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Hippocampus and relational binding

Yu-On Jeong, Soo Jung Shin, Jun Yong Park, Bo Kyeong Ku, Ji Soo Song, Jwa-Jin Kim, Seong Gak Jeon, Sang Min Lee, Minho Moon
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive deficits, neuroinflammation, and neuronal death. The primary pathogenic cause is believed to be the accumulation of pathogenic amyloid beta (Aβ) assemblies in the brain. Ghrelin, which is a peptide hormone predominantly secreted from the stomach, is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a). MK-0677 is a ghrelin agonist that potently stimulates the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Eun-Joo Shin, Yeong Gwang Hwang, Duc Toan Pham, Ji Won Lee, Yu Jeung Lee, Dongjin Pyo, Xin Gen Lei, Ji Hoon Jeong, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MCLR) is the most common form of microcystins, which are environmental toxins produced by cyanobacteria, and its hepatotoxicity has been well-documented. However, the neurotoxic potential of MCLR remains to be further elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of MCLR induces mortality and neuronal loss in the hippocampus of mice. Because we found that MCLR impairs memory function in the hippocampus at a low dose (4 ng/μl/mouse, i...
June 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Henry M Corpuz, Saki Ichikawa, Misa Arimura, Toshihiro Mihara, Takehisa Kumagai, Takakazu Mitani, Soichiro Nakamura, Shigeru Katayama
This study aimed to assess the suppressive effect of long-term diet supplementation with Lactobacillus strains on cognitive decline in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) model. For 43 weeks, fourteen-week-old female SAMP8 mice were fed a standard diet containing 0.05% ( w / w ) Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei 327 (L. 327) or Lactobacillus paracasei K71 (L. K71) derived from rice grains and sake lees, respectively. SAMP8 mice that were fed a L. K71-supplemented diet had better cognitive performance compared with the control and L...
June 13, 2018: Nutrients
Danying Wang, Andrew Clouter, Qiaoyu Chen, Kimron L Shapiro, Simon Hanslmayr
Episodic memories are rich in sensory information and often contain integrated information from different sensory modalities. For instance, we can store memories of a recent concert with visual and auditory impressions being integrated in one episode. Theta oscillations have recently been implicated in playing a causal role synchronizing and effectively binding the different modalities together in memory. However, an open question is whether momentary fluctuations in theta synchronization predict the likelihood of associative memory formation for multisensory events...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
F Ruffinatti, L Tapella, I Gregnanin, A Stevano, G Chiorino, P L Canonico, C Distasi, A A Genazzani, D Lim
BACKGROUND: It is well known that alterations in astrocytes occur in Alzheimer's Disease and reactive astrogliosis is one of the hallmarks of the disease. Recently, data has emerged that suggests that alterations in astrocytes may also occur early in the pathogenesis of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of present work was to characterize the transcriptional alterations occurring in cultured astrocytes from 3xTg-AD mouse pups compared to control non-transgenic mice...
June 12, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Xing-Qin Zhou, Zhi-Wen Yao, Ying Peng, Shi-Shi Mao, Dong Xu, Xiao-Feng Qin, Rong-Jun Zhang
Oxidative stress is known to be associated with various age-related diseases. D-galactose (D-gal) has been considered a senescent model which induces oxidative stress response resulting in memory dysfunction. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a redox cofactor which is found in various foods. In our previous study, we found that PQQ may be converted into a derivative by binding with amino acid, which is beneficial to several pathological processes. In this study, we found a beneficial glutamate mixture which may diminish neurotoxicity by oxidative stress in D-gal induced mouse...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Oscar Gonzalez-Perez, Verónica López-Virgen, Nereida Ibarra-Castaneda
Facial vibrissae, commonly known as whiskers, are the main sensitive tactile system in rodents. Whisker stimulation triggers neuronal activity that promotes neural plasticity in the barrel cortex (BC) and helps create spatial maps in the adult hippocampus. Moreover, activity-dependent inputs and calcium homeostasis modulate adult neurogenesis. Therefore, the neuronal activity of the BC possibly regulates hippocampal functions and neurogenesis. To assess whether tactile information from facial whiskers may modulate hippocampal functions and neurogenesis, we permanently eliminated whiskers in CD1 male mice and analyzed the effects in cellular composition, molecular expression and memory processing in the adult hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Oliver Rawashdeh, Rex Parsons, Erik Maronde
Learning, memory consolidation, and retrieval are processes known to be modulated by the circadian ( circa : about; dies : day) system. The circadian regulation of memory performance is evolutionarily conserved, independent of the type and complexity of the learning paradigm tested, and not specific to crepuscular, nocturnal, or diurnal organisms. In mammals, long-term memory (LTM) formation is tightly coupled to de novo gene expression of plasticity-related proteins and posttranslational modifications and relies on intact cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)/protein kinase C (PKC)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Lijun Zhang, Jae Hong Seo, Huan Li, Ghilsoo Nam, Hyun Ok Yang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inhibition of PDE5 has been demonstrated to improve synaptic plasticity and memory via enhancing of cGMP expression, thus activating the cGMP/CREB signaling pathway. This study aimed to investigate the ameliorating effect of PDE5 inhibitor on scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction using memory-related behavioral tests and biochemical assays. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: After the mice were pretreated with PDE5 inhibitor, amnesia was induced by scopolamine administration...
