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Hippocampus and relational binding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923928/visual-sampling-predicts-hippocampal-activity
#1
Zhong-Xu Liu, Kelly Shen, Rosanna K Olsen, Jennifer D Ryan
: Eye movements serve to accumulate information from the visual world, contributing to the formation of coherent memory representations that support cognition and behaviour. The hippocampus and the oculomotor network are well connected anatomically through an extensive set of polysynaptic pathways. However, the extent to which visual sampling behaviour is related to functional responses in the hippocampus during encoding has not been directly studied in human neuroimaging. In the current study, participants engaged in a face processing task while brain responses were recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and eye movements were simultaneously monitored...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920144/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-mbd1-regulates-neuronal-lineage-commitment-through-maintaining-adult-neural-stem-cell-identity
#2
Emily M Jobe, Yu Gao, Brian E Eisinger, Janessa K Mladucky, Charles C Giuliani, Laurel E Kelnhofer, Xinyu Zhao
: MBD1 belongs to a family of methyl-CpG binding proteins that are epigenetic "readers", linking DNA methylation to transcriptional regulation. MBD1 is expressed in neural stem cells residing in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus (aNSCs), and MBD1 deficiency leads to reduced neuronal differentiation, impaired neurogenesis, learning deficits, and autism-like behaviors in mice; however the precise function of MBD1 in aNSCs remains unexplored. Here, we show that MBD1 is important for maintaining the integrity and stemness of NSCs, which is critical for their ability to generate neurons...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915477/treadmill-exercise-improves-memory-function-depending-on-circadian-rhythm-changes-in-mice
#3
Dong Sup Hwang, Hyo Bum Kwak, Il Gyu Ko, Sung Eun Kim, Jun Jang Jin, Eun Sang Ji, Hyun Hee Choi, Oh Young Kwon
PURPOSE: Exercise enhances memory function by increasing neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and circadian rhythms modulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The circadian rhythm-dependent effects of treadmill exercise on memory function in relation with neurogenesis were investigated using mice. METHODS: The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, the 8-arm maze test was used to test spatial learning ability, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunofluorescence was used to assess neurogenesis...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915379/nr2a-and-nr2b-nmda-receptors-and-drebrin-within-postsynaptic-spines-of-the-hippocampus-correlate-with-hunger-evoked-exercise
#4
Yi-Wen Chen, Hannah Actor-Engel, Ang Doma Sherpa, Lauren Klingensmith, Tara G Chowdhury, Chiye Aoki
Hunger evokes foraging. This innate response can be quantified as voluntary wheel running following food restriction (FR). Paradoxically, imposing severe FR evokes voluntary FR, as some animals choose to run rather than eat, even during limited periods of food availability. This phenomenon, called activity-based anorexia (ABA), has been used to identify brain changes associated with FR and excessive exercise (EX), two core symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN), and to explore neurobiological bases of AN vulnerability...
December 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904490/antidepressant-effect-of-electroacupuncture-regulates-signal-targeting-in-the-brain-and-increases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels
#5
Dong-Mei Duan, Ya Tu, Ping Liu, Shuang Jiao
Electroacupuncture improves depressive behavior faster and with fewer adverse effects than antidepressant medication. However, the antidepressant mechanism of electroacupuncture remains poorly understood. Here, we established a rat model of chronic unpredicted mild stress, and then treated these rats with electroacupuncture at Yintang (EX-HN3) and Baihui (DU20) with sparse waves at 2 Hz and 0.6 mA for 30 minutes, once a day. We found increased horizontal and vertical activity, and decreased immobility time, at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882154/kai-xin-san-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-formulation-exerts-antidepressive-and-neuroprotective-effects-by-promoting-pcreb-upstream-pathways
#6
Xian-Zhe Dong, Dong-Xiao Wang, Bing-Ying Yu, Ping Liu, Yuan Hu
Kai-Xin-San (KXS) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used for the treatment of emotion-related disease. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine whether phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and upstream components, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phospho-ERK (pERK), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and pGSK3β are associated with the antidepressive effect of KXS...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881780/negative-allosteric-modulation-of-mglur5-partially-corrects-pathophysiology-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#7
Jifang Tao, Hao Wu, Amanda A Coronado, Elizabeth de Laittre, Emily K Osterweil, Yi Zhang, Mark F Bear
: Rett syndrome (RTT) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2), an epigenetic regulator of mRNA transcription. Here, we report a test of the hypothesis of shared pathophysiology of RTT and fragile X, another monogenic cause of autism and intellectual disability. In fragile X, the loss of the mRNA translational repressor FMRP leads to exaggerated protein synthesis downstream of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). We found that mGluR5- and protein-synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity were similarly altered in area CA1 of Mecp2 KO mice...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880914/neuronal-ctcf-is-necessary-for-basal-and-experience-dependent-gene-regulation-memory-formation-and-genomic-structure-of-bdnf-and-arc
