Read by QxMD icon Read

Hippocampus and relational binding

Hui Ling Ren, Chao Nan Lv, Ying Xing, Yuan Geng, Feng Zhang, Wei Bu, Ming Wei Wang
BACKGROUND We observed the effects of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) downregulation via intrahippocampal injection of a lentiviral vector on cognition in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) to investigate the role of the (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in age-related changes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Control lentivirus and Nrf2-shRNA-lentivirus were separately injected into the hippocampus of 4-month-old SAMR1 and SAMP8 mice and then successfully downregulated Nrf2 expression in this brain region...
February 23, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Jamshed Iqbal, Muhammad Shakeel Ahmad Abbasi, Sumera Zaib, Saifullah Afridi, Norbert Furtmann, Jurgen Bajorath, Peter Langer
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia among aging population. This devastating disorder is generally associated with the gradual memory loss, specified by decrease of acetylcholine level in the cortex hippocampus of the brain due to hyper-activation of cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)). OBJECTIVE: Therefore, inactivation of AChE and BChE by inhibitors can increase the acetylcholine level and hence may be an encouraging strategy for the treatment of AD and related neurological problems...
February 21, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Cong Lu, Jingwei Lv, Liming Dong, Ning Jiang, Yan Wang, Qiong Wang, Yinghui Li, Shanguang Chen, Bei Fan, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), one of the ginsenosides from Panax ginseng, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects and to improve memory. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of PPT on scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were pretreated with 2 different doses of PPT (20 and 40 μmol/kg) for 27 days by intraperitoneal injection, and scopolamine (0.75 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 9 days to induce memory impairment...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Yirong Xu, Huifang Zhang, Baolong Pan, Shuhui Zhang, Shan Wang, Qiao Niu
Aluminum (Al) is an environmental neurotoxicant with a wide exposure, but the molecular mechanism underlying its toxicity remains unclear. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in the hippocampus of Al-treated rats to identify 96 upregulated and 652 downregulated mRNAs, and 37 dysregulated long non-coding (lnc)RNAs. Gene ontology analysis showed that dysregulated genes were involved in glial cell differentiation, neural transmission, and vesicle trafficking. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis revealed clustering of differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNA target genes in several pathways, including the "adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway," "extracellular matrix receptor interaction," "the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-protein kinase B signaling pathway," and "focal adhesion" signaling pathway...
February 19, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Pâmella K Frühauf-Perez, Fernanda R Temp, Micheli M Pillat, Cristiane Signor, Arithane Lorena Wendel, Henning Ulrich, Carlos F Mello, Maribel A Rubin
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been long known to promote neuroinflammation and learning and memory deficits. Since spermine, one of the main natural polyamines in the central nervous system, protects from LPS-induced memory deficit by a mechanism that comprises GluN2B receptors, the aim of the present study was to determine whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor and cAMP response element binding (CREB) are involved in this protective effect of spermine...
February 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Ruiqing Ni, Bin Ji, Maiko Ono, Naruhiko Sahara, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Agneta Nordberg, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
Fibrillary tau aggregates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and allied neurodegenerative disorders have been visualized in-vivo by positron emission tomography (PET), while mechanistic links between PET-detectable tau deposits and neurotoxicity remain elusive. Here, we took advantage of transgenic mouse models of tauopathies to evaluate associations between PET and postmortem measures of tau probe binding and their relation to neuronal loss. Methods: PET with a tau probe, 11C-PBB3 (2-((1E,3E)-4-(6-(11C-methylamino)pyridine-3-yl)buta-1,3-dienyl)benzo[d]thiazol-6-ol), and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for rTg4510 and non-transgenic mice...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
David Aguado-Llera, Sandra Canelles, Laura M Frago, Julie A Chowen, Jesús Argente, Eduardo Arilla, Vicente Barrios
Somatostatin (SRIF), a neuropeptide highly distributed in the hippocampus and involved in learning and memory, is markedly reduced in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) against β amyloid (Aβ)-induced neuronal death and associated cognitive disorders have been extensively reported in experimental models of this disease. Here, we examined the effect of IGF-I on the hippocampal somatostatinergic system in Aβ-treated rats and the molecular mechanisms associated with changes in this peptidergic system...