May 30, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Sheng-Jun Fan, Fang-I Huang, Jing-Ping Liou, Chia-Ron Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a dreadful neurodegenerative disease that leads to severe impairment of cognitive function, leading to a drastic decline in the quality of life. The primary pathological features of AD include senile plaques (SPs) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), comprising aggregated amyloid β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, respectively, in the hippocampus of AD patients. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a key enzyme in this neurodegenerative disease, in particular, as it relates to tau hyperphosphorylation...
May 29, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
L Kukreja, R Shahidehpour, G Kim, J Keegan, K R Sadleir, T Russell, J Csernansky, M Mesulam, R J Vassar, L Wang, H Dong, C Geula
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is among the most prevalent dementias of early-onset. Pathologically, FTLD presents with tauopathy or TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy. A biallelic mouse model of FTLD was produced on a mix FVB/129SVE background overexpressing wild-type human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) employing tetracycline transactivator (tTA), a system widely used in mouse models of neurological disorders. tTA activates hTDP-43 which is placed downstream of the tetracycline response element (TRE)...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Tsung-Chih Tsai, Chiung-Chun Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Infantile amnesia (IA) refers to the inability of adults to recall episodic memories from infancy or early childhood. While several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the occurrence of IA, the neurobiological and molecular bases for this accelerated forgetting phenomenon remain elusive. Using hippocampus-dependent object-location memory and contextual fear conditioning tasks, we confirmed that infant mice trained at postnatal day 20 (P20) displayed deficits in long-term memory retention compared to adult (P60) mice...
May 26, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Stéphanie Grot, Marie-Eve Leclerc, David Luck
We designed an fMRI study to pinpoint the neural correlates of active and passive binding in working memory. Participants were instructed to memorize three words and three spatial locations. In the passive binding condition, words and spatial locations were directly presented as bound. Conversely, in the active binding condition, words and spatial locations were presented as separated, and participants were directed to intentionally create associations between them. Our results showed that participants performed better on passive binding relative to active binding...
May 23, 2018: Biological Psychology
Jong Whi Kim, Sung Min Nam, Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, In Koo Hwang, Je Kyung Seong, Yeo Sung Yoon
Introduction: Genetic background influences neurotransmitter expression and function of the hippocampus. Genetic background influences the phenotype of the hippocampus, but expression of neuroglia in hippocampus has not been well established dependent on various mouse strains. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the effects of genetic background on cell population of astrocytes and microglia in eight widely used inbred strains (C57BL/6J, A/J, BALB/c, C3H/HeJ, FVB, 129/SvJ, DBA/1, and DBA/2) and one outbred strain (ICR)...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
Leah H Rubin, Ned Sacktor, Jason Creighton, Yong Du, Christopher J Endres, Martin G Pomper, Jennifer M Coughlin
OBJECTIVE: Despite viral suppression, HIV-associated cognitive impairment persists and may be partially due to persistent immune signaling by cells of the myeloid-lineage. Here we aimed to understand the contribution of activated microglia located in vulnerable brain regions (e.g., frontal, subcortical) of HIV-infected, virally suppressed (HIV+VS) individuals in relation to cognitive and motor function. DESIGN: 21 HIV+VS individuals underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with [C]DPA-713 to image the translocator protein 18 KDa (TSPO), a marker of microglial activation, and completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery...
