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Regenerative medicin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333563/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-in-adipose-tissue-isolation-and-gene-expression-profile-of-distinct-sub-population-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#1
Mehdi Najar, Emerence Crompot, Leo A van Grunsven, Laurent Dollé, Laurence Lagneaux
Thanks to their relative abundance and easier collection, adipose tissue (AT) is considered an alternative source for the isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs have great therapeutic values and are thus under investigations for several clinical indications such as regenerative medicine and immunomodulation. In this work, we aimed to identify, isolate and characterize AT-MSCs based on their aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity known to be a classical feature of stem cells. FACS technology allowed to isolate two different populations of AT-MSCs according to their ALDH activity (referred as ALDH+ and ALDH-)...
January 15, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333491/multifunctional-bioreactor-system-for-human-intestine-tissues
#2
Wenda Zhou, Ying Chen, Terrence Roh, Yinan Lin, Shengjie Ling, Siwei Zhao, James D Lin, Noor Khalil, Dana M Cairns, Eleana Manousiouthakis, Megan Tse, David L Kaplan
The three-dimensional (3D) cultivation of intestinal cells and tissues in dynamic bioreactor systems to represent in vivo intestinal microenvironments is essential for developing regenerative medicine treatments for intestinal diseases. We have previously developed in vitro human intestinal tissue systems using a 3D porous silk scaffold system with intestinal architectures and topographical features for the adhesion, growth, and differentiation of intestinal cells under static culture conditions. In this study, we designed and fabricated a multifunctional bioreactor system that incorporates pre-epithelialized 3D silk scaffolds in a dynamic culture environment for in vitro engineering of human intestine tissues...
January 8, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333086/ethical-and-safety-issues-of-stem-cell-based-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Vladislav Volarevic, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Marina Gazdic, Ana Volarevic, Nemanja Jovicic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Lyle Armstrong, Valentin Djonov, Majlinda Lako, Miodrag Stojkovic
Results obtained from completed and on-going clinical studies indicate huge therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapy in the treatment of degenerative, autoimmune and genetic disorders. However, clinical application of stem cells raises numerous ethical and safety concerns. In this review, we provide an overview of the most important ethical issues in stem cell therapy, as a contribution to the controversial debate about their clinical usage in regenerative and transplantation medicine. We describe ethical challenges regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, emphasizing that ethical dilemma involving the destruction of a human embryo is a major factor that may have limited the development of hESC-based clinical therapies...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332841/improved-neuron-culture-using-scaffolds-made-of-three-dimensional-pdms-micro-lattices
#4
Sisi Li, Francesco Paolo Ulloa Severino, Jelena Ban, Li Wang, Giulietta Pinato, Vincent Torre, Yong Chen
Tissue engineering strives to create functional components of organs with different cell types in vitro. One of the challenges is to fabricate scaffolds for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture under physiological conditions. Of particular interesting is to investigate the morphology and function of the central nervous system (CNS) cultured using such scaffolds. Here, we used an elastomer, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), to produce lattice-type scaffolds from a photolithography defined template. The photomask with antidot arrays was spin-coated by a thick layer of resist and downward mounted on a rotating stage at angle of 45°...
January 15, 2018: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332154/the-influence-of-systemically-or-locally-administered-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-tissue-repair-in-a-rat-oral-implantation-model
#5
Miya Kanazawa, Ikiru Atsuta, Yasunori Ayukawa, Takayoshi Yamaza, Ryosuke Kondo, Yuri Matsuura, Kiyoshi Koyano
BACKGROUND: Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used clinically in regenerative medicine. Our previous report showed systemically injected MSCs improved peri-implant sealing and accelerated tissue healing. However, the risks of systemic MSC administration, including lung embolism, must be considered; therefore, their local application must be assessed for clinical safety and efficacy. We investigated differences in treatment effect between local and systemic MSC application using a rat oral implantation model...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331807/clay-nanoparticles-for-regenerative-medicine-and-biomaterial-design-a-review-of-clay-bioactivity
#6
REVIEW
Mohamed Mousa, Nicholas D Evans, Richard O C Oreffo, Jonathan I Dawson
Clay nanoparticles, composites and hydrogels are emerging as a new class of biomaterial with exciting potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Clay particles have been extensively explored in polymeric nanocomposites for self-assembly and enhanced mechanical properties as well as for their potential as drug delivery modifiers. In recent years, a cluster of studies have explored cellular interactions with clay nanoparticles alone or in combination with polymeric matrices. These pioneering studies have suggested new and unforeseen utility for certain clays as bioactive additives able to enhance cellular functions including adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, most notably for osteogenesis...