#8
Dev Sharan Sams, Stefano Nardone, Dmitriy Getselter, Dana Raz, Moran Tal, Prudhvi Raj Rayi, Hanoch Kaphzan, Ofir Hakim, Evan Elliott
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an organizer of higher-order chromatin structure and regulates gene expression. Genetic studies have implicated mutations in CTCF in intellectual disabilities. However, the role of CTCF-mediated chromatin structure in learning and memory is unclear. We show that depletion of CTCF in postmitotic neurons, or depletion in the hippocampus of adult mice through viral-mediated knockout, induces deficits in learning and memory. These deficits in learning and memory at the beginning of adulthood are correlated with impaired long-term potentiation and reduced spine density, with no changes in basal synaptic transmission and dendritic morphogenesis and arborization...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865893/sex-and-genetic-differences-in-the-effects-of-acute-diesel-exhaust-exposure-on-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-mouse-brain
#9
Toby B Cole, Jacki Coburn, Khoi Dao, Pam Roqué, Yu-Chi Chang, Vrinda Kalia, Tomas R Guilarte, Jennifer Dziedzic, Lucio G Costa
In addition to increased morbidity and mortality caused by respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, air pollution may also contribute to central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to global air pollution, and diesel exhaust (DE) is its most important component. DE contains more than 40 toxic air pollutants and is a major constituent of ambient particulate matter (PM), particularly of ultrafine-PM. Limited information suggests that exposure to DE may cause oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the CNS...
November 16, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845167/synapse-organization-and-modulation-via-c1q-family-proteins-and-their-receptors-in-the-central-nervous-system
#10
REVIEW
Keiko Matsuda
Several C1q family members, related to the C1q complement component are highly and predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. Cbln1, which belongs to the Cbln subfamily of C1q proteins, is released from cerebellar granule cells and plays a crucial role in the formation and function of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. This is achieved by formation of a trans-synaptic tripartite complex which is composed of one unit of the Cbln1 hexamer, monomeric neurexin (NRX) containing a splice site 4 insertion at presynaptic terminals and the postsynaptic GluD2 dimers...
November 11, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845056/antidepressant-like-effects-of-yl-ipa08-a-potent-ligand-for-the-translocator-protein-18%C3%A2-kda-in-chronically-stressed-rats
#11
Li-Ming Zhang, Yu-Lu Wang, Yan-Qin Liu, Rui Xue, You-Zhi Zhang, Ri-Fang Yang, Yun-Feng Li
The present study aimed to examine the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like effect of YL-IPA08, a novel TSPO ligand designed and synthesized at our institute. We firstly used the chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) procedure of rats, a well validated stress-related animal model of depression, to further determine the antidepressant-like of YL-IPA08. And we found that YL-IPA08 caused significant suppression of inhibiting of locomotor activity, reducing the sucrose preference and increasing the latency to eat induced by CUS...
February 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834284/brain-energy-metabolism-and-neuroinflammation-in-ageing-app-ps1-21-mice-using-longitudinal-18f-fdg-and-18f-dpa-714-pet-imaging
#12
Jatta S Takkinen, Francisco R López-Picón, Rana Al Majidi, Olli Eskola, Anna Krzyczmonik, Thomas Keller, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Olof Solin, Juha O Rinne, Merja Haaparanta-Solin
Preclinical animal model studies of brain energy metabolism and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease have produced conflicting results, hampering both the elucidation of the underlying disease mechanism and the development of effective Alzheimer's disease therapies. Here, we aimed to quantify the relationship between brain energy metabolism and neuroinflammation in the APP/PS1-21 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease using longitudinal in vivo (18)F-FDG and (18)F-DPA-714) PET imaging and ex vivo brain autoradiography...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831486/ontogeny-of-norepinephrine-transporter-expression-and-antidepressant-like-response-to-desipramine-in-wild-type-and-serotonin-transporter-mutant-mice
#13
Nathan C Mitchell, Melodi A Bowman, Georgianna G Gould, Wouter Koek, Lynette C Daws
Depression is a major public health concern with symptoms that are often poorly controlled by treatment with common antidepressants. This problem is compounded in juveniles and adolescents, because therapeutic options are limited to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Moreover, therapeutic benefits of SSRIs are often especially limited in certain subpopulations of depressed patients, including children and carriers of low-expressing serotonin transporter (SERT) gene variants. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) offer an alternative to SSRIs; however, how age and SERT expression influence antidepressant response to TCAs is not understood...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826950/effects-of-common-anesthetic-agents-on-18-f-flumazenil-binding-to-the-gabaa-receptor
#14
