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Glutamatergic dysregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709906/effects-of-feeding-time-on-daily-rhythms-of-neuropeptide-and-clock-gene-expression-in-the-rat-hypothalamus
#1
Dawei Wang, Anne-Loes Opperhuizen, Jane Reznick, Nigel Turner, Yan Su, Gregory J Cooney, Andries Kalsbeek
Shiftworkers are exposed to several adverse health conditions, one being eating at night. Food consumption at an unnatural time-of-day is thought to be one of the main factors responsible for the increased risk of developing metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. The underlying mechanism is considered to include disruption of the circadian organization of physiology, leading to disruption of metabolism. When food is consumed at night, the hypothalamus, a brain region central to homeostasis, receives contradicting input from the central clock and the systemic circulation...
July 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683776/trpa1-channels-promote-astrocytic-ca-2-hyperactivity-and-synaptic-dysfunction-mediated-by-oligomeric-forms-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide
#2
Anthony Bosson, Adrien Paumier, Sylvie Boisseau, Muriel Jacquier-Sarlin, Alain Buisson, Mireille Albrieux
BACKGROUND: Excessive synaptic loss is thought to be one of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the key mechanisms that maintain plasticity of synapses during adulthood or initiate synapse dysfunction in AD remain unknown. Recent studies suggest that astrocytes contribute to functional changes observed during synaptic plasticity and play a major role in synaptic dysfunction but astrocytes behavior and involvement in early phases of AD remained largely undefined. METHODS: We measure astrocytic calcium activity in mouse CA1 hippocampus stratum radiatum in both the global astrocytic population and at a single cell level, focusing in the highly compartmentalized astrocytic arbor...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676016/resilience-dysregulation-in-major-depressive-disorder-focus-on-glutamatergic-imbalance-and-microglial-activation
#3
Gislaine Z Réus, Airam B de Moura, Ritele H Silva, Wilson R Resende, João Quevedo
Many studies have been shown an important role of glutamatergic system as well microglial activation in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Experimental and clinical data suggest that attenuation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function exerts antidepressant effects. Glutamatergic system is involved with memory establishment and function, and it regulates plasticity in the brain. Microglial cells play pivotal role to the brain functions; however, under chronic inflammation status microglial could be turn activated and increase the pro-inflammatory cytokines...
July 3, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676011/resilience-dysregulation-in-major-depressive-disorder-focus-on-glutamatergic-imbalance-and-microglial-activation
#4
Gislaine Z Réus, Airam B de Moura, Ritele H Silva, Wilson R Resende, João Quevedo
Many studies have been shown an important role of glutamatergic system as well microglial activation in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Experimental and clinical data suggest that attenuation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function exerts antidepressant effects. Glutamatergic system is involved with memory establishment and function, and it regulates plasticity in the brain. Microglial cells play pivotal role to the brain functions; however, under chronic inflammation status microglial could be turn activated and increase the pro-inflammatory cytokines...
June 30, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622282/towards-a-neurobiological-understanding-of-alexithymia
#5
REVIEW
Nicolás Meza-Concha, Marcelo Arancibia, Felicia Salas, Rosa Behar, Germán Salas, Hernán Silva, Rocío Escobar
Although the specialized literature on the etiology of alexithymia is controversial, neurobiological research has shown relevant advances. The aim of this review is to analyze the available evidence regarding the neurophysiological bases of alexithymia. A comprehensive review of available articles from Medline/PubMed, EBSCO and SciELO was conducted. Previously, alexithymia was linked to a reduced interhemispheric brain connection. From a childhood traumatic perspective, the right prefrontal cortex and the default mode network would experience alterations, first hypermetabolic (dopaminergic and glutamatergic dysregulation) and then hypometabolic-dissociative (serotonergic and opioid dysregulation), resulting in a distorted interoceptive and emotional awareness...
