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Hippocampus and relational binding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431287/age-and-gender-effects-of-11-c-itmm-binding-to-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-type-1-in-healthy-human-participants
#1
Muneyuki Sakata, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishibashi, Kei Wagatsuma, Kenji Ishii, Ming-Rong Zhang, Kiichi Ishiwata
We examined possible age- and gender-related changes in binding of the selective antagonist N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-4-(11)C-methoxy-N-methylbenzamide ((11)C-ITMM) to metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 in healthy human brains. Dynamic (11)C-ITMM positron emission tomography scans (90 min) with serial arterial blood sampling were performed in 15 young and 24 older healthy adult volunteers. The total distribution volume (VT) of several brain regions was estimated with 2-tissue compartment model analysis...
March 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426945/testosterone-levels-in-healthy-men-correlate-negatively-with-serotonin-4-receptor-binding
#2
Erik Perfalk, Sofi da Cunha-Bang, Klaus K Holst, Sune Keller, Claus Svarer, Gitte M Knudsen, Vibe G Frokjaer
The serotonergic system integrates sex steroid information and plays a central role in mood and stress regulation, cognition, appetite and sleep. This interplay may be critical for likelihood of developing depressive episodes, at least in a subgroup of sensitive individuals. The serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4R) indexes central serotonergic tonus, which may be related to endogenous sex-steroid levels in the mentally healthy state even though this remains elusive. Here we evaluate if peripheral levels of estradiol and testosterone are associated with 5-HT4R binding as imaged by [(11)C]SB207145 positron emission tomography in a group of 41 healthy men...
March 22, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417590/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-cgrp-a-novel-target-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Yogendra Singh, Gaurav Gupta, Birendra Shrivastava, Rajiv Dahiya, Juhi Tiwari, Madhu Ashwathanarayana, Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Mohit Agrawal, Anurag Mishra, Kamal Dua
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is leading cause of death among older characterized by neurofibrillary tangles, oxidative stress, progressive neuronal deficits, and increased levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Cholinergic treatment could be the best suitable physiological therapy for AD. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a thirty-seven-amino acid regulatory neuropeptide resulting from different merging of the CGRP gene, which also includes adrenomedullin, amylin, calcitonin, intermedin, and calcitonin receptor-stimulating peptide...
April 17, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414034/age-exacerbates-surgery-induced-cognitive-impairment-and-neuroinflammation-in-sprague-dawley-rats-the-role-of-il-4
#4
Zhe Li, Fang Liu, Hong Ma, Paul F White, Roya Yumul, Yanhua Jiang, Na Wang, Xuezhao Cao
Age is the most prominent risk factor for the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. This study investigated the potential role of anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-4 in age-related differences of surgery-induced cognitive deficits and neuroinflammatory responses. Both adult and aged Sprague-Dawley male rats were subjected to partial hepatectomy or partial hepatectomy with a cisterna magna infusion of IL-4. On postoperative days 1, 3, and 7, the rats were subjected to a reversed Morris water maze test...
April 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410959/the-involvement-of-bdnf-creb-signaling-pathways-in-the-pharmacological-mechanism-of-combined-ssri-antipsychotic-treatment-in-schizophrenia
#5
Reef Einoch, Orly Weinreb, Nina Mandiuk, Moussa B H Youdim, Warren Bilker, Henry Silver
Previous studies into the mechanism of SSRI-antipsychotic synergism in our laboratory identified unique changes in the brain, particularly in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor and its modulators. This study examined the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein signaling pathways, including protein kinase B (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and related molecules in the molecular response to haloperidol, fluvoxamine, combined haloperidol+fluvoxamine and clozapine treatments in rat frontal cortex, hippocampus and primary cortical neuronal cultures...
