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Michael A Jensen, Ronald W Davis
There is a growing demand for sustainable methods in research and development, where instead of hazardous chemicals, an aqueous medium is chosen to perform biological reactions. In this Perspective, we examine the history and current methodology of using enzymes to generate artificial single-stranded DNA. By using traditional solid-phase phosphoramidite chemistry as a metric, we also explore criteria for the method of template-independent enzymatic oligonucleotide synthesis (TiEOS). As its key component, we delve into the biology of one of the most enigmatic enzymes, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)...
March 13, 2018: Biochemistry
Jing Liu, Jia-Xin Shen, De He, Guo-Jun Zhang
PURPOSE: Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) are not only involved in the formation of malignant tumors but also in the processes of differentiation and aggressiveness. However, current methods for detecting miRNA expression have major disadvantages, such as being invasive and non-reproducible. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated as a pivotal event in the metastasis, stemness, and chemoresistance of malignant tumors. PROCEDURES: In our study, we constructed a new reporter gene, Luc2/tdT_miR200c_3TS, to examine the in vitro and in vivo expression of miR-200c, an EMT-associated miRNA...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Wen-Jie Lu, Wen Peng, Qian-Qian Sun, Yong-Huai Li, Bo Chen, Luo-Ting Yu, You-Zhi Xu, Si-Ying Wang, Ying-Lan Zhao
Arresting cell cycle has been one of the most common approaches worldwide in cancer therapy. Specifically, arresting cells in the G2/M phase is a promising therapeutic approach in the battle against lung cancer. In the present study, we demonstrated the anticancer activities and possible mechanism of compound #2714, which can prompt G2/M phase arrest followed by cell apoptosis induction in Lewis lung carcinoma LL/2 cells. In vitro, #2714 significantly inhibited LL/2 cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner while exhibiting few toxicities on non-cancer cells...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Xin Qing, Annie Qing, Ping Ji, Samuel W French, Holli Mason
BACKGROUND: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome generated by the reciprocal translocation t(9,22)(q34;q11). The natural progression of the disease follows a biphasic or triphasic course. Most cases of CML are diagnosed in the chronic phase. Extramedullary blast crisis rarely occurs during the course of CML, and is extremely rare as the initial presentation of CML. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report the case of a 32-year-old female with enlarged neck lymph nodes and fatigue...
March 1, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Nenad Kunac, Željko Šundov, Katarina Vilović
The development of colorectal cancer is known to be characterized by a sequence of events during which normal colonic epithelium gradually transforms to carcinoma, the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Apoptosis plays an important role in the development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Currently, there is no agreement in the literature about the prognosis of apoptosis in colorectal cancer. The number of studies examining the expression of caspases in colorectal cancer is very limited, and they have not examined any correlation between expression and patient survival...
February 27, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Niyazi Küçük
The questionable effectiveness of routine sperm parameters in determining male factor infertility problems and increasing the success rates of assisted reproductive techniques have led to the investigation of more detailed sperm parameters that could affect the male fertility and reproduction. Thus, the effects of different sperm parameters such as sperm DNA integrity was started to be investigated thanks to the previously described methods such as single cell gel electrophoresis (COMET) assay, sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), acridine orange test (AOT), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine (TdT) triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test...
January 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Tayfun Kara, İsmail Akaltun, Bedia Cakmakoglu, İlyas Kaya, Salih Zoroğlu
Objective: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a complex pathophysiology including genetic, inflammatory and neurodevelopmental components. We aim to investigate the relationship between ASD and gene polymorphisms of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4), which may affect inflammatory and neurodevelopmental processes. Methods: 101 children diagnosed with ASD aged 2-18 and their biological parents were included in the study...
February 22, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Wenyan Zhao, Donghua Geng, Shuqiang Li, Zhaofu Chen, Ming Sun
To study the regulatory effect of lncRNA HOTAIR/miR-20a-5p/HMGA2 axis on breast cancer (BC) cell growth, cell mobility, invasiveness, and apoptosis. The microarray data of lncRNAs and mRNAs with differential expression in BC tissues were analyzed in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. LncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (lncRNA HOTAIR) expression in BC was assessed by qRT-PCR. Cell viability was confirmed using MTT and colony formation assay. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Wei Cao, Junqiang Zhang, Gaoyuan Wang, Jinsen Lu, Taorong Wang, Xiaoyu Chen
In rheumatoid arthritis patients, the fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) growth is not controlled normally, but is similar to the tumor cells proliferation in histology. Our previous studies have shown that resveratrol inhibits the proliferation of FLS and promotes FLS apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in resveratrol-induced FLS apoptosis have not been determined yet. Here, we showed that the FLS cell viability (following pretreatment with 5 µM H2 O2 for 24 h) exhibited better proliferation performance than at other concentrations via the CCK-8 assay...
February 20, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Yesim Aydinok
Introduction of MRI techniques for identifying and monitoring tissue iron overload and the current understanding of iron homeostasis in transfusion-dependent (TDT) and non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia have allowed for a more robust administration of iron chelation therapies. The development of safe and efficient oral iron chelators and the insights gained from large-scale prospective studies using these agents have improved iron overload management. A significant reduction in iron toxicity-induced morbidity and mortality and improvements in quality of life were observed in TDT...
April 2018: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Alessia Marcon, Irene Motta, Ali T Taher, Maria Domenica Cappellini
The hallmarks of thalassemias are ineffective erythropoiesis and peripheral hemolysis leading to a cascade of events responsible for several clinical complications. This pathophysiologic mechanism can be partially controlled by blood transfusions or by correction of the severity of ineffective erythropoiesis. Thalassemias include a spectrum of phenotypes. Two main groups can be clinically distinguished: transfusion-dependent (TDT) and non-transfusion-dependent (NTDT) thalassemia. Both conditions are characterized by several clinical complications along life; some are shared, whereas some have higher prevalence in one group over the other...
