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pre operative antibiotics

Nicholas Brandmeir, Elena Nehrbass, James McInerney
INTRODUCTION:  Deep brain stimulator (DBS) infections are a persistent problem for patients undergoing this procedure. They may require further surgery, treatment with antibiotics, or even removal of the device. To date, no consensus exists on the best practices to avoid DBS infections or what factors predispose patients to an eventual infection. The goal of this study was to examine several patient factors for association with DBS infection. METHODS:  A single-center, single-surgeon quality improvement database was queried...
September 20, 2016: Curēus
Alexandria F Jaksha, Erik K Weitzel, Adrienne M Laury
Rhinosinusitis affects a significant portion of the US population, and its management imposes a substantial burden on the healthcare system. The treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis includes initial medical management prior to consideration of surgical intervention. However, if surgery does become necessary, several factors must be considered in order to optimize outcomes. This review evaluates surgical patient selection, perioperative medical management, and the extent of operative intervention, with the goal of improving surgical results, decreasing the need for revision surgery, and enhancing the patient's quality of life...
2016: F1000Research
Krishna Patel, Kathleyn Brandstetter
Allogenic implants are an effective alternative to autologous grafts in the reconstruction of facial defects. These implants are used to reconstruct a variety of bony and soft-tissue defects, including the frontal and temporal regions; internal orbit; infraorbital rim; malar, paranasal, and nasal regions; mandible; and chin. In comparison to their autologous counterparts, alloplastic materials are more readily available, lack donor-site morbidity, decrease surgical time and cost, and still have relatively good postoperative tissue tolerance...
October 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
Denis Gümbel, Gerrit Matthes, Matthias Napp, Jörn Lange, Peter Hinz, Romy Spitzmüller, Axel Ekkernkamp
BACKGROUND: Open fractures are orthopaedic emergencies that carry a high risk for infection, non-union and soft tissue complications. Evidence-based treatment is impeded by the lack of high-quality evidence-based studies. The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the current practice of open fracture management in Germany and to determine major differences in treatment. METHODS: Surgeons were asked to complete an online questionnaire consisting of 45 items developed by an expert consensus...
September 15, 2016: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
M Haiun, D Feuvrier, T Bayti, I Pluvy, J Pauchot
INTRODUCTION: Retrospective study about pressure ulcers surgical treatments in a series of 61 in 43 patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the management of pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury patients who had been operated in our institution. RESULTS: On the 61 pressure ulcers, location was ischial in 35 cases, sacral in 15 cases, trochanteric in 7 cases, lateral malleolar in 2 cases, on the heel in 1 case, and 1 was located lateral to the fibular head...
September 7, 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Elizabeth M Pinder, Joshua Cy Ong, R Stephen Bale, Ian A Trail
Prosthetic shoulder infection can cause significant morbidity secondary to pain and stiffness. Symptoms may be present for years before diagnosis because clinical signs are often absent and inflammatory markers may be normal. An emerging common culprit, Propionibacterium acnes, is hard to culture and so prolonged incubation is necessary. A negative culture result does not always exclude infection and new synovial fluid biochemical markers such as α defensin are less sensitive than for lower limb arthroplasty...
July 2016: Shoulder & Elbow
Federico Ricci, Antonio Calabrese, Cecilia De Felici, Filippo Missiroli, Marco Pileri, Federico Regine
PURPOSE: To report the outcome of 5 consecutive cases of presumed, noninfectious endopththalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB). METHODS: Ten pre-loaded syringes of bevacizumab (1.25 mg/50 µL) furnished by a compounding pharmacy were injected intravitreally. Treatments were performed in the operating room by the same surgeon on 2 consecutive days. RESULTS: Of 10 eyes, 5 showed moderate to severe ocular inflammation within a few days of injection...
2016: Digital Journal of Ophthalmology: DJO
O Hauschild, N P Südkamp
BACKGROUND: Septic arthritis is a common orthopedic emergency. Immediate establishment of the diagnosis and administration of an adequate therapy is paramount in minimizing morbidity and mortality in this severe condition. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review was to evaluate the existing evidence in order to give an overview on current best practice in diagnostics and treatment of septic arthritis in adults and children. RESULTS: Joint infections result from either hematogenous spread or direct inoculation of bacteria into the joint, mostly iatrogenically...