May 29, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605494/glutamate-transport-a-new-bench-to-bedside-mechanism-for-treating-drug-abuse
#6
Sade Spencer, Peter W Kalivas
Drug addiction has often been described as a "hijacking" of the brain circuits involved in learning and memory. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and its contribution to synaptic plasticity and learning processes is well established in animal models. Likewise, over the past twenty years the addiction field has ascribed a critical role for glutamatergic transmission in the development of addiction. Chronic drug use produces enduring neuroadaptations in corticostriatal projections that are believed to contribute to a maladaptive deficit in inhibitory control over behavior...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580666/connexins-and-pannexins-at-the-junction-of-neuro-glial-homeostasis-disease
#7
REVIEW
Andrew S Lapato, Seema K Tiwari-Woodruff
In the central nervous system (CNS), connexin (Cx)s and pannexin (Panx)s are an integral component of homeostatic neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity. Neuronal Cx gap junctions form electrical synapses across biochemically similar GABAergic networks, allowing rapid and extensive inhibition in response to principle neuron excitation. Glial Cx gap junctions link astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the pan-glial network that is responsible for removing excitotoxic ions and metabolites. In addition, glial gap junctions help constrain excessive excitatory activity in neurons and facilitate astrocyte Ca(2+) slow wave propagation...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540422/loss-and-remodeling-of-striatal-dendritic-spines-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-homeostasis-to-maladaptive-plasticity
#8
REVIEW
Rosa M Villalba, Yoland Smith
In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and animal models of PD, the progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) projection leads to two major changes in the morphology of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), i.e., a profound loss of dendritic spines and the remodeling of axospinous glutamatergic synapses. Striatal spine loss is an early event tightly associated with the extent of striatal DA denervation, but not the severity of parkinsonian motor symptoms, suggesting that striatal spine pruning might be a form of homeostatic plasticity that compensates for the loss of striatal DA innervation and the resulting dysregulation of corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444183/calcium-dysregulation-and-cdk5-atm-pathway-involved-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome
#9
Gaëlle Robin, José R López, Glenda M Espinal, Susan Hulsizer, Paul J Hagerman, Isaac N Pessah
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurological disorder that affects premutation carriers with 55-200 CGG-expansion repeats (preCGG) in FMR1, presenting with early alterations in neuronal network formation and function that precede neurodegeneration. Whether intranuclear inclusions containing DNA damage response (DDR) proteins, are causally linked to abnormal synaptic function, neuronal growth and survival are unknown. In a mouse that harbors a premutation CGG expansion (preCGG), cortical and hippocampal FMRP expression is moderately reduced from birth through adulthood, with greater FMRP reductions in the soma than in the neurite, despite several-fold elevation of Fmr1 mRNA levels...
April 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442364/effects-of-repeated-cocaine-exposure-and-withdrawal-on-voluntary-ethanol-drinking-and-the-expression-of-glial-glutamate-transporters-in-mesocorticolimbic-system-of-p-rats
#10
Alaa M Hammad, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Sujan C Das, Youssef Sari
Glutamatergic neurotransmission within the brain's reward circuits plays a major role in the reinforcing properties of both ethanol and cocaine. Glutamate homeostasis is regulated by several glutamate transporters, including glutamate transporter type 1 (GLT-1), cystine/glutamate transporter (xCT), and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST). Cocaine exposure has been shown to induce a dysregulation in glutamate homeostasis and a decrease in the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In this study, alcohol preferring (P) rats were exposed to free-choice of ethanol (15% and 30%) and/or water for five weeks...