April 11, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378589/kinetic-insights-into-zn-2-induced-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-aggregation-revealed-by-stopped-flow-fluorescence-spectroscopy
#6
Jingjing Guo, Linling Yu, Yan Sun, Xiaoyan Dong
Zn(2+) has remarkable impacts on amyloid β-protein (Aβ) aggregation, which is crucial in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. However, the Zn(2+) concentration in human cerebrospinal fluid is commonly too low for interaction with Aβ, and only during neurotransmission is there a transient release of a high concentration of Zn(2+). It is difficult to explore the details of the interaction between Zn(2+) and Aβ within such a short time scale by using ordinary analytical methods. Herein, stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the fast aggregation kinetics of Aβ42 in the presence of Zn(2+) in the time scale from 1 ms to seconds...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377723/multiple-psychopharmacological-effects-of-the-traditional-japanese-kampo-medicine-yokukansan-and-the-brain-regions-it-affects
#7
REVIEW
Kazushige Mizoguchi, Yasushi Ikarashi
Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has indications for use in night crying and irritability in children, as well as neurosis and insomnia. It is currently also used for the remedy of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as aggressiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. In parallel with clinical evidence, a significant amount of fundamental researches have been undertaken to clarify the neuropsychopharmacological efficacies of YKS, with approximately 70 articles, including our own, being published to date...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367114/whole-genome-expression-analysis-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy-identifies-mecp2-as-a-possible-regulator-of-tau-pathology
#8
Nicole M Maphis, Shanya Jiang, Jessica Binder, Carrie Wright, Banu Gopalan, Bruce T Lamb, Kiran Bhaskar
Increasing evidence suggests that hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT or tau) correlates with the development of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies. While numerous attempts have been made to model AD-relevant tau pathology in various animal models, there has been very limited success for these models to fully recapitulate the progression of disease as seen in human tauopathies. Here, we performed whole genome gene expression in a genomic mouse model of tauopathy that expressed human MAPT gene under the control of endogenous human MAPT promoter and also were complete knockout for endogenous mouse tau [referred to as 'hTau (MaptKO(Duke))' mice]...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350885/glutamate-dependent-ectodomain-shedding-of-neuregulin-1-type-ii-precursors-in-rat-forebrain-neurons
#9
Yuriko Iwakura, Ran Wang, Naoko Inamura, Kazuaki Araki, Shigeki Higashiyama, Nobuyuki Takei, Hiroyuki Nawa
The neurotrophic factor neuregulin 1 (NRG1) regulates neuronal development, glial differentiation, and excitatory synapse maturation. NRG1 is synthesized as a membrane-anchored precursor and is then liberated by proteolytic processing or exocytosis. Mature NRG1 then binds to its receptors expressed by neighboring neurons or glial cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern this process in the nervous system are not defined in detail. Here we prepared neuron-enriched and glia-enriched cultures from embryonic rat neocortex to investigate the role of neurotransmitters that regulate the liberation/release of NRG1 from the membrane of neurons or glial cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344072/osteopontin-metallothionein-i-ii-interactions-in-experimental-autoimmunune-encephalomyelitis
#10
Hrvoje Jakovac, Tanja Grubić Kezele, Sandra Šućurović, Biserka Mulac-Jeričević, Biserka Radošević-Stašić
Osteopontin (OPN), an extracellular matrix (ECM) glyco-phosphoprotein, plays an important role in autoimmune-mediated demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). As an integrin and CD44 binding protein it participates in bidirectional communication between the ECM and target cells and affects transduction pathways that maintain neuronal and immune cell homeostasis. Its biological activity is also heavily influenced by microenvironment, which stimulates the cleavage of OPN and changes its functions...
March 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343962/contextually-mediated-spontaneous-retrieval-is-specific-to-the-hippocampus
#11
Nicole M Long, Michael R Sperling, Gregory A Worrell, Kathryn A Davis, Robert E Gross, Bradley C Lega, Barbara C Jobst, Sameer A Sheth, Kareem Zaghloul, Joel M Stein, Michael J Kahana
Although it is now well established that the hippocampus supports memory encoding [1, 2], little is known about hippocampal activity during spontaneous memory retrieval. Recent intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) work has shown that hippocampal activity during encoding predicts subsequent temporal organization of memories [3], supporting a role in contextual binding. It is an open question, however, whether the hippocampus similarly supports contextually mediated processes during retrieval. Here, we analyzed iEEG recordings obtained from 215 epilepsy patients as they performed a free recall task...
April 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342965/effects-of-i2-imidazoline-receptor-ir-alkylating-bu99006-in-the-mouse-brain-upregulation-of-nischarin-i1-ir-and-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-proteins-and-modulation-of-associated-signalling-pathways
#12
Benjamin Keller, Jesús A García-Sevilla
5-isothiocyanato-2-benzofuranyl-2-imidazoline (BU99006) was shown to selectively and irreversibly bind to I2-imidazoline receptors (IRs) in vitro and in vivo, but cell signalling consequences of I2-IR alkylation have not been reported previously. This study assessed by Western blot the effects of BU99006 on nischarin (candidate I1-IR), μ-OR (regulated by nischarin) and associated signalling mediators in the mouse brain. Acute treatment with BU99006 (20 mg/kg, i.p., 1-3 h) led to fast (peak at 1 h) and shortlasting (decline up to 3 h) upregulation of nischarin and μ-OR contents in the hippocampus (less or non-significant effects in cortex) and altered the expression of cytoskeletal β-actin (reduced contents at 3 h)...
March 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321185/sex-matters-hippocampal-volume-predicts-individual-differences-in-associative-memory-in-cognitively-normal-older-women-but-not-men
#13
Zhiwei Zheng, Rui Li, Fengqiu Xiao, Rongqiao He, Shouzi Zhang, Juan Li
The hippocampus plays a prominent role in associative memory by supporting relational binding and recollection processes. Structural atrophy in the hippocampus is likely to induce associative memory deficits in older adults. Previous studies have primarily focused on average age-related differences in hippocampal structure and memory performance. To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in hippocampal morphometry underlie differential associative memory performance, and whether there are sex differences in the structural correlates of associative memory in healthy older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285123/preclinical-predictors-that-the-orthosteric-mglu2-3-receptor-antagonist-ly3020371-will-not-engender-ketamine-associated-neurotoxic-motor-cognitive-subjective-or-abuse-liability-related-effects
#14
J M Witkin, J A Monn, J Li, B Johnson, D L McKinzie, X-S Wang, B A Heinz, R Li, P L Ornstein, S C Smith, C H Mitch, D O Calligaro, S Swanson, D Allen, K Phillips, G Gilmour
The novel mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, LY3020371, has been shown to produce antidepressant-like effects comparable to that of the clinically-effective antidepressant ketamine. In the present study, we investigated whether LY3020371 would be predicted to be free of the side-effects and safety pharmacology issues associated with ketamine. In contrast to ketamine, LY3020371 produced small increases in locomotion and did not impair motor performance on an inverted screen. Ketamine, but not LY3020371, increased dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of rats...
March 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275781/aqueous-extracts-from-asparagus-stems-prevent-memory-impairments-in-scopolamine-treated-mice
#15
Zifang Sui, Ce Qi, Yunxiang Huang, Shufeng Ma, Xinguo Wang, Guowei Le, Jin Sun
Aqueous extracts from Asparagus officinalis L. stems (AEAS) are rich in polysaccharides, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), and steroidal saponin. This study was designed to investigate the effects of AEAS on learning, memory, and acetylcholinesterase-related activity in a scopolamine-induced model of amnesia. Sixty ICR mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10) including the control group (CT), scopolamine group (SC), donepezil group (DON), low, medium, and high dose groups of AEAS (LS, MS, HS; 1.6 mL kg(-1), 8 mL kg(-1), 16 mL kg(-1))...
