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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437235/breast-augmentation-and-reconstruction-from-a-regenerative-medicine-point-of-view-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#1
Luke Evan Visscher, Matthew Cheng, Mohit Chhaya, Madeline Louise Hintz, Jan-Thorsten Schantz, Phong Tran, Owen Ung, Clement Wong, Dietmar Werner Hutmacher
Breast reconstruction and augmentation are very common procedures, yet the prevailing current methods utilize silicone implants that may have significant local complications requiring reoperation. Lipofillling is increasingly used to contour and is considered safe, however its utility is limited by significant volume loss. A new approach could offer an alternative and increase the scope of patient choice. A small number of teams around the world are investigating a breast tissue-engineering paradigm. Conventional breast tissue engineering concepts are based on seeding a scaffold with the patients' own stem cells...
February 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437180/a-novel-drug-induced-hybrid-electrospun-pcl-cell-derived-ecm-scaffold-for-liver-tissue-engineering
#2
Rhiannon Grant, David Hay, Anthony Callanan
Liver transplant is the only treatment option for patients with end-stage liver failure, however there are too few donor livers available for transplant. Whole organ tissue engineering presents a potential solution to the problem of rapidly escalating donor liver shortages world-wide. A major challenge for liver tissue engineers is the creation of a hepatocyte micro-environment; a niche in which liver cells can survive and function optimally. While polymers and decellularized tissues pose an attractive option for scaffold manufacturing, neