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Cell interaction

Yu Zhu, Yingxin Gu, Shichong Qiao, Linyi Zhou, Junyu Shi, Hongchang Lai
Microorganisms are frequently introduced to dental implants during surgery and start the race for the surface with host cells before osseointegration occurs. The aim of the study was to endow implant surfaces with biological functions that reliably select cells over microbes. Nano-structured tantalum (Ta) has exhibited excellent compatibility. Thus, nano-structured Ta films were deposited on the sand-blasted, large grit and acid-etched (SLA) titanium by the magnetron sputtering method, thus forming hierarchical micro/nanostructured surfaces...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Yiqing Pan, Yue Liu, Li Wang, Feng Xue, Yanqin Hu, Ran Hu, Chen Xu
Sertoli cells create a local tolerogenic microenvironment to maintain testicular immune privilege especially through the formation of a blood-testis barrier (BTB). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the immune modulation function and BTB dynamics of Sertoli cells remained elusive. MAP phosphatase (MKP)-1 acts as a crucial negative regulator of the inflammatory response. Nevertheless, the role of MKP-1 in regulating Sertoli cells has not been elucidated. In this study, we have for the first time uncovered distinct cellular localization of MKP-1 in the cells at different stages of mouse testis, and the level of MKP-1 expression was significantly up-regulated by LPS-induced acute testis inflammation...
October 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Ju Hui Jeong, Yong Jin Oh, Yunmee Lho, Sun You Park, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Eunyoung Ha, Young Ho Seo
The molecular chaperone Hsp90 plays an important role in cancer cell survival and proliferation by regulating the maturation and stabilization of numerous oncogenic proteins. Due to its potential to simultaneously disable multiple signaling pathways, Hsp90 has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In this study, the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of Hsp90 inhibitors are described. Among the synthetic compounds, 6,7-dihydrothieno [3,2-c]pyridin-5(4H)-yl amide 19 exhibits a remarkable binding affinity to the N-terminus of Hsp90 in a fluorescence polarization (FP) binding assay (IC50 = 50...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Min Ma, Fuwei Pi, Jiasheng Wang, Jian Ji, Xiulan Sun
Humans are most likely to be exposed to microcystins (MCs) combined with other water pollutants rather than to individual compounds through the consumption of contaminated drinking water or through recreational activities, such as swimming. However, the combined effects of MC-LR, estradiol (EST), and ractopamine (RAC) have not been extensively researched. The goal of this study was to investigate the combined effects of these compounds. For this purpose, cytotoxicity was evaluated in HepG2 cells treated with single or combined doses of MC-LR, EST, and RAC based on concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA), and Chou-Talalay's combination-index (CI) methods...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Judd F Hultquist, Kathrin Schumann, Jonathan M Woo, Lara Manganaro, Michael J McGregor, Jennifer Doudna, Viviana Simon, Nevan J Krogan, Alexander Marson
New genetic tools are needed to understand the functional interactions between HIV and human host factors in primary cells. We recently developed a method to edit the genome of primary CD4(+) T cells by electroporation of CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). Here, we adapted this methodology to a high-throughput platform for the efficient, arrayed editing of candidate host factors. CXCR4 or CCR5 knockout cells generated with this method are resistant to HIV infection in a tropism-dependent manner, whereas knockout of LEDGF or TNPO3 results in a tropism-independent reduction in infection...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Helen L May-Simera, Jessica D Gumerson, Chun Gao, Maria Campos, Stephanie M Cologna, Tina Beyer, Karsten Boldt, Koray D Kaya, Nisha Patel, Friedrich Kretschmer, Matthew W Kelley, Ronald S Petralia, Megan G Davey, Tiansen Li
Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1) plays a role in the coordination of microtubules and actin in multiple cellular processes. Here, we show that MACF1 is also critical for ciliogenesis in multiple cell types. Ablation of Macf1 in the developing retina abolishes ciliogenesis, and basal bodies fail to dock to ciliary vesicles or migrate apically. Photoreceptor polarity is randomized, while inner retinal cells laminate correctly, suggesting that photoreceptor maturation is guided by polarity cues provided by cilia...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Eloi R Verrier, Che C Colpitts, Charlotte Bach, Laura Heydmann, Laetitia Zona, Fei Xiao, Christine Thumann, Emilie Crouchet, Raphaël Gaudin, Camille Sureau, François-Loïc Cosset, Jane A McKeating, Patrick Pessaux, Yujin Hoshida, Catherine Schuster, Mirjam B Zeisel, Thomas F Baumert
Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV) infections are the leading causes of liver disease and cancer worldwide. Recently, the solute carrier and sodium taurocholate co-transporter NTCP has been identified as a receptor for HBV and HDV. Here, we uncover NTCP as a host factor regulating HCV infection. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we show that NTCP mediates HCV infection of hepatocytes and is relevant for cell-to-cell transmission. NTCP regulates HCV infection by augmenting the bile-acid-mediated repression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including IFITM3...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Vivekananda Kedage, Nagarathinam Selvaraj, Taylor R Nicholas, Justin A Budka, Joshua P Plotnik, Travis J Jerde, Peter C Hollenhorst
More than 50% of prostate tumors have a chromosomal rearrangement resulting in aberrant expression of an oncogenic ETS family transcription factor. However, mechanisms that differentiate the function of oncogenic ETS factors expressed in prostate tumors from non-oncogenic ETS factors expressed in normal prostate are unknown. Here, we find that four oncogenic ETS (ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5), and no other ETS, interact with the Ewing's sarcoma breakpoint protein, EWS. This EWS interaction was necessary and sufficient for oncogenic ETS functions including gene activation, cell migration, clonogenic survival, and transformation...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Michael A White, Jamie C Kwasnieski, Connie A Myers, Susan Q Shen, Joseph C Corbo, Barak A Cohen
Transcription factors often activate and repress different target genes in the same cell. How activation and repression are encoded by different arrangements of transcription factor binding sites in cis-regulatory elements is poorly understood. We investigated how sites for the transcription factor CRX encode both activation and repression in photoreceptors by assaying thousands of genomic and synthetic cis-regulatory elements in wild-type and Crx(-/-) retinas. We found that sequences with high affinity for CRX repress transcription, whereas sequences with lower affinity activate...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
James M Holaska
The nucleus is separated from the cytosol by the nuclear envelope, which is a double lipid bilayer composed of the outer nuclear membrane and the inner nuclear membrane. The intermediate filament proteins lamin A, lamin B, and lamin C form a network underlying the inner nuclear membrane. This proteinaceous network provides the nucleus with its strength, rigidity, and elasticity. Positioned within the inner nuclear membrane are more than 150 inner nuclear membrane proteins, many of which interact directly with lamins and require lamins for their inner nuclear membrane localization...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Satyanarayana Swamy Cheekatla, Deepak Tripathi, Sambasivan Venkatasubramanian, Pavan Kumar Nathella, Padmaja Paidipally, Munenori Ishibashi, Elwyn Welch, Amy R Tvinnereim, Mitsuo Ikebe, Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri, Subash Babu, Hardy Kornfeld, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati
In this study, we developed a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using streptozotocin and nicotinamide and identified factors that increase susceptibility of T2DM mice to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). All Mtb-infected T2DM mice and 40% of uninfected T2DM mice died within 10 months, whereas all control mice survived. In Mtb-infected mice, T2DM increased the bacterial burden and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the lungs relative to those in uninfected T2DM mice and infected control mice...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Chwan Hong Foo, Christina L Rootes, Karla Cowley, Glenn A Marsh, Cathryn M Gould, Celine Deffrasnes, Christopher J Cowled, Reuben Klein, Sarah J Riddell, Deborah Middleton, Kaylene J Simpson, Lin-Fa Wang, Andrew G D Bean, Cameron R Stewart
Hendra and Nipah viruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus) are bat-borne viruses that cause fatal disease in humans and a range of other mammalian species. Gaining a deeper understanding of host pathways exploited by henipaviruses for infection may identify targets for new anti-viral therapies. Here we have performed genome-wide high-throughput agonist and antagonist screens at biosafety level 4 to identify host-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) impacting henipavirus infection in human cells. Members of the miR-181 and miR-17~93 families strongly promoted Hendra virus infection...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
W Michael Dismuke, Mikael Klingeborn, W Daniel Stamer
Exosomes are emerging as important mediators of cell-matrix interactions by means of specific adhesion proteins. Changes in the tissue-specific exosomal protein expression may underlie pathological conditions whereby extracellular matrix turnover and homeostasis is disrupted. Ocular hypertension due to extracellular matrix accumulation in the trabecular meshwork is a hallmark of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma. In the trabecular meshwork, exosomal fibronectin mediates cell matrix interactions at cellular structures called "invadosomes"...
2016: PloS One
Addolorata Marasco, Simona Nocerino, Gabriele Pinto, Antonino Pollio, Giorgio Trojsi, Antonino De Natale
The potential impact of cyanobacteria and microalgae on the weathering of calcareous tesserae from a Roman mosaic of the II Century CE has been followed through in vitro experiments. Laboratory tests were carried out by inoculating mosaic tiles with single strains of Cyanobacteria or Chlorophyta to evaluate the roles of pioneer phototrophic microrganism on the resulting architecture of biofilms. The interaction between tesserae and strains was assessed at the whole substratum and micrometer scales, by image analysis and Confocal Laser Scanning (CLS) microscopy, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Jesse M Engreitz, Jenna E Haines, Elizabeth M Perez, Glen Munson, Jenny Chen, Michael Kane, Patrick E McDonel, Mitchell Guttman, Eric S Lander
Mammalian genomes are pervasively transcribed to produce thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). A few of these lncRNAs have been shown to recruit regulatory complexes through RNA-protein interactions to influence the expression of nearby genes, and it has been suggested that many other lncRNAs can also act as local regulators. Such local functions could explain the observation that lncRNA expression is often correlated with the expression of nearby genes. However, these correlations have been challenging to dissect and could alternatively result from processes that are not mediated by the lncRNA transcripts themselves...
October 26, 2016: Nature
Prerak Gupta, Mimi Adhikary, Joseph Christakiran M, Manishekhar Kumar, Nandana Bhardwaj, Biman B Mandal
Composite biomaterials as artificial bone graft materials are pushing the present frontiers of bioengineering. In this study, a biomimetic, osteoconductive tricomposite scaffold made of hydroxyapatite (HA) embedded in non-mulberry Antheraea assama (A. assama) silk fibroin fibers and its fibroin solution is explored for osteogenic potential. Scaffolds were physico-chemically characterized for morphology, porosity, secondary structure conformation, water retention ability, biodegradability and mechanical property...
October 26, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Anders Lundgren, Björn Agnarsson, Ronald Zirbs, Vladimir P Zhdanov, Erik Reimhult, Fredrik Höök
Emerging biomedical applications such as molecular imaging and drug delivery often require directed binding of nanoparticles to cell-membrane receptors. The specific apparent affinity of such ligand-functionalized particles is size-dependent, an observation so far solely attributed to multivalent receptor-ligand interaction. We question the universality of this explanation by demonstrating that the binding kinetics also depends on weak, attractive colloidal-type interaction between nanoparticles and a lipid membrane...
October 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Lisa Sandersjöö, Andreas Jonsson, John Löfblom
Proteases are involved in fundamental biological processes and are important tools in both biotechnological and biomedical research. An important property of proteases is to discriminate among potential substrates. Here, we present a new method for substrate profiling of proteases. The substrates are displayed between two anti-idiotypic affinity domains on the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus. The first domain functions as a reporter tag and has affinity for a labeled reporter protein, whereas the second domain blocks the reporter tag from interacting with the reporter protein...
October 26, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
A O Sosnovtseva, A V Lipatova, N F Grinenko, V P Baklaushev, P M Chumakov, V P Chekhonin
A humanized line of rat C6 glioma cells expressing human poliovirus receptor was obtained and tested for the sensitivity to oncolytic effects of vaccine strains of type 1, 2, and 3 polioviruses. Presentation of the poliovirus receptor on the surface of C6 glioma cells was shown to be a necessary condition for the interaction of cells with polioviruses, but insufficient for complete poliovirus oncolysis.
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Anna A Boyko, Tatyana L Azhikina, Maria A Streltsova, Alexander M Sapozhnikov, Elena I Kovalenko
Cell-type specific variations are typical for the expression of different members of the HSP70 family. In circulating immune cells, HSP70 proteins interact with units of signaling pathways involved in the immune responses and may promote cell survival in sites of inflammation. In this work, we compared basal HSP70 expression and stress-induced HSP70 response in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear human leukocytes. The intracellular content of inducible and constitutive forms of HSP70 was analyzed in relation to the transcriptional activity of HSPA genes...
October 25, 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
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