October 2016: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Fernando Domingo, Elizabeth Dale, Cuilan Gao, Cynthia Groves, J Daniel Stanley, Robert A Maxwell, Jimmy L Waldrop
BACKGROUND: Mandibular fractures are common facial injuries and treatment may be complicated by post-operative infection. Risk of infection from contamination with oral flora is well established but no consensus exists regarding antibiotic prophylaxis. The purpose of this study is to assess risk factors and perioperative antibiotics on surgical site infection (SSI) rates following mandibular fracture surgery. METHODS: Retrospective medical record review was completed for trauma patients of any age surgically treated for mandibular fractures at a Level I Trauma Center from September 2006 to June 2012...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Franziska Gies, Eva Tschiedel, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Peter-Michael Rath, Joerg Steinmann, Christian Dohna-Schwake
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobially pre-treated children with systemic inflammation often pose a diagnostic challenge to the physician. We aimed to evaluate the additional use of SeptiFast multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify causative pathogens in children with suspected systemic bacterial or fungal infection. METHODS: Prospective observational study in 39 children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) under empiric antibiotic treatment. Primary outcome was the rate of positive blood cultures (BC), compared to the rate of positive SeptiFast (SF) results...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Luis G Chaves-Barquero, Kim Hoang Luong, C J Mundy, Charles W Knapp, Mark L Hanson, Charles S Wong
The treatment of municipal wastewater in the Arctic is challenging due to a variety of financial, operational, climatic and technical issues. To better understand the efficacy of current wastewater treatment in this region and the hazard posed to receiving waters, we assessed the occurrence of nutrients and contaminants (i.e., pharmaceuticals, antibiotic resistance genes) as they moved through a lagoon-based treatment system in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, Canada. Wastewater treatment in this community is performed by the use of a lagoon-tundra wetland system that is discharged into the marine environment and is representative of current common practices throughout the region...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Umashankar Lakshmanadoss, Bonita Nuanez, Ilana Kutinsky, Rizwan Khalid, David E Haines, Wai Shun Wong
BACKGROUND: Preprocedure systemic antibiotic prophylaxis reduces infections in patients undergoing cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) implantations. Whether pocket irrigation with antibiotic solution offers any advantage over saline solution in CIED implantation is unknown. METHODS: Records from 327 consecutive patients who underwent CIED implantation by three operators from February 2011 to January 2014 were reviewed. From February 2011 to January 2012, the antibiotic solution was used for pocket irrigation; from February 2012 to January 2014, saline solution was used...
September 2016: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Vipin Sharma, Bhanu Awasthi, Krishna Kumar, Navneet Kohli, Punit Katoch
INTRODUCTION: Management of displaced fracture neck femur in the elderly population is frequently done by Hemiarthroplasty or Total Hip Replacement (THR). It avoids high rates of nonunion and avascular necrosis which usually occur after internal fixation of neck femur fractures in this age group. AIM: The present study aimed to evaluate patient function and complications following hemiarthroplasty and total hip replacement in elderly population with displaced femoral neck fractures...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Salomone Di Saverio, Arianna Birindelli, Micheal D Kelly, Fausto Catena, Dieter G Weber, Massimo Sartelli, Michael Sugrue, Mark De Moya, Carlos Augusto Gomes, Aneel Bhangu, Ferdinando Agresta, Ernest E Moore, Kjetil Soreide, Ewen Griffiths, Steve De Castro, Jeffry Kashuk, Yoram Kluger, Ari Leppaniemi, Luca Ansaloni, Manne Andersson, Federico Coccolini, Raul Coimbra, Kurinchi S Gurusamy, Fabio Cesare Campanile, Walter Biffl, Osvaldo Chiara, Fred Moore, Andrew B Peitzman, Gustavo P Fraga, David Costa, Ronald V Maier, Sandro Rizoli, Zsolt J Balogh, Cino Bendinelli, Roberto Cirocchi, Valeria Tonini, Alice Piccinini, Gregorio Tugnoli, Elio Jovine, Roberto Persiani, Antonio Biondi, Thomas Scalea, Philip Stahel, Rao Ivatury, George Velmahos, Roland Andersson
Acute appendicitis (AA) is among the most common cause of acute abdominal pain. Diagnosis of AA is challenging; a variable combination of clinical signs and symptoms has been used together with laboratory findings in several scoring systems proposed for suggesting the probability of AA and the possible subsequent management pathway. The role of imaging in the diagnosis of AA is still debated, with variable use of US, CT and MRI in different settings worldwide. Up to date, comprehensive clinical guidelines for diagnosis and management of AA have never been issued...
2016: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
Jennifer H Chao, Raymond Chou-Jui Lin, Shashidhar Marneni, Shreya Pandya, Sana Alhajri, Richard Sinert
BACKGROUND: An abnormal Chest-X-ray (CXR) inconsistent with simple bronchiolitis is found in 7%-23% of cases. Despite national guidelines stating "current evidence does not support routine radiography in children with bronchiolitis"; the use of CXR in these patients remains high. Inappropriate use of CXR not only exposes children to excess radiation, but also increases medical costs. The majority of the time, CXRs are obtained to diagnose or rule-out pneumonia. We aim to provide an evidence-based approach defining the utility of CXR in bronchiolitis for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial pneumonia...
July 18, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Alastair D Hay, Kate Birnie, John Busby, Brendan Delaney, Harriet Downing, Jan Dudley, Stevo Durbaba, Margaret Fletcher, Kim Harman, William Hollingworth, Kerenza Hood, Robin Howe, Michael Lawton, Catherine Lisles, Paul Little, Alasdair MacGowan, Kathryn O'Brien, Timothy Pickles, Kate Rumsby, Jonathan Ac Sterne, Emma Thomas-Jones, Judith van der Voort, Cherry-Ann Waldron, Penny Whiting, Mandy Wootton, Christopher C Butler
BACKGROUND: It is not clear which young children presenting acutely unwell to primary care should be investigated for urinary tract infection (UTI) and whether or not dipstick testing should be used to inform antibiotic treatment. OBJECTIVES: To develop algorithms to accurately identify pre-school children in whom urine should be obtained; assess whether or not dipstick urinalysis provides additional diagnostic information; and model algorithm cost-effectiveness...
July 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Marcelino Rivera, Boyd Viers, Patrick Cockerill, Deepak Agarwal, Ramila Mehta, Amy Krambeck
INTRODUCTION: We aim to describe pre- and postoperative predictors of infection-related complications in individuals undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients treated with PCNL from 2009 to 2013 were reviewed. Patients with positive urine or stone cultures received extended antimicrobial treatment. All others received 7 days of empirical therapy preoperatively and postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative predictors of infectious complication were identified...
September 2016: Journal of Endourology
Amar Raj Mohee, Deborah Gascoyne-Binzi, Robert West, Selina Bhattarai, Ian Eardley, Jonathan A T Sandoe
The aim of this work was to investigate the microbial causes, incidence, duration, risk factors and clinical implications of bacteraemia occurring during transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgery to better inform prophylaxis strategies. An ethically approved, prospective, cohort study of patients undergoing TURP was conducted. Clinical information and follow-up details were collected using standardized data collection sheets. Blood was obtained for culture at 6 different time points peri-procedure...
2016: PloS One
Arianna Trionfo, Joseph J Thoder, Rick Tosti
BACKGROUND: Traditional management of hand abscesses consists of withholding antibiotics prior to drainage to optimize bacterial culture growth and outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of preoperative empiric antibiotics on the rate of culture growth and rate of adverse events in patients with acute hand abscesses. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 88 consecutive hand abscesses that received empiric antibiotics prior to incision and drainage from 2012 to 2013 at an urban academic institution...
June 2016: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Nicolas M Freda, Analia Veitz Keenan
Data sourcesThe electronic databases searched included: PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central) and Web of Science until June 2015. There was no restriction to language and the reference lists from relevant studies were searched for further articles.Study selectionRandomised and prospective controlled trials that compared the effect of submucosal injection of dexamethasone with that of placebo after impacted third molar surgery in humans. Studies involving volunteers with decompensated metabolic disease were excluded...
June 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
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