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Hippocampus and relational binding

Ye Chen, Yu Lei, Li-Qun Mo, Jun Li, Mao-Hua Wang, Ji-Cheng Wei, Jun Zhou
Sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was to investigate the protective effects of electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment with different waveforms on septic brain injury in rats and its mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated by EA with different waveforms (continuous wave, dilatational wave, or intermittent wave) at Baihui (GV20) and Tsusanli (ST36) acupoints for 30min, and underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation. The results showed that EA pretreatment with different waveforms improved survival rate, attenuated encephaledema, brain injury, neuronal apoptosis and cognitive dysfunction, and preserved blood-brain barrier(BBB)...
October 19, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Thomas Vanicek, Alexandra Kutzelnigg, Cecile Philippe, Helen L Sigurdardottir, Gregory M James, Andreas Hahn, Georg S Kranz, Anna Höflich, Alexander Kautzky, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Altered serotonergic neurotransmission has been found to cause impulsive and aggressive behavior, as well as increased motor activity, all exemplifying key symptoms of ADHD. The main objectives of this positron emission tomography (PET) study were to investigate the serotonin transporter binding potential (SERT BPND ) in patients with ADHD and to assess associations of SERT BPND between the brain regions. 25 medication-free patients with ADHD (age ± SD; 32.39 ± 10.15;10 females) without any psychiatric comorbidity and 25 age and sex matched healthy control subjects (33...
October 22, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Ning Jia, Qinru Sun, Qian Su, Shaokang Dang, Guomin Chen
Substantial evidence has shown that the oxidative damage to hippocampal neurons is associated with the cognitive impairment induced by adverse stimuli during gestation named prenatal stress (PS). Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, possesses multiple roles in the brain as a neuromodulator or antioxidant. In this study, to explore the roles of taurine in PS-induced learning and memory impairment, prenatal restraint stress was set up and Morris water maze (MWM) was employed for testing the cognitive function in the one-month-old rat offspring...
October 13, 2016: Redox Biology
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jeong-Hee Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim, Young-Don Son, Yo-Han Joo, Sang-Yoon Lee, Hang-Keun Kim, Myung-Kyun Woo
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the patterns of interregional correlations of serotonin transporter (SERT) availability with glucose metabolism using 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with (11)C-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylthio)benzonitrile ([(11)C]DASB) and [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) in antipsychotic-free patients with schizophrenia in order to shed new light on the disrupted functional connectivity in schizophrenia...
October 16, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Inge Mick, Anna C Ramos, Jim Myers, Paul R Stokes, Samantha Chandrasekera, David Erritzoe, Maria A Mendez, Roger N Gunn, Eugenii A Rabiner, Graham E Searle, José C F Galduróz, Adam D Waldman, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Luke Clark, David J Nutt, Anne R Lingford-Hughes
As a behavioural addiction, gambling disorder (GD) provides an opportunity to characterize addictive processes without the potentially confounding effects of chronic excessive drug and alcohol exposure. Impulsivity is an established precursor to such addictive behaviours, and GD is associated with greater impulsivity. There is also evidence of GABAergic dysregulation in substance addiction and in impulsivity. This study therefore investigated GABAA receptor availability in 15 individuals with GD and 19 healthy volunteers (HV) using [(11) C]Ro15-4513, a relatively selective α5 benzodiazepine receptor PET tracer and its relationship with impulsivity...
October 13, 2016: Addiction Biology
Mauricio P Cunha, Francis L Pazini, Vicente Lieberknecht, Josiane Budni, Ágatha Oliveira, Júlia M Rosa, Gianni Mancini, Leidiane Mazzardo, André R Colla, Marina C Leite, Adair R S Santos, Daniel F Martins, Andreza F de Bem, Carlos Alberto S Gonçalves, Marcelo Farina, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces motor and nonmotor dysfunctions resembling Parkinson's disease (PD); however, studies investigating the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active oxidative product of MPTP, are scarce. This study investigated the behavioral and striatal neurochemical changes (related to oxidative damage, glial markers, and neurotrophic factors) 24 h after intracerebroventricular administration of MPP(+) (1.8-18 μg/mouse) in C57BL6 mice...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Yan Du, Li Du, Jie Cao, Christian Hölscher, Yongming Feng, Hongliang Su, Yujin Wang, Ke-Ming Yun
Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an alkaloid purified from the Chinese herbs Corydalis and Stephania and has been used in many traditional Chinese herbal preparations for its sedative, analgesic and hypnotic properties. Previous studies demonstrated that l-THP has antagonistic activity on dopamine receptors; thus, it may have potential therapeutic effects on drug abuse. However, whether l-THP affects ketamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of l-THP on the rewarding behavior of ketamine through CPP...