April 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275159/enduring-memory-impairments-provoked-by-developmental-febrile-seizures-are-mediated-by-functional-and-structural-effects-of-neuronal-restrictive-silencing-factor
#16
Katelin P Patterson, Jeremy M Barry, Megan M Curran, Akanksha Singh-Taylor, Gary Brennan, Neggy Rismanchi, Matias Page, Yoav Noam, Gregory L Holmes, Tallie Z Baram
In a subset of children experiencing prolonged febrile seizures (FSs), the most common type of childhood seizures, cognitive outcomes are compromised. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we identified significant, enduring spatial memory problems in male rats following experimental prolonged FS (febrile status epilepticus; eFSE). Remarkably, these deficits were abolished by transient, post hoc interference with the chromatin binding of the transcriptional repressor neuron restrictive silencing factor (NRSF or REST)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270755/sleep-enhances-recognition-memory-for-conspecifics-as-bound-into-spatial-context
#17
Anuck Sawangjit, Eduard Kelemen, Jan Born, Marion Inostroza
Social memory refers to the fundamental ability of social species to recognize their conspecifics in quite different contexts. Sleep has been shown to benefit consolidation, especially of hippocampus-dependent episodic memory whereas effects of sleep on social memory are less well studied. Here, we examined the effect of sleep on memory for conspecifics in rats. To discriminate interactions between the consolidation of social memory and of spatial context during sleep, adult Long Evans rats performed on a social discrimination task in a radial arm maze...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267787/wfs1-is-expressed-in-dopaminoceptive-regions-of-the-amniote-brain-and-modulates-levels-of-d1-like-receptors
#18
Triin Tekko, Triin Lakspere, Anni Allikalt, Jaanus End, Karl Rene Kõlvart, Toomas Jagomäe, Anton Terasmaa, Mari-Anne Philips, Tanel Visnapuu, Fred Väärtnõu, Scott F Gilbert, Ago Rinken, Eero Vasar, Kersti Lilleväli
During amniote evolution, the construction of the forebrain has diverged across different lineages, and accompanying the structural changes, functional diversification of the homologous brain regions has occurred. This can be assessed by studying the expression patterns of marker genes that are relevant in particular functional circuits. In all vertebrates, the dopaminergic system is responsible for the behavioral responses to environmental stimuli. Here we show that the brain regions that receive dopaminergic input through dopamine receptor D1 are relatively conserved, but with some important variations between three evolutionarily distant vertebrate lines-house mouse (Mus musculus), domestic chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) / common quail (Coturnix coturnix) and red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262266/ptsd-in-court-ii-risk-factors-endophenotypes-and-biological-underpinnings-in-ptsd
#19
REVIEW
Gerald Young
The second article in the series of three for the journal on "PTSD in Court" especially concerns the biological bases that have been found to be associated with PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). The cohering concepts in this section relate to risk factors; candidate genes; polygenetics; "gene×environment" interactions; epigenetics; endophenotypes; biomarkers; and connective networks both structurally and functionally (in terms of intrinsic connectivity networks, ICNs, including the DMN, SN, and CEN; that is, default mode, salience, and central executive networks, respectively)...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257890/a-novel-role-of-fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-in-pre-mrna-alternative-splicing-through-rna-binding-protein-14
#20
Lin-Tao Zhou, Shun-Hua Ye, Hai-Xuan Yang, Yong-Ting Zhou, Qi-Hua Zhao, Wei-Wen Sun, Mei-Mei Gao, Yong-Hong Yi, Yue-Sheng Long
Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an important RNA-binding protein responsible for fragile X syndrome, is involved in posttranscriptional control of gene expression that links with brain development and synaptic functions. Here, we reveal a novel role of FMRP in pre-mRNA alternative splicing, a general event of posttranscriptional regulation. Using co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays, we identified that FMRP interacts with an alternative-splicing-associated protein RNA-binding protein 14 (RBM14) in a RNA-dependent fashion, and the two proteins partially colocalize in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons...
February 28, 2017: Neuroscience
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