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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823106/mitochondrial-outer-membrane-permeabilization-a-focus-on-the-role-of-mitochondrial-membrane-structural-organization
#1
REVIEW
Siti Haji Suhaili, Hamed Karimian, Matthew Stellato, Tzong-Hsien Lee, Marie-Isabel Aguilar
Apoptosis is important in regulating cell death turnover and is mediated by the intrinsic and death receptor-based extrinsic pathways which converge at the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) leading to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). MOMP results in the release of apoptotic proteins that further activate the downstream pathway of apoptosis. Thus, tight regulation of MOMP is crucial in controlling apoptosis, and a lack of control may lead to tissue and organ malformation and the development of cancers...
August 19, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823016/de-novo-synthesis-of-linoleic-acid-in-multiple-collembola-species
#2
Miriama Malcicka, Joachim Ruther, Jacintha Ellers
Many ecological interactions in communities take place between consumers and the organisms they feed on. Continuous surplus of specific nutritional compounds in the diet may lead to evolutionary changes in the metabolic capacity of the consumer, leaving the biosynthesis of such compounds prone to genetic decay and render organisms auxotrophic. A nutrient that is essential to many organisms is the unsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), which is important in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity and as a precursor for signaling molecules...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822801/microarray-gene-expression-study-in-fibroblast-and-lymphoblastoid-cell-lines-from-antipsychotic-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients
#3
Patricia Gassó, Sergi Mas, Natalia Rodríguez, Daniel Boloc, Susana García-Cerro, Miquel Bernardo, Amalia Lafuente, Eduard Parellada
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a chronic psychiatric disorder whose onset of symptoms occurs in late adolescence and early adulthood. The etiology is complex and involves important gene-environment interactions. Microarray gene-expression studies on SZ have identified alterations in several biological processes. The heterogeneity in the results can be attributed to the use of different sample types and other important confounding factors including age, illness chronicity and antipsychotic exposure. The aim of the present microarray study was to analyze, for the first time to our knowledge, differences in gene expression profiles in 18 fibroblast (FCLs) and 14 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and healthy controls...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822794/lipidomics-informatics-for-life-science
#4
D Schwudke, A Shevchenko, N Hoffmann, R Ahrends
Lipidomics encompasses analytical approaches that aim to identify and quantify the complete set of lipids, defined as lipidome in a given cell, tissue or organism as well as their interactions with other molecules. The majority of lipidomics workflows is based on mass spectrometry and has been proven as a powerful tool in system biology in concert with other Omics disciplines. Unfortunately, bioinformatics infrastructures for this relatively young discipline are limited only to some specialists. Search engines, quantification algorithms, visualization tools and databases developed by the 'Lipidomics Informatics for Life-Science' (LIFS) partners will be restructured and standardized to provide broad access to these specialized bioinformatics pipelines...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822790/galectin-3-as-a-novel-regulator-of-osteoblast-osteoclast-interaction-and-bone-homeostasis
#5
Dominic Simon, Anja Derer, Fabian Andes, Patrick Lezuo, Aline Bozec, Georg Schett, Martin Herrmann, Ulrike Harre
Bone tissue undergoes permanent and lifelong remodeling with a concerted action of bone-building osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. A precise cooperation between those two cell types is critical in the complex process of bone renewal. Galectin-3 is a member of the β-galactoside-binding lectin family playing multiple roles in cell growth, differentiation and aggregation. As it has been described to be expressed in bone, galectin-3 might influence bone homeostasis by regulating the function and/or interplay of osteoblasts and osteoclasts...
August 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822783/the-expression-induction-and-pharmacological-activity-of-cyp1a2-are-post-transcriptionally-regulated-by-microrna-hsa-mir-132-5p
#6
Yinting Chen, Linjuan Zeng, Yong Wang, William H Tolleson, Bridgett Knox, Si Chen, Zhen Ren, Lei Guo, Nan Mei, Feng Qian, Kaihong Huang, David Liu, Weida Tong, Dianke Yu, Baitang Ning
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is one of the most abundant and important drug metabolizing enzymes in human liver. However, little is known about the post-transcriptional regulation of CYP1A2, especially the mechanisms involving microRNAs (miRNAs). This study applied a systematic approach to investigate the post-transcriptional regulation of CYP1A2 by miRNAs. Candidate miRNAs targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of CYP1A2 were screened in silico, resulting in the selection of sixty-two potential miRNAs for further analysis...
August 16, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822775/the-clandestine-organs-of-the-endocrine-system
#7
Natàlia Garcia-Reyero
This review analyzes what could be regarded as the "clandestine organs" of the endocrine system: the gut microbiome, the immune system, and the stress system. The immune system is very closely related to the endocrine system, with many intertwined processes and signals. Many researchers now consider the microbiome as an 'organ' that affects the organism at many different levels. While stress is certainly not an organ, it affects so many processes, including endocrine-related processes, that the stress response system deserved a special section in this review...
