying Fan, Tingting Liu, Chunjiang Yu
OBJECTIVES: Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with diabetes. Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) agonist and anti-diabetic agent, may improve symptoms of AD. However, the underlying therapeutic potential of it has not been fully elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups: control group, sham operated group, Streptozotocin (STZ) group, rosiglitazone (RGZ) group...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655515/early-life-lipopolysaccharide-exposure-potentiates-forebrain-expression-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-proteins-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#5
Yuan Lei, Chu-Jun Chen, Xiao-Xin Yan, Zhiyuan Li, Xiao-Hua Deng
BACKGROUND: Neonatal inflammation may affect brain development and lead to cognitive and emotional deficits at adolescence and adulthood. The nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) is the core component of NLRP3 inflammasome, which may involve in neuroinflammation. We explored if early-life exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could promote the expression of proteins related to NLRP3 inflammasome, including NLRP3, the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and cysteiny aspartate-specific protease (Caspase-1) in the forebrain and behavioral alteration in adolescent rats...
June 24, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654817/the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-recognition-memory
#6
REVIEW
Chris M Bird
Many theories of declarative memory propose that it is supported by partially separable processes underpinned by different brain structures. The hippocampus plays a critical role in binding together item and contextual information together and processing the relationships between individual items. By contrast, the processing of individual items and their later recognition can be supported by extrahippocampal regions of the medial temporal lobes (MTL), particularly when recognition is based on feelings of familiarity without the retrieval of any associated information...
June 1, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641077/inhibition-of-early-growth-response-1-in-the-hippocampus-alleviates-neuropathology-and-improves-cognition-in-an-alzheimer-model-with-plaques-and-tangles
#7
Xike Qin, Yunling Wang, Hemant K Paudel
A sporadic form of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia share many risk factors, and their pathogenic mechanisms are suggested to be related. Transcription factor early growth response 1 (Egr-1) regulates various vascular pathologies and is up-regulated in both AD brains and AD mouse models; however, its role in AD pathogenesis is unclear. Herein, we report that silencing of Egr-1 in the hippocampus by shRNA reduces tau phosphorylation, amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology, and improves cognition in the 3xTg-AD mouse model...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638916/-different-subtypes-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-and-related-signal-molecules-in-the-hippocampus-are-associated-with-spatial-cognitive-impairment-of-diabetic-mice
#8
Ming-Rui Zhang, Chao Qu, Jia Sun, Cui Wang, Hong-Yan Li, Ye-Jun Zhang, Bing-Qiang Zhang, Wei Zou
To study the correlation between the spatial cognitive impairment and different subtypes of estrogen receptor α (ERα) of hippocampus in diabetic mice, we used alloxan (intraperitoneal injection) to induce type 1 diabetes in male Kunming mice and compared the spatial cognitive ability of the model mice with that of control mice through Morris water maze test. Meanwhile, using Western blot, we detected the protein expressions of ER-α36, ER-α66, caveolin-1, PKCα, cAMP-response element binding protein 2 (CREB2), and synaptophysin (Syn) in the hippocampus of the mice...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634266/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-a-saga-in-three-episodes
#9
REVIEW
Marian Joëls, E Ronald de Kloet
In 1968, Bruce McEwen discovered that (3)H-corticosterone administered to adrenalectomised rats is retained in neurons of hippocampus rather than those of hypothalamus. This discovery signalled the expansion of endocrinology into the science of higher brain regions. With this in mind, our contribution highlights the saga of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in three episodes. First, the precloning era dominated by the conundrum of two types of corticosterone-binding receptors in the brain, which led to the identification of the high-affinity corticosterone receptor as the 'promiscuous' MR cloned in 1987 by Jeff Arriza and Ron Evans in addition to the classical glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611691/morphine-reward-promotes-cue-sensitive-learning-implication-of-dorsal-striatal-creb-activity