January 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331536/chronic-inflammation-and-sarcopenia-a-regenerative-cell-therapy-perspective
#7
Jagadish K Chhetri, Philipe de Souto Barreto, Bertrand Fougère, Yves Rolland, Bruno Vellas, Matteo Cesari
Sarcopenia is characterized by reduced skeletal muscle mass and strength in older individuals. It is one of the leading cause of physical limitation in older adults, and associated with wide spectrum of adverse events including disability and mortality. The phenomenon of chronic-inflammation or inflamm-aging with aging is known to be a major contributor to myriad of geriatric conditions including sarcopenia. Recent advances in regenerative medicine, in particular cell therapy have opened up new possibilities to ameliorate broad range of inflammatory disorders...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331210/to-roll-the-eyes-and-snap-a-bite-function-development-and-evolution-of-craniofacial-muscles
#8
REVIEW
Frank R Schubert, Arun J Singh, Oluwatomisin Afoyalan, Chrissa Kioussi, Susanne Dietrich
Craniofacial muscles, muscles that move the eyes, control facial expression and allow food uptake and speech, have long been regarded as a variation on the general body muscle scheme. However, evidence has accumulated that the function of head muscles, their developmental anatomy and the underlying regulatory cascades are distinct. This article reviews the key aspects of craniofacial muscle and muscle stem cell formation and discusses how this differs from the trunk programme of myogenesis; we show novel RNAseq data to support this notion...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329794/redox-signals-and-macrophage-biology-for-the-upcoming-issue-of-molecular-aspects-of-medicine-on-signaling-by-reactive-oxygen-species
#9
REVIEW
Andreas Weigert, Andreas von Knethen, Dominik Fuhrmann, Nathalie Dehne, Bernhard Brüne
Macrophages are known for their versatile role in biology. They sense and clear structures that contain exogenous or endogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This process is tightly linked to the production of a mixture of potentially harmful oxidants and cytokines. Their inherent destructive behavior is directed against foreign material or structures of 'altered self', which explains the role of macrophages during innate immune reactions and inflammation. However, there is also another side of macrophages when they turn into a tissue regenerative, pro-resolving, and healing phenotype...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327735/acquired-sensorineural-hearing-loss-in-children-current-research-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#10
M Ralli, R Rolesi, R Anzivino, R Turchetta, A R Fetoni
The knowledge of mechanisms responsible for acquired sensorineural hearing loss in children, such as viral and bacterial infections, noise exposure, aminoglycoside and cisplatin ototoxicity, is increasing and progressively changing the clinical management of affected patients. Viral infections are by far the most relevant cause of acquired hearing loss, followed by aminoglycoside and platinum derivative ototoxicity; moreover, cochlear damage induced by noise overexposure, mainly in adolescents, is an emerging topic...
December 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327674/insoluble-microenvironment-facilitating-the-generation-and-maintenance-of-pluripotency
#11
Xiaofang Chen, Jiaqi Li, Yan Huang, Peng Liu, Yubo Fan
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold enormous potential as a tool to generate cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Since the initial report of iPSCs in 2006, many different methods have been developed in order to enhance the safety and efficiency of this technology. Recent studies indicate that the extracellular signals can promote the production of iPSCs, and even replace the Yamanaka factors. Noticeably, abundant evidences suggest that the insoluble microenvironment, including the culture substrate and neighboring cells, directly regulates the expression of core pluripotency genes and the epigenetic modification of the chromatins, hence impact the reprogramming dynamics...
January 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325489/creating-effective-biocontainment-facilities-and-maintenance-protocols-for-raising-specific-pathogen-free-severe-combined-immunodeficient-scid-pigs
#12
Ellis J Powell, Sara Charley, Adeline N Boettcher, Lisa Varley, Justin Brown, Martine Schroyen, Malavika K Adur, Susan Dekkers, Dean Isaacson, Mary Sauer, Joan Cunnick, N Matthew Ellinwood, Jason W Ross, Jack Cm Dekkers, Christopher K Tuggle
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is defined by the lack of an adaptive immune system. Mutations causing SCID are found naturally in humans, mice, horses, dogs, and recently in pigs, with the serendipitous discovery of the Iowa State University SCID pigs. As research models, SCID animals are naturally tolerant of xenotransplantation and offer valuable insight into research areas such as regenerative medicine, cancer therapy, as well as immune cell signaling mechanisms. Large-animal biomedical models, particularly pigs, are increasingly essential to advance the efficacy and safety of novel regenerative therapies on human disease...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324934/stem-cells-therapy-the-future-in-the-management-of-systemic-sclerosis-a-case-report
#13
Jung In Song, Silvanie Volz, Maria Eirini Liodaki, Peter Mailänder, Konstantinos Kalousis
OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder of unknown etiology, with heterogeneous clinical manifestations and chronic and often progressive course. The diffuse cutaneous form of SSc (dcSSc) is characterized by thickening of the skin (scleroderma) and distinctive involvement of multiple internal organs. Patients with limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc) generally have long-standing Raynaud's phenomenon before other manifestations of SSc appear. Over the last decade the Interest of adipose-derived cell therapy in regenerative medicine has increased continuously...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321569/xeno-free-pre-vascularized-spheroids-for-therapeutic-applications