February 2, 2018: Neuroscience
Ao Xiong, Ge Jin, Renping Xiong, Hong Lu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the protein expression related to cognitive and learning memory function, and to investigate the effect of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) silence on learning and memory function in traumatic brain injury (TBI) rats. METHODS: Ninety-six healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided into groups according to the random number table. (1) Forty-eight rats were divided into sham operation (sham) group, TBI group (by using modified Feeney method), AQP4 RNA interference (RNAi) negative group [TBI+meaningless small interfering RNA (siRNA)-AQP4 liposome solution 10 μL], and AQP4 RNAi group (TBI+siRNA-AQP4 liposome solution 10 μL)...
February 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Songyun Deng, Yuhang Ai, Hua Gong, Qing Feng, Xiao Li, Caixia Chen, Zhiyong Liu, Yimin Wang, Qianyi Peng, Lina Zhang
Sepsis is one of the most common reasons for mortality in Intensive Care Units. As a common but severe neurological complication, sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) has always been ignored and there is no generally accepted treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that Mdivi-1 ameliorated brain damage assessed by Nissl staining. Furthermore, Mdivi-1 reduced TUNEL-positive cells in hippocampus, and inhibited S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) release into plasma. Biochemical analysis also showed that Mdivi-1 protected hippocampus from oxidative stresses...
January 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yu Ri Kim, Sung Min Ahn, Malk Eun Pak, Hong Ju Lee, Da Hee Jung, Yong-Il Shin, Hwa Kyoung Shin, Byung Tae Choi
The beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and electroacupuncture (EA) on neurogenesis and related trophic factors remain unclear. Bone marrow MSCs (mBMSC) were transplanted into the striatum of mice with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and EA stimulation was applied at two acupoints, Baihui and Dazhui. EA treatment significantly improved motor function, and a synergistic effect of combined mBMSC and EA treatment was observed. Combined mBMSC and EA treatment reduced prominent atrophic changes in the striatum and led to proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the surrounding areas of the striatum (SVZ + striatum) of MCAO mice...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gilda Stefanelli, Amber B Azam, Brandon J Walters, Mark A Brimble, Caroline P Gettens, Pascale Bouchard-Cannon, Hai-Ying M Cheng, Andrew M Davidoff, Klotilda Narkaj, Jeremy J Day, Andrew J Kennedy, Iva B Zovkic
Histone variants were recently discovered to regulate neural plasticity, with H2A.Z emerging as a memory suppressor. Using whole-genome sequencing of the mouse hippocampus, we show that basal H2A.Z occupancy is positively associated with steady-state transcription, whereas learning-induced H2A.Z removal is associated with learning-induced gene expression. AAV-mediated H2A.Z depletion enhanced fear memory and resulted in gene-specific alterations of learning-induced transcription, reinforcing the role of H2A...
January 30, 2018: Cell Reports
Xiaomei Wang, Dai Cheng, Weibo Jiang, Yuxia Ma
Studies have shown aluminium (Al) is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) causality, however, the mechanism underlying this link remains unclear. To investigate the Al neurotoxicity, the high Al-affinity protein from pig hippocampus was screened by native gel electrophoresis and Al3+ plus 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) staining. The protein with high Al3+-affinity was identified to be 14-3-3ζ, which was then used for raising antibodies. By 8-HQ staining and immunocytochemical localization, we found the co-location of Al3+ and 14-3-3ζ increased markedly in the Al-exposed rat hippocampus tissue and the cultured rat primary hippocampal neuronal cells...
January 27, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Haitao Yu, Dian Wang, Liangyu Zou, Zaijun Zhang, Hua Xu, Feiqi Zhu, Xiaohu Ren, Benhong Xu, Jianhui Yuan, Jianjun Liu, Peter S Spencer, Xifei Yang
Excessive copper intake can lead to neurotoxicity, but there is a lack of comprehensive understanding on the potential impact of copper exposure especially at a low-dose on brain. We used 3xTg-AD mice to explore the potential neurotoxicity of chronic, low-dose copper treatment (0.13 ppm copper chloride in drinking water) on behavior and the brain hippocampal mitochondrial and nuclear proteome. Low-dose copper increased the spatial memory impairment of these animals, increased accumulation of intracellular amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42), decreased ATP content, increased the positive staining of 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of DNA oxidative damage, and caused apoptosis and a decrease in synaptic proteins...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Christian C Felder, Paul J Goldsmith, Kimberley Jackson, Helen E Sanger, David A Evans, Adrian J Mogg, Lisa M Broad
The cholinergic signalling system has been an attractive pathway to seek targets for modulation of arousal, cognition, and attention which are compromised in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. The acetylcholine muscarinic receptor M1 and M4 subtypes which are highly expressed in the central nervous system, in cortex, hippocampus and striatum, key areas of cognitive and neuropsychiatric control, have received particular attention. Historical muscarinic drug development yielded first generation agonists with modest selectivity for these two receptor targets over M2 and M3 receptors, the major peripheral sub-types hypothesised to underlie the dose-limiting clinical side effects...