Mikael Palner, Corinne Beinat, Sam Banister, Francesca Zanderigo, Jun Hyung Park, Bin Shen, Trine Hjoernevik, Jae Ho Jung, Byung Chul Lee, Sang Eun Kim, Lawrence Fung, Frederick T Chin
BACKGROUND: The availability of GABAA receptor binding sites in the brain can be assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) using the radioligand, [(18)F]flumazenil. However, the brain uptake and binding of this PET radioligand are influenced by anesthetic drugs, which are typically needed in preclinical imaging studies and clinical imaging studies involving patient populations that do not tolerate relatively longer scan times. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of anesthesia on the binding of [(18)F]flumazenil to GABAA receptors in mice...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813694/autophagy-flux-in-ca1-neurons-of-alzheimer-hippocampus-increased-induction-overburdens-failing-lysosomes-to-propel-neuritic-dystrophy
#15
Matteo Bordi, Martin J Berg, Panaiyur S Mohan, Corrinne M Peterhoff, Melissa J Alldred, Shaoli Che, Stephen D Ginsberg, Ralph A Nixon
Defective autophagy contributes to Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis although evidence is conflicting on whether multiple stages are impaired. Here, for the first time, we have comprehensively evaluated the entire autophagic process specifically in CA1 pyramidal neurons of hippocampus from early and late-stage AD subjects and nondemented controls. CA1 neurons aspirated by laser capture microdissection were analyzed using a custom-designed microarray comprising 578 neuropathology- and neuroscience-associated genes...
December 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792185/lycopersicon-esculentum-extract-enhances-cognitive-function-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-aged-mice
#16
Jung-Soo Bae, Mira Han, Hee Soon Shin, Dong-Hwa Shon, Soon-Tae Lee, Chang-Yup Shin, Yuri Lee, Dong Hun Lee, Jin Ho Chung
A decrease in adult neurogenesis is associated with the aging process, and this decrease is closely related to memory impairment. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a fruit with diverse bioactive nutrients that is consumed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the cognition-enhancing effect of tomato ethanolic extracts (TEE) in aged mice. Six weeks of oral TEE administration in 12-month-old aged mice significantly increased their exploration time of novel objects when compared to vehicle-treated mice. The TEE supplement increased doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) expression in mice hippocampus...
October 26, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771396/electroacupuncture-pretreatment-with-different-waveforms-prevents-brain-injury-in-rats-subjected-to-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-via-inhibiting-microglial-activation-and-attenuating-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#17
Ye Chen, Yu Lei, Li-Qun Mo, Jun Li, Mao-Hua Wang, Ji-Cheng Wei, Jun Zhou
Sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was to investigate the protective effects of electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment with different waveforms on septic brain injury in rats and its mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated by EA with different waveforms (continuous wave, dilatational wave, or intermittent wave) at Baihui (GV20) and Tsusanli (ST36) acupoints for 30min, and underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation. The results showed that EA pretreatment with different waveforms improved survival rate, attenuated encephaledema, brain injury, neuronal apoptosis and cognitive dysfunction, and preserved blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
October 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770470/altered-interregional-molecular-associations-of-the-serotonin-transporter-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-assessed-with-pet
#18
Thomas Vanicek, Alexandra Kutzelnigg, Cecile Philippe, Helen L Sigurdardottir, Gregory M James, Andreas Hahn, Georg S Kranz, Anna Höflich, Alexander Kautzky, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Altered serotonergic neurotransmission has been found to cause impulsive and aggressive behavior, as well as increased motor activity, all exemplifying key symptoms of ADHD. The main objectives of this positron emission tomography (PET) study were to investigate the serotonin transporter binding potential (SERT BPND ) in patients with ADHD and to assess associations of SERT BPND between the brain regions. 25 medication-free patients with ADHD (age ± SD; 32.39 ± 10.15; 10 females) without any psychiatric comorbidity and 25 age and sex matched healthy control subjects (33...
October 22, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768969/taurine-promotes-cognitive-function-in-prenatally-stressed-juvenile-rats-via-activating-the-akt-creb-pgc1%C3%AE-pathway
#19
Ning Jia, Qinru Sun, Qian Su, Shaokang Dang, Guomin Chen
Substantial evidence has shown that the oxidative damage to hippocampal neurons is associated with the cognitive impairment induced by adverse stimuli during gestation named prenatal stress (PS). Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, possesses multiple roles in the brain as a neuromodulator or antioxidant. In this study, to explore the roles of taurine in PS-induced learning and memory impairment, prenatal restraint stress was set up and Morris water maze (MWM) was employed for testing the cognitive function in the one-month-old rat offspring...
October 13, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766083/behavioral-neuroadaptation-to-alcohol-from-glucocorticoids-to-histone-acetylation
#20
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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