May 9, 2018: AIDS
Alicia M Hanson, K L Iresha Sampathi Perera, Jaekyoon Kim, Rajesh K Pandey, Noreena Sweeney, Xingyun Lu, Andrea Imhoff, Alexander Craig Mackinnon, Adam J Wargolet, Rochelle M Van Hart, Karyn M Frick, William A Donaldson, Daniel S Sem
Estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) is a drug target for memory consolidation in post-menopausal women. Herein is reported a series of potent and selective ERβ agonists (SERBAs) with in vivo efficacy that are A-C estrogens, lacking the B and D estrogen rings. The most potent and selective A-C estrogen is selective for activating ER relative to seven other nuclear hormone receptors, with a surprising 750-fold selectivity for the beta over alpha isoform, and with EC50's of 20-30 nM in cell-based and direct binding assays...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Tomoteru Yamasaki, Wakana Mori, Yiding Zhang, Akiko Hatori, Masayuki Fujinaga, Hidekatsu Wakizaka, Yusuke Kurihara, Lu Wang, Nobuki Nengaki, Tomoyuki Ohya, Steven H Liang, Ming-Rong Zhang
Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a main regulator of the endocannabinoid system within the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, [11 C]SAR127303 was developed as a promising radioligand for MAGL imaging. In this study, we aimed to quantify regional MAGL concentrations in the rat brain using positron emission tomography (PET) with [11 C]SAR127303. An irreversible two-tissue compartment model (2-TCMi, k4  = 0) analysis was conducted to estimate quantitative parameters (k3 , Ki 2-TCMi , and λk3 ). These parameters were successfully obtained with high identifiability (<10 %COV) for the following regions ranked in order from highest to lowest: cingulate cortex > striatum > hippocampus > thalamus > cerebellum > hypothalamus ≈ pons...
May 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Daiying Zuo, Yumiao Liu, Zi Liu, Jiahui Cui, Xuejiao Zhou, Yang Liu, Zengqiang Li, Yingliang Wu
Currently, an increasing proportion of adolescent ketamine users simultaneously consume alcohol. However, the potential behavioural and neurological alterations induced by such a drug combination and the underlying mechanisms have not been systematically examined. Therefore, in the present study, the behavioural and morphological changes and the underlying mechanisms were studied in adolescent rats after repeated alcohol and/or ketamine treatment. This study provided the first evidence that co-administration of alcohol (2 and 4 g/kg, i...
May 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Valentina Sposato, Nadia Canu, Elena Fico, Salvatore Fusco, Giulia Bolasco, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Matteo Spinelli, Delio Mercanti, Claudio Grassi, Viviana Triaca, Pietro Calissano
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) are key modulators of learning and memory and are high energy-demanding neurons. Impaired neuronal metabolism and reduced insulin signaling, known as insulin resistance, has been reported in the early phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been suggested to be "Type 3 Diabetes." We hypothesized that BFCN may develop insulin resistance and their consequent failure represents one of the earliest event in AD. We found that a condition reminiscent of insulin resistance occurs in the medial septum of 3 months old 3×Tg-AD mice, reported to develop typical AD histopathology and cognitive deficits in adulthood...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Yunpeng Wang, Hongying Zhang, Jingjing Cui, Jing Zhang, Fangyuan Yin, Hao Guo, Jianghua Lai, Bo Xing
Contextual memory driven by abused drugs such as opiates has a central role in maintenance and relapse of drug-taking behaviors. Although dopamine (DA) signaling favors memory storage and retrieval via regulation of hippocampal-prefrontal connectivity, its role in modulating opiate-associated contextual memory is largely unknown. Here, we report roles of DA signaling within the hippocampal-prefrontal circuit for opiate-related memories. Combining-conditioned place preference (CPP) with molecular analyses, we investigated the DA D1 receptor (D1R) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) signaling, as well as DA D2 receptor (D2R) and protein kinase B (PKB or Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) signaling in the ventral hippocampus (vHip) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during the formation of opiate-related associative memories...
April 17, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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