#14
E Bauman, T Feijão, D T O Carvalho, P L Granja, C C Barrias
Spheroid culture has gained increasing popularity, arising as a promising tool for regenerative medicine applications. Importantly, spheroids may present advantages over single-cell suspensions in cell-based therapies (CT). Unfortunately, most growth media used for spheroid culture contain animal origin-components, such as fetal bovine serum (FBS). The presence of FBS compromises the safety of CT and presents economic and ethical constraints. SCC (supplement for cell culture) is a novel xeno-free (XF) industrial cell culture supplement, derived from well-controlled pooled human plasma and processed under good manufacturing practice rules...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321181/mechanisms-of-erythrocyte-development-and-regeneration-implications-for-regenerative-medicine-and-beyond
#15
REVIEW
Emery H Bresnick, Kyle J Hewitt, Charu Mehta, Sunduz Keles, Robert F Paulson, Kirby D Johnson
Hemoglobin-expressing erythrocytes (red blood cells) act as fundamental metabolic regulators by providing oxygen to cells and tissues throughout the body. Whereas the vital requirement for oxygen to support metabolically active cells and tissues is well established, almost nothing is known regarding how erythrocyte development and function impact regeneration. Furthermore, many questions remain unanswered relating to how insults to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and erythrocytes can trigger a massive regenerative process termed 'stress erythropoiesis' to produce billions of erythrocytes...
January 10, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320637/rejuvenating-regenerative-medicine-regulation
#16
R Alta Charo, Douglas Sipp
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently made long-awaited progress toward protecting patients from interventions involving human cell- and tissue-based products (HCT/P) of unknown safety and efficacy. By clarifying its position on the handling and therapeutic use of cells, the agency has..
January 10, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318555/3d-image-analysis-of-the%C3%A2-microvasculature-in-healthy-and-diseased-tissues
#17
Álvaro Sahún-Español, Cristina Clemente, Alicia G Arroyo
The vasculature ensures optimal delivery of nutrients and oxygen throughout the body. The ability to respond to changing tissue demands requires constant reshaping of the vascular network through modulation of its density, diameter, or patterning. These processes are especially prominent after tissue damage or in tumors. The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of endopeptidases are key contributors to vascular remodeling, able to cleave all extracellular matrix components and also soluble factors and membrane receptors...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317683/polyaniline-cryogels-biocompatibility-of-novel-conducting-macroporous-material
#18
Petr Humpolíček, Katarzyna Anna Radaszkiewicz, Zdenka Capáková, Jiří Pacherník, Patrycja Bober, Věra Kašpárková, Petra Rejmontová, Marián Lehocký, Petr Ponížil, Jaroslav Stejskal
Polyaniline cryogel is a new unique form of polyaniline combining intrinsic electrical conductivity and the material properties of hydrogels. It is prepared by the polymerization of aniline in frozen poly(vinyl alcohol) solutions. The biocompatibility of macroporous polyaniline cryogel was demonstrated by testing its cytotoxicity on mouse embryonic fibroblasts and via the test of embryotoxicity based on the formation of beating foci within spontaneous differentiating embryonic stem cells. Good biocompatibility was related to low contents of low-molecular-weight impurities in polyaniline cryogel, which was confirmed by liquid chromatography...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316595/cellular-therapies-in-orthopedics-where-are-we
#19
Nicolas S Piuzzi, Anton Khlopas, Nipun Sodhi, Sameer Oak, Assem A Sultan, Morad Chughtai, Venkata P Mantripragada, Michael A Mont, George F Muschler
The orthopedic field has experienced several major practice-changing pivotal shifts in the past several decades, such as the invention and application of the arthroscope or the implementation and advancement of joint arthroplasties. Most of these previous breakthroughs have focused on surgical techniques and devices. However, the next major advance in the field is likely to be related to biologic treatments. Although still in its early stage of development, orthopedic regenerative medicine, including cellular therapies, represents a great opportunity, since we are only beginning to understand their biological potential...
December 22, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316363/exploiting-advanced-hydrogel-technologies-to-address-key-challenges-in-regenerative-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Daniel A Foyt, Michael D A Norman, Tracy T L Yu, Eileen Gentleman
Regenerative medicine aims to tackle a panoply of challenges from repairing focal damage to articular cartilage to preventing pathological tissue remodeling after myocardial infarction. Hydrogels are water-swollen networks formed from synthetic or naturally derived polymers and are emerging as important tools to address these challenges. Recent advances in hydrogel chemistries are enabling researchers to create hydrogels that can act as 3D ex vivo tissue models, allowing them to explore fundamental questions in cell biology by replicating tissues' dynamic and nonlinear physical properties...
January 9, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
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