October 3, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Bryan D James, Robert S Wilson, Patricia A Boyle, John Q Trojanowski, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
Hyperphosphorylated transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) proteinopathy has recently been described in ageing and in association with cognitive impairment, especially in the context of Alzheimer's disease pathology. To explore the role of mixed Alzheimer's disease and TDP-43 pathologies in clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia, we performed a comprehensive investigation of TDP-43, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older subjects...
September 30, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Elena Herranz, Costanza Giannì, Céline Louapre, Constantina A Treaba, Sindhuja T Govindarajan, Russell Ouellette, Marco L Loggia, Jacob A Sloane, Nancy Madigan, David Izquierdo-Garcia, Noreen Ward, Gabriel Mangeat, Tobias Granberg, Eric C Klawiter, Ciprian Catana, Jacob M Hooker, Norman Taylor, Carolina Ionete, Revere P Kinkel, Caterina Mainero
Objective In multiple sclerosis (MS), using simultaneous magnetic resonance-positron emission tomography (MR-PET) imaging with (11) C-PBR28, we quantified expression of the 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of activated microglia/macrophages, in cortex, cortical lesions, deep gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) lesions and normal-appearing WM (NAWM) to investigate the in vivo pathological and clinical relevance of neuroinflammation. Methods Fifteen secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) and 12 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) cases, and 14 matched healthy controls underwent (11) C-PBR28 MR-PET...
September 30, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Xuhui Zhang, Yingzhou Song, Tuya Bao, Miao Yu, Mingmin Xu, Yu Guo, Yu Wang, Chuntao Zhang, Bingcong Zhao
BACKGROUND: The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway is considered to be associated with the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Acupuncture has been demonstrated to ameliorate depression-related behavior and promote neurogenesis. In this study, we explored the role of the ERK signaling pathway in the antidepressant-like effects of acupuncture in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). METHODS: Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight groups: control group, model group, model + Acupuncture group (Acu group), model + fluoxetine group (FLX group), model + DMSO group (DMSO group), model + PD98059 group (PD group), model + Acupuncture + PD98059 group (Acu + PD group) and model + fluoxetine + PD98059 group (FLX + PD group)...
September 29, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Mary F Barbe, Jessica J Krueger, Regina Loomis, Jessica Otte, Jennifer Gordon
Pur-alpha is a highly conserved sequence-specific DNA and RNA binding protein with established roles in DNA replication, RNA translation, cell cycle regulation, and maintenance of neuronal differentiation. Prior studies have shown that mice lacking Pur-alpha (-/-) display decreased neurogenesis and impaired neuronal differentiation. We sought to examine for the first time, the behavioral phenotype and brain histopathology of mice that are heterozygous (+/-) for Pur-alpha. Standardized behavioral phenotyping revealed a decreased escape response to touch, limb and abdominal hypotonia, and gait abnormalities in heterozygous Pur-alpha (+/-) mice, compared to wild-type (+/+) littermates...