August 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822556/associations-between-residual-disease-and-survival-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-by-histologic-type
#8
Alexander Melamed, Beryl Manning-Geist, Amy J Bregar, Elisabeth J Diver, Annekathryn Goodman, Marcela G Del Carmen, John O Schorge, J Alejandro Rauh-Hain
OBJECTIVE: Surgical cytoreduction has been postulated to affect survival by increasing the efficacy of chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. We hypothesized that women with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, which usually responds to chemotherapy, would derive greater benefit from complete cytoreduction than those with histologic subtypes that are less responsive to chemotherapy, such as mucinous and clear cell carcinoma. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent primary cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IIIC or IV epithelial ovarian cancer from 2011 to 2013 using data from the National Cancer Database...
August 16, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822454/-effects-of-up-regulation-of-cathepsin-s-by-hbx-gene-on-hepg2-cell
#9
Z Zhang, P Guo, X Sun, Y Xiao, J Xu, Z S Fang, S Y Wu, H Huang
Objective: To explore the expression of cathepsin S (Cat S) and Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in HBeAg(-) and HBeAg(+ ) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discuss the effects of Cat S and HBx interaction on HepG2 cell. Methods: Seventy HCC tissue specimens were collected from the surgical resection which were confirmed by pathology in the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University. The tissue samples were separated into two groups: HBeAg(-) group and HBeAg(+ ) group according to the serology of HBeAg...
August 8, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822272/b24n24-fullerene-as-a-carrier-for-5-fluorouracil-anti-cancer-drug-delivery-dft-studies
#10
Mehrnoosh Khodam Hazrati, Zahra Javanshir, Zargham Bagheri
It has been previously indicated that BN nanostructures may be nontoxic and biocompatible. Here the potential application of a B24N24 is explored as a drug delivery system for anti-cancer 5-fluorouracil based on the density functional theory. This drug prefers to attach via its oxygen atoms to the B atoms of the cluster with adsorption energy about -11.90kcalmol(-1) based on the dispersion corrected B3LYP level of theory. To make the cluster more appropriate for drug delivery, we replaced a B atom by Si or Al atom to improve the interaction strength...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822242/mucosal-immunity-of-the-postpartum-bovine-genital-tract
#11
REVIEW
Dinesh Dadarwal, Colin Palmer, Philip Griebel
In this review, mucosal immune defense mechanisms used to control infections in the bovine genital tract (vestibule, vagina, cervix, uterus and oviduct) during the postpartum period are reviewed. Knowledge gaps are highlighted to emphasize the need for further investigations. Physical barriers to the entry of microbes include vulvar sealing, vestibule-vaginal constriction, a narrow cervical opening and the mucosal epithelium along with the overlying mucus layer. Genital tract mucosal epithelial cells recognize damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns and respond by secreting antimicrobial peptides and cytokines to recruit and activate immune cells...
August 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822103/current-progress-in-innovative-engineered-antibodies
#12
REVIEW
William R Strohl
As of May 1, 2017, 74 antibody-based molecules have been approved by a regulatory authority in a major market. Additionally, there are 70 and 575 antibody-based molecules in phase III and phase I/II clinical trials, respectively. These total 719 antibody-based clinical stage molecules include 493 naked IgGs, 87 antibody-drug conjugates, 61 bispecific antibodies, 37 total Fc fusion proteins, 17 radioimmunoglobulins, 13 antibody fragments, and 11 immunocytokines. New uses for these antibodies are being discovered each year...
August 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821864/nanomechanics-of-multidomain-neuronal-cell-adhesion-protein-contactin-revealed-by-single-molecule-afm-and-smd
#13
K Mikulska-Ruminska, A J Kulik, C Benadiba, I Bahar, G Dietler, W Nowak
Contactin-4 (CNTN4) is a complex cell adhesion molecule (CAM) localized at neuronal membranes, playing a key role in maintaining the mechanical integrity and signaling properties of the synapse. CNTN4 consists of six immunoglobulin C2 type (IgC2) domains and four fibronectin type III (FnIII) domains that are shared with many other CAMs. Mutations in CNTN4 gene have been linked to various psychiatric disorders. Toward elucidating the response of this modular protein to mechanical stress, we studied its force-induced unfolding using single molecule atomic force microscopy (smAFM) and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821836/porv-is-an-outer-membrane-shuttle-protein-for-the-type-ix-secretion-system
#14
Michelle D Glew, Paul D Veith, Dina Chen, Dhana G Gorasia, Ben Peng, Eric C Reynolds
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis. Major virulence factors named gingipains (cysteine proteinases, RgpA, RgpB and Kgp) are secreted via the Type IX Secretion System (T9SS). These, together with approximately 30 other proteins, are secreted to the cell surface and anchored to the outer membrane by covalent modification to anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) via the novel Gram negative sortase, PorU. PorU is localised on the cell surface and cleaves the C-terminal domain signal (CTD) of T9SS substrates and conjugates their new C-termini to A-LPS...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821821/the-inhibitory-mechanism-of-hal3-on-the-yeast-ppz1-phosphatase-a-mutagenesis-analysis