#10
Mathieu Baudonnat, Jean-Louis Guillou, Marianne Husson, Veronique D Bohbot, Lars Schwabe, Vincent David
Different parallel neural circuits interact and may even compete to process and store information: whereas stimulus-response (S-R) learning critically depends on the dorsal striatum (DS), spatial memory relies on the hippocampus (HPC). Strikingly, despite its potential importance for our understanding of addictive behaviors, the impact of drug rewards on memory systems dynamics has not been extensively studied. Here, we assessed long-term effects of drug- vs food reinforcement on the subsequent use of S-R vs spatial learning strategies and their neural substrates...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611654/age-related-gene-expression-in-the-frontal-cortex-suggests-synaptic-function-changes-in-specific-inhibitory-neuron-subtypes
#11
Leon French, TianZhou Ma, Hyunjung Oh, George C Tseng, Etienne Sibille
Genome-wide expression profiling of the human brain has revealed genes that are differentially expressed across the lifespan. Characterizing these genes adds to our understanding of both normal functions and pathological conditions. Additionally, the specific cell-types that contribute to the motor, sensory and cognitive declines during aging are unclear. Here we test if age-related genes show higher expression in specific neural cell types. Our study leverages data from two sources of murine single-cell expression data and two sources of age-associations from large gene expression studies of postmortem human brain...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611242/evaluation-of-%C3%AE-pet-outcome-measures-to-detect-disease-modification-induced-by-bace-inhibition-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Steven Deleye, Ann Marie Waldron, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Astrid Bottelbergs, Leonie Wyffels, Bianca Van Broeck, Xavier Langlois, Mark E Schmidt, Sigrid Stroobants, Steven Staelens
Purpose: In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic administration of an inhibitor of the β-site amyloid precursor protein -cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) on Alzheimer's- related pathology by multi-tracer positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in APPPS1-21 mice. Methods: Wild-type (WT) and APPPS1-21 (TG) mice received vehicle (VEH) or BACE inhibitor (60 mg/kg) initiated at 7 weeks of age. Outcome measures of brain metabolism, neuroinflammation and amyloid-β pathology were obtained through μPET imaging with (18)F-FDG, (18)F-PBR111 and (18)F-AV45 respectively...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600733/phytoceramide-ameliorates-%C3%A3-amyloid-protein-induced-memory-impairment-and-neuronal-death-in-mice
#13
Ji Yeon Jang, Hong Kyu Lee, Hwan-Su Yoo, Yeon Hee Seong
The present study was performed to investigate the protective effect of phytoceramide against ß-amyloid protein (Aβ) (25-35)-induced memory impairment and its underlying mechanisms in mice. Memory impairment in mice was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of 15 nmol Aβ (25-35) and measured by the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. Chronic administration of phytoceramide (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) resulted in significantly less Aβ (25-35)-induced memory loss and hippocampal neuronal death in treated mice compared to controls...
June 9, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596835/chronic-diazepam-administration-increases-the-expression-of-lcn2-in-the-cns
#14
Tomonori Furukawa, Shuji Shimoyama, Yasuo Miki, Yoshikazu Nikaido, Kohei Koga, Kazuhiko Nakamura, Koichi Wakabayashi, Shinya Ueno
Benzodiazepines (BZDs), which bind with high affinity to gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA-Rs) and potentiate the effects of GABA, are widely prescribed for anxiety, insomnia, epileptic discharge, and as anticonvulsants. The long-term use of BZDs is limited due to adverse effects such as tolerance, dependence, withdrawal effects, and impairments in cognition and learning. Additionally, clinical reports have shown that chronic BZD treatment increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Unusual GABAA-R subunit expression and GABAA-R phosphorylation are induced by chronic BZD use...