September 17, 2016: Neuroscience
Jun Shen, Junjian Zhang, Min Deng, Yue Liu, Yuan Hu, Lei Zhang
Angelica sinensis (AS), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has pharmaceutical effects on menstrual illness, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cognitive impairments. However, until recently, few studies had explored its antidepressant effect. The current study attempts to investigate the effect of AS extracts on chronic unpredictable mild stress- (CUMS-) induced depression in rats. Male SD rats were exposed to a CUMS-inducing procedure for 5 weeks, resulting in rodent depressive behaviors that included reduced sucrose consumption and lessened sucrose preference ratios in sucrose preference test, prolonged immobility times and decreased struggling time in force swim test, and decreased locomotor activity in open field test...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
W-J Zhou, N Xu, L Kong, S-C Sun, X-F Xu, M-Z Jia, Y Wang, Z-Y Chen
Wnts-related signaling pathways have been reported to play roles in the pathogenesis of stress-induced depression-like behaviors. However, there is relatively few direct evidence to indicate the effect of Wnt ligands on this process. Here, we investigated the role of Wnts in mediating chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced depression-like behaviors. We found that CRS induced a significant decrease in the expression of Wnt2 and Wnt3 in the ventral hippocampus (VH) but not in the dorsal hippocampus. Knocking down Wnt2 or Wnt3 in the VH led to impaired Wnt/β-catenin signaling, neurogenesis deficits and depression-like behaviors...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Jong Heon Kim, Sung-Hoon Kim, Sung-Rae Cho, Ji Yong Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, Ahreum Baek, Hong Sun Jung
OBJECTIVE: To investigate alterations in the expression of the main regulators of neuronal survival and death related to astrocytes and neuronal cells in the brain in a mouse model of spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Eight-week-old male imprinting control region mice (n=36; 30-35 g) were used in this study and randomly assigned to two groups: the naïve control group (n=18) and SCI group (n=18). The mice in both groups were randomly allocated to the following three time points: 3 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks (n=6 each)...
August 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
N C N Perera, G I Godahewa, Jehee Lee
Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) from Hippocampus abdominalis (HaCuZnSOD) is a metalloenzyme which belongs to the ubiquitous family of SODs. Here, we determined the characteristic structural features of HaCuZnSOD, analyzed its evolutionary relationships, and identified its potential immune responses and biological functions in relation to antioxidant defense mechanisms in the seahorse. The gene had a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 67 bp, a coding sequence of 465 bp and a 3' UTR of 313 bp. The putative peptide consists of 154 amino acids...
October 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
A E Tyrer, R D Levitan, S Houle, A A Wilson, J N Nobrega, P M Rusjan, J H Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of light therapy on serotonin transporter binding (5-HTT BPND ), an index of 5-HTT levels, in the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices (ACC and PFC) during winter in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). 5-HTT BPND fluctuates seasonally to a greater extent in SAD relative to health. We hypothesized that in SAD, 5-HTT BPND would be reduced in the ACC and PFC following light therapy. METHODS: Eleven SAD participants underwent [(11) C] DASB positron emission tomography (PET) scans to measure 5-HTT BPND before and after 2 weeks of daily morning light therapy...
November 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Su-Eon Sim, Chae-Seok Lim, Jae-Ick Kim, Daekwan Seo, Heejung Chun, Nam-Kyung Yu, Jaehyun Lee, SukJae Joshua Kang, Hyoung-Gon Ko, Jun-Hyeok Choi, TaeHyun Kim, Eun-Hae Jang, Joohyun Han, Myeong Seong Bak, Jong-Eun Park, Deok-Jin Jang, Daehyun Baek, Yong-Seok Lee, Bong-Kiun Kaang
UNLABELLED: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression in many tissues. Although a number of brain-enriched miRNAs have been identified, only a few specific miRNAs have been revealed as critical regulators of synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. miR-9-5p/3p are brain-enriched miRNAs known to regulate development and their changes have been implicated in several neurological disorders, yet their role in mature neurons in mice is largely unknown...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bin Qiu, Susan E Luczak, Tamara L Wall, Aaron M Kirchhoff, Yuxue Xu, Mimy Y Eng, Robert B Stewart, Weinian Shou, Stephen L Boehm, Julia A Chester, Weidong Yong, Tiebing Liang
FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO) mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1) Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT) EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2) The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 2...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vânia L Batalha, Diana G Ferreira, Joana E Coelho, Jorge S Valadas, Rui Gomes, Mariana Temido-Ferreira, Tatiana Shmidt, Younis Baqi, Luc Buée, Christa E Müller, Malika Hamdane, Tiago F Outeiro, Michael Bader, Sebastiaan H Meijsing, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili, David Blum, Luísa V Lopes
Caffeine is associated with procognitive effects in humans by counteracting overactivation of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), which is upregulated in the human forebrain of aged and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We have previously shown that an anti-A2AR therapy reverts age-like memory deficits, by reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis feedback and corticosterone circadian levels. These observations suggest that A2AR over-activation and glucocorticoid dysfunction are key events in age-related hippocampal deficits; but their direct connection has never been explored...
2016: Scientific Reports
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