January 25, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ahmed Haider, Francesco Spinelli, Adrienne Müller Herde, Boshuai Mu, Claudia Keller, Markus Margelisch, Markus Weber, Roger Schibli, Linjing Mu, Simon M Ametamey
The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has been implicated in a series of neurodegenerative disorders and has emerged as an interesting biological target for therapeutic as well as diagnostic purposes. In the present work, we describe an improved radiosynthetic approach to obtain the previously reported CB2-specific PET radioligand [18F]RS-126 in higher radiochemical yields and molar activities. Additionally, the study revealed that prolongation of the [18F]RS-126 fluoroalkyl side chain ultimately leads to an improved stability towards mouse liver enzymes but is accompanied by a reduction in selectivity over the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1)...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ya-Lin Wang, Qiu-Qin Han, Wen-Qing Gong, Dong-Hui Pan, Li-Zheng Wang, Wei Hu, Min Yang, Bing Li, Jin Yu, Qiong Liu
BACKGROUND: Depression is a heterogeneous disorder, with the exact neuronal mechanisms causing the disease yet to be discovered. Recent work suggests it is accompanied by neuro-inflammation, characterized, in particular, by microglial activation. However, microglial activation and its involvement in neuro-inflammation and stress-related depressive disorders are far from understood. METHODS: We utilized multiple detection methods to detect the neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus of rats after exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Willie Lin, Yogi Chang-Yo Hsuan, Mao-Tsun Lin, Ting-Wei Kuo, Cheng-Hsien Lin, Yu-Chin Su, Ko-Chi Niu, Ching-Ping Chang, Hung-Jung Lin
Microglia are the first source of a neuroinflammatory cascade, which seems to be involved in every phase of stroke-related neuronal damage. Two weeks after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), vehicle-treated rats displayed higher numbers of total ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1)-positive cells, greater cell body areas of Iba-1-positive cells, and higher numbers of hypertrophic Iba-1-positive cells (with a cell body area over 80 μm2) in the ipsilateral ischemic brain regions including the frontal cortex, striatum, and parietal cortex...
November 2017: Cell Transplantation
Hyun-Jin Tae, Il Jun Kang, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jeong Hwi Cho, Jae-Chul Lee, Myoung Cheol Shin, Yoon Sung Kim, Jun Hwi Cho, Jong-Dai Kim, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Joon Ha Park, In-Shik Kim, Hyang-Ah Lee, Yang Hee Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Young Joo Lee
Low survival rate occurs in patients who initially experience a spontaneous return of circulation after cardiac arrest (CA). In this study, we induced asphyxial CA in adult male Sprague-Daley rats, maintained their body temperature at 37 ± 0.5°C, and then observed the survival rate during the post-resuscitation phase. We examined neuronal damage in the hippocampus using cresyl violet (CV) and Fluore-Jade B (F-J B) staining, and pro-inflammatory response using ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus after asphyxial CA in rats under normothermia...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
Binglin Zhu, Lige Zhao, Dong Luo, Demei Xu, Tao Tan, Zhifang Dong, Ying Tang, Zhuo Min, Xiaojuan Deng, Fei Sun, Zhen Yan, Guojun Chen
Furin is a proprotein convertase implicated in a variety of pathological processes including neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of furin in neuronal plasticity and learning and memory remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that in brain-specific furin transgenic (Furin-Tg) mice, the dendritic spine density and proliferation of neural progenitor cells were significantly increased. These mice exhibited enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial learning and memory performance, without alterations of miniature excitatory/inhibitory postsynaptic currents...
January 4, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Jun Zhao, Xiang Xiang, Hongxia Zhang, Dengzhi Jiang, Yidan Liang, Wang Qing, Liu Liu, Qing Zhao, Zhaohui He
The endoplasmic reticulum stress-related factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) aggravates early brain injury (EBI) in rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Our research aims to investigate the role of CHOP-mediated iron metabolism in EBI after SAH and the underlying mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish SAH models. Tunicamycin (Tm) was employed to excite CHOP expression, and two CHOP small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were used to inhibit CHOP expression...
December 29, 2017: Experimental Neurology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"