February 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587388/roles-of-the-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptor-and-its-related-signaling-pathways-in-the-pathogenesis-of-premenstrual-syndrome-liver-qi-stagnation
#15
Chunhong Song, Ling Xue
The present study aimed to investigate the roles of the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) and its related signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) liver-qi stagnation, along with the therapeutic effects of the Shu-Yu capsule in treating the condition. A PMS liver-qi stagnation rat model was established using a chronic restraint stress method. The protein expression level of MOR within rat hippocampal tissue was detected via western blot analysis and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels within the supernatant of a rat hippocampal cell culture were determined by ELISA...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579945/lfp-oscillations-in-the-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-during-voluntary-locomotion
#16
Brian R Noga, Francisco J Sanchez, Luz M Villamil, Christopher O'Toole, Stefan Kasicki, Maciej Olszewski, Anna M Cabaj, Henryk Majczyński, Urszula Sławińska, Larry M Jordan
Oscillatory rhythms in local field potentials (LFPs) are thought to coherently bind cooperating neuronal ensembles to produce behaviors, including locomotion. LFPs recorded from sites that trigger locomotion have been used as a basis for identification of appropriate targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to enhance locomotor recovery in patients with gait disorders. Theta band activity (6-12 Hz) is associated with locomotor activity in locomotion-inducing sites in the hypothalamus and in the hippocampus, but the LFPs that occur in the functionally defined mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) during locomotion have not been determined...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579886/d-4f-decreases-the-expression-of-a%C3%AE-protein-through-up-regulating-long-non-coding-rna-sirt1-as-in-samp8-mice
#17
Xiao-Han Ding, Jie Han, Yuan Liu, Ying Jin, Ping Ye
Cholesterol plays key roles on (Aβ) metabolism and production. D-4F is the apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide which has been revealed a critical role in regulation cholesterol. We aimed at identifying the effects of D-4F on Aβ production in SAMP8 and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: SAMP8 mice (n = 15) were randomized into three groups for treatment with D-4F given in drinking water: high-dose group (0.5 mg/ml), low-dose group (0.3 mg/ml) and control group (just drinking water)...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549853/molecular-fingerprinting-of-principal-neurons-in-the-rodent-hippocampus-a-neuroinformatics-approach
#18
D J Hamilton, C M White, C L Rees, D W Wheeler, G A Ascoli
Neurons are often classified by their morphological and molecular properties. The online knowledge base Hippocampome.org primarily defines neuron types from the rodent hippocampal formation based on their main neurotransmitter (glutamate or GABA) and the spatial distributions of their axons and dendrites. For each neuron type, this open-access resource reports any and all published information regarding the presence or absence of known molecular markers, including calcium-binding proteins, neuropeptides, receptors, channels, transcription factors, and other molecules of biomedical relevance...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534952/effects-of-exercise-on-mature-or-precursor-brain%C3%A2-derived-neurotrophic-factor-pathways-in-ovariectomized-rats
#19
Joon-Ki Park, Young-Pyo Hong, Sam-Jun Lee
Ovariectomy (OVX) is a method used to block estrogen in female rats that induces hippocampal dysfunction and affects brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathways. The majority of previous studies investigating OVX focused on BDNF expression in the hippocampus and cognitive function. The present study focused on the pathways of each BDNF type, precursor (proBDNF) and mature (mBDNF), and the effects of regular exercise in the hippocampus of ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague‑Dawely rats were used and OVX surgery was performed...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529459/cold-inducible-rna-binding-protein-is-involved-in-chronic-hypoxia-induced-neuron-apoptosis-by-down-regulating-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-and-regulated-by-microrna-23a
#20
Xiaoming Chen, Xinqin Liu, Bin Li, Qian Zhang, Jiye Wang, Wenbin Zhang, Wenjing Luo, Jingyuan Chen
Background: Neuron apoptosis mediated by hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in hippocampus is one of the most important factors accounting for the chronic hypobaric hypoxia induced cognitive impairment. As a neuroprotective molecule that is up-regulated in response to various environmental stress, CIRBP was reported to crosstalk with HIF-1α under cellular stress. However, its function under chronic hypobaric hypoxia remains unknown. Objective: In this study, we tried to identify the role of CIRBP in HIF-1α mediated neuron apoptosis under chronic hypobaric hypoxia and find a possible method to maintain its potential neuroprotective in long-term high altitude environmental exposure...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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