#15
Cristina Molero, Carlos Casado, Joaquín Ariño
The Ser/Thr protein phosphatase (PPase) Ppz1 is an enzyme related to the ubiquitous type-1 PPases (PP1c) but found only in fungi. It is regulated by an inhibitory subunit, Hal3, which binds to its catalytic domain. Overexpression of Ppz1 is highly toxic for yeast cells, so its de-regulation has been proposed as a target for novel antifungal therapies. While modulation of PP1c by its many regulatory subunits has been extensively characterized, the manner by which Hal3 controls Ppz1 remains unknown. We have used error-prone PCR mutagenesis to construct a library of Ppz1 variants and developed a functional assay to identify mutations affecting the binding or/and the inhibitory capacity of Hal3...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821810/extracting-intercellular-signaling-network-of-cancer-tissues-using-ligand-receptor-expression-patterns-from-whole-tumor-and-single-cell-transcriptomes
#16
Joseph X Zhou, Roberto Taramelli, Edoardo Pedrini, Theo Knijnenburg, Sui Huang
Many behaviors of cancer, such as progression, metastasis and drug resistance etc., cannot be fully understood by genetic mutations or intracellular signaling alone. Instead, they are emergent properties of the cell community which forms a tumor. Studies of tumor heterogeneity reveal that many cancer behaviors critically depend on intercellular communication between cancer cells themselves and between cancer-stromal cells by secreted signaling molecules (ligands) and their cognate receptors. We analyzed public cancer transcriptome database for changes in cell-cell interactions as the characteristic of malignancy...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821776/mineralization-and-preservation-of-an-extremotolerant-bacterium-isolated-from-an-early-mars-analog-environment
#17
F Gaboyer, C Le Milbeau, M Bohmeier, P Schwendner, P Vannier, K Beblo-Vranesevic, E Rabbow, F Foucher, P Gautret, R Guégan, A Richard, A Sauldubois, P Richmann, A K Perras, C Moissl-Eichinger, C S Cockell, P Rettberg, Marteinsson, E Monaghan, P Ehrenfreund, L Garcia-Descalzo, F Gomez, M Malki, R Amils, P Cabezas, N Walter, F Westall
The artificial mineralization of a polyresistant bacterial strain isolated from an acidic, oligotrophic lake was carried out to better understand microbial (i) early mineralization and (ii) potential for further fossilisation. Mineralization was conducted in mineral matrixes commonly found on Mars and Early-Earth, silica and gypsum, for 6 months. Samples were analyzed using microbiological (survival rates), morphological (electron microscopy), biochemical (GC-MS, Microarray immunoassay, Rock-Eval) and spectroscopic (EDX, FTIR, RAMAN spectroscopy) methods...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821747/the-integration-of-g%C3%AE-and-mapk-signaling-cascade-in-zygote-development
#18
Guo-Liang Yuan, Hong-Ju Li, Wei-Cai Yang
Cells respond to many signals with a limited number of signaling components. Heterotrimeric G proteins and MAPK cascades are universally used by eukaryotic cells to transduce signals in various developmental processes or stress responses by activating different effectors. MAPK cascade is integrated with G proteins by scaffold protein during plant immunity. However, the molecular relationship between G proteins and MAPK modules in plant development is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis Gβ protein AGB1 interacts with MPK3 and 6, MKK4 and 5, as well as the regulatory domains of YODA (YDA), the upstream MEKK of MKK4/5...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821740/irs4-a-novel-modulator-of-bmp-smad-and-akt-signalling-during-early-muscle-differentiation
#19
Gina Dörpholz, Arunima Murgai, Jerome Jatzlau, Daniel Horbelt, Mohammad Poorgholi Belverdi, Christina Heroven, Isabelle Schreiber, Gisela Wendel, Karen Ruschke, Sigmar Stricker, Petra Knaus
Elaborate regulatory networks of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathways ensure precise signalling outcome during cell differentiation and tissue homeostasis. Here, we identified IRS4 as a novel regulator of BMP signal transduction and provide molecular insights how it integrates into the signalling pathway. We found that IRS4 interacts with the BMP receptor BMPRII and specifically targets Smad1 for proteasomal degradation consequently leading to repressed BMP/Smad signalling in C2C12 myoblasts while concomitantly activating the PI3K/Akt axis...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821717/promysalin-is-a-salicylate-containing-antimicrobial-with-a-cell-membrane-disrupting-mechanism-of-action-on-gram-positive-bacteria
#20
Rahul D Kaduskar, Giulia Della Scala, Zaaima J H Al Jabri, Stefania Arioli, Loana Musso, Marco R Oggioni, Sabrina Dallavalle, Diego Mora
Promysalin was previously described as a narrow spectrum molecule with a unique species-specific activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we demonstrate that promysalin is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using a microdilution assay. Promysalin acts on Gram-positive bacteria with a mechanism of action involving cell membrane damage with leakage of intracellular components. The evaluation of MICs and MBCs on 11 promysalin analogs, synthesized utilizing diverted total synthesis, allowed the identification of the structural moieties potentially involved in cell membrane interaction and damage...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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