April 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416811/gene-deficiency-and-pharmacological-inhibition-of-caspase-1-confers-resilience-to-chronic-social-defeat-stress-via-regulating-the-stability-of-surface-ampars
#11
M-X Li, H-L Zheng, Y Luo, J-G He, W Wang, J Han, L Zhang, X Wang, L Ni, H-Y Zhou, Z-L Hu, P-F Wu, Y Jin, L-H Long, H Zhang, G Hu, J-G Chen, F Wang
Both inflammatory processes and glutamatergic systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood-related disorders. However, the role of caspase-1, a classic inflammatory caspase, in behavioral responses to chronic stress remains largely unknown. To address this issue, we examined the effects and underlying mechanisms of caspase-1 on preclinical murine models of depression. We found that loss of caspase-1 expression in Caspase-1(-/-) knockout mice alleviated chronic stress-induced depression-like behaviors, whereas overexpression of caspase-1 in the hippocampus of wild-type (WT) mice was sufficient to induce depression- and anxiety-like behaviors...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412922/abnormalities-in-kynurenine-pathway-metabolism-in-treatment-resistant-depression-and-suicidality-a-systematic-review
#12
Gianluca Serafini, Giulia Adavastro, Giovanna Canepa, Laura Capobianco, Claudia Conigliaro, Federica Pittaluga, Martino Belvederi Murri, Alessandro Valchera, Domenico De Berardis, Maurizio Pompili, Daniel Lindqvist, Lena Brundin, Mario Amore
Treatment resistant depression (TRD) and suicidal behavior are among the most important public health problems and are commonly associated with significant disability and psychosocial impairment. Although there have been recent advances in identifying neurobiological correlates of these complex conditions, their pathophysiology still remains unclear. Although the recent advances concerning the neurobiological determinants underlying these complex conditions, their pathophysiology still remains unclear. Compared to non-suicidal subjects, higher mean concentrations of inflammatory mediators have been found in both the periphery and brain of individuals at risk for suicide...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363984/blood-pressure-regulation-by-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-in-conscious-rats-effects-of-hypoxia-hypercapnia-baroreceptor-denervation-and-anesthesia
#13
Ian C Wenker, Chikara Abe, Kenneth E Viar, Daniel S Stornetta, Ruth L Stornetta, Patrice G Guyenet
Current understanding of the contribution of C1 neurons to blood pressure (BP) regulation derives predominantly from experiments performed in anesthetized animals or reduced ex vivo preparations. Here, we use ArchaerhodopsinT3.0 (ArchT) loss-of-function optogenetics to explore BP regulation by C1 neurons in intact, unanesthetized rats. Using a lentivirus that expresses ArchT under the Phox2b-activated promoter PRSx8 (PRSx8-ArchT), ∼65% of transduced neurons were C1 (balance retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN). Other rats received CaMKII-ArchT3...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350845/abnormal-expression-of-mrna-microrna-alteration-and-aberrant-dna-methylation-patterns-in-rectal-adenocarcinoma
#14
Yang Hua, Xiukun Ma, Xianglong Liu, Xiangfei Yuan, Hai Qin, Xipeng Zhang
AIM: Rectal adenocarcinoma (READ) is a malignancy cancer with the high morbidity and motility worldwide. Our study aimed to explore the potential pathogenesis of READ through integrated analysis of gene expression profiling and DNA methylation data. METHODS: The miRNA, mRNA expression profiling and corresponding DNA methylation data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Differentially expressed mRNAs/ miRNAs/methylated regions (DEmRNA/DEmiRNAs) were identified in READ...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322275/oxidative-stress-driven-parvalbumin-interneuron-impairment-as-a-common-mechanism-in-models-of-schizophrenia
#15
P Steullet, J-H Cabungcal, J Coyle, M Didriksen, K Gill, A A Grace, T K Hensch, A-S LaMantia, L Lindemann, T M Maynard, U Meyer, H Morishita, P O'Donnell, M Puhl, M Cuenod, K Q Do
Parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons (PVIs) are crucial for maintaining proper excitatory/inhibitory balance and high-frequency neuronal synchronization. Their activity supports critical developmental trajectories, sensory and cognitive processing, and social behavior. Despite heterogeneity in the etiology across schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder, PVI circuits are altered in these psychiatric disorders. Identifying mechanism(s) underlying PVI deficits is essential to establish treatments targeting in particular cognition...
July 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322273/neuregulin-2-ablation-results-in-dopamine-dysregulation-and-severe-behavioral-phenotypes-relevant-to-psychiatric-disorders
#16
L Yan, A Shamir, M Skirzewski, E Leiva-Salcedo, O B Kwon, I Karavanova, D Paredes, O Malkesman, K R Bailey, D Vullhorst, J N Crawley, A Buonanno
Numerous genetic and functional studies implicate variants of Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and its neuronal receptor ErbB4 in schizophrenia and many of its endophenotypes. Although the neurophysiological and behavioral phenotypes of NRG1 mutant mice have been investigated extensively, practically nothing is known about the function of NRG2, the closest NRG1 homolog. We found that NRG2 expression in the adult rodent brain does not overlap with NRG1 and is more extensive than originally reported, including expression in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and therefore generated NRG2 knockout mice (KO) to study its function...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209423/constitutive-increases-in-amygdalar-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-drive-an-anxious-phenotype
#17
Luis A Natividad, Matthew W Buczynski, Melissa A Herman, Dean Kirson, Christopher S Oleata, Cristina Irimia, Ilham Polis, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Marisa Roberto, Loren H Parsons
BACKGROUND: Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mediates anxiogenic responses by activating CRF type 1 (CRF1) receptors in limbic brain regions. Anxiety is further modulated by the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system that attenuates the synaptic effects of stress. In the amygdala, acute stress activates the enzymatic clearance of the eCB N-arachidonoylethanolamine via fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), although it is unclear whether chronic dysregulation of CRF systems induces maladaptive changes in amygdalar eCB signaling...
January 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121123/n-methyl-d-aspartate-modulation-of-nucleus-accumbens-dopamine-release-by-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-fast-cyclic-voltammetry-studies-in-rat-brain-slices-in-vitro
#18
Ersin Yavas, Andrew M J Young
The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, phencyclidine, induces behavioral changes in rodents mimicking symptoms of schizophrenia, possibly mediated through dysregulation of glutamatergic control of mesolimbic dopamine release. We tested the hypothesis that NMDA receptor activation modulates accumbens dopamine release, and that phencyclidine pretreatment altered this modulation. NMDA caused a receptor-specific, dose-dependent decrease in electrically stimulated dopamine release in nucleus accumbens brain slices...
February 1, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100738/mir-142-3p-is-a-key-regulator-of-il-1%C3%AE-dependent-synaptopathy-in-neuroinflammation
#19
Georgia Mandolesi, Francesca De Vito, Alessandra Musella, Antonietta Gentile, Silvia Bullitta, Diego Fresegna, Helena Sepman, Claudio Di Sanza, Nabila Haji, Francesco Mori, Fabio Buttari, Emerald Perlas, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Eran Hornstein, Irene Bozzoni, Carlo Presutti, Diego Centonze
MicroRNAs (miRNA) play an important role in post-transcriptional gene regulation of several physiological and pathological processes. In multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory and degenerative disease of the CNS, and in its mouse model, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), miRNA dysregulation has been mainly related to immune system dysfunction and white matter (WM) pathology. However, little is known about their role in gray matter pathology. Here, we explored miRNA involvement in the inflammation-driven alterations of synaptic structure and function, collectively known as synaptopathy, a neuropathological process contributing to excitotoxic neurodegeneration in MS/EAE...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074534/depolarizing-gaba-contributes-to-glutamatergic-network-rewiring-in-epilepsy
#20
Nazim Kourdougli, Christophe Pellegrino, Juho-Matti Renko, Stanislav Khirug, Geneviève Chazal, Tiina-Kaisa Kukko-Lukjanov, Sari E Lauri, Jean-Luc Gaiarsa, Liang Zhou, Angélique Peret, Eero Castrén, Raimo Kalevi Tuominen, Valérie Crépel, Claudio Rivera
OBJECTIVE: Rewiring of excitatory glutamatergic neuronal circuits is a major abnormality in epilepsy. Besides the rewiring of excitatory circuit, an abnormal depolarizing GABAergic drive has been hypothesized to participate in the epileptogenic processes. However, a remaining clinically relevant question is whether early post Status Epilepticus (SE) evoked chloride dysregulation is important for the remodeling of aberrant glutamatergic neuronal circuit. METHODS: Osmotic mini-pumps were used to infuse intracerebrally a specific inhibitor of depolarizing GABAergic transmission as well as a functionally blocking antibody towards the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75(NTR) )...
January 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
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