April 2018: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Alexander Brobeil, Florian Wagenlehner, Stefan Gattenlöhner
Seminomas are the most frequent testicular tumors and in spite of specific markers some histological subtypes can be diagnostically challenging due to the potential overlap of morphologic features and a variant antigen expression. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) is a DNA polymerase present in hematogones, thymic T cells, lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (LBL), and in some cases of acute myeloid leukemia but so far has not been described to be expressed in seminomas. After observing a reactivity of TdT in one case of seminoma, we analyzed ten additional tumors by immunohistochemistry to determine their spectrum of reactivity for TdT...
February 18, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Fengzhou Xu, Lan Luo, Hui Shi, Xiaoxiao He, Yanli Lei, Jinlu Tang, Dinggeng He, Zhenzhen Qiao, Kemin Wang
Poly(thymine)-hosted copper nanoparticles (poly T-CuNPs) have emerged as a promising label-free fluorophore for bioanalysis, but its application in RNA-related studies is still rarely explored. Herein, by utilizing duplex-specific nuclease (DSN) as a convertor to integrate target recycling mechanism into terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated superlong poly T-CuNPs platform, a specific and sensitive method for microRNA detection has been developed. In this strategy, a 3'-phosphorylated DNA probe can hybridize with target RNA and then be cut by DSN to produce 3'-hydroxylated fragments, which can be further tailed by TdT with superlong poly T for fluorescent CuNPs synthesis...
June 20, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Prakash Seppan, Ibrahim Muhammed, Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj, Ganesh Lakshmanan, Dinesh Premavathy, Sakthi Jothi Muthu, Khayinmi Wungmarong Shimray, Sathya Bharathy Sathyanathan
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of ethanolic seed extract of Mucuna pruriens on damaged dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP) in aged rat in relation to penile erection. METHODS: The rats were divided into four groups Young (3 months), Aged (24 - 28 months), Aged + M. pruriens, and Young + M. pruriens (200 mg/kg b.w/60 days) and were subjected to the hypophysial - gonadal axis, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and penile reflex. DNP sections were stained with nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NaDPH) diaphorase, androgen receptor (AR), and osmium tetroxide...
February 15, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
Rebecca B Beck, Eavan M McGovern, John S Butler, Dorina Birsanu, Brendan Quinlivan, Ines Beiser, Shruti Narasimham, Sean O'Riordan, Michael Hutchinson, Richard B Reilly
The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which an observer can discriminate two sequential stimuli as being asynchronous (typically 30-50 ms). It has been shown to be abnormal (prolonged) in neurological disorders, including cervical dystonia, a phenotype of adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia. The TDT is a quantitative measure of the ability to perceive rapid changes in the environment and is considered indicative of the behavior of the visual neurons in the superior colliculus, a key node in covert attentional orienting...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Y Jin, L-Q Peng, A-L Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the changes of surfactant protein C, D (SP-C, SP-D) and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in the lung injury of neonatal rats induced by hyperoxia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We divided neonatal rats within 24 hours into two groups randomly: the air group (n = 50) and the hyperoxia group (n = 50). Rats in the air group and hyperoxia group were bred conventionally and in tanks with normal pressure and 90% concentration of oxygen, respectively...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
R Tang, J-C Wu, L-M Zheng, Z-R Li, K-L Zhou, Z-S Zhang, D-F Xu, C Chen
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at exploring the expression and prognostic values of a novel long noncoding RNA RUSC1-AS-N in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to investigate the biological roles of RUSC1-AS-N in HCC cells. PATIENTS AND METHODS: RUSC1-AS-N expression in public available microarray data was analyzed. The expression of RUSC1-AS-N in our cohort containing 66 HCC tissues and paired adjacent non-cancerous hepatic tissues was measured by qRT-PCR. The correlation between RUSC1-AS-N expression and clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated by Pearson χ2-test...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Xiaoxi Kou, Rui Li, Lixia Hou, Lihui Zhang, Shaojin Wang
Radio frequency (RF) heating has been successfully used for inactivating microorganisms in agricultural and food products. Athermal (non-thermal) effects of RF energy on microorganisms have been frequently proposed in the literature, resulting in difficulties for developing effective thermal treatment protocols. The purpose of this study was to identify if the athermal inactivation of microorganisms existed during RF treatments. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in apple juice and mashed potato were exposed to both RF and conventional thermal energies to compare their inactivation populations...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Xiao-Dong Zhang, Li-Ming He, Lei Ma, Zhang-Guo Chang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relevance between the expression of C-MYC gene and protein of patients with T lymphoblastic lymphoma and leukemia(T-LBL/ALL) and its effect on the prognosis. METHODS: Paraffin specimens from 60 cases of T-LBL/ALL with detailed follow-up during May 2005 to May 2016 were selected as study group; at same time 20 cases of reactive hyperplasia (RH) of lymphonuedes were selected as control group. The immunohistochemical EnVision method was used to mark the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TDT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), Ki-67 and C-MYC immune tissue...
February 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Yang Wu, Hong-Yan Tang, Yi-Yi Ding, Xiao-Qin Pan, Chuan-Mei Tan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of of CD, MPO, Ki-67, C-MYC positive rates in the pathological tissues and C-MYC gene of patients with T-LBL/ALL for predicting Prognosis. METHODS: Ninty cases of T-LBL/ALL patients in our hospital were selected and included in the T-LBL/ALL group, and 30 cases of lymphnode reactive hyperplasia were selected as control group. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the changes of CD, MPO, Ki-67 and C-MYC positive rate in 2 groups, and the changes of C-MYC gene were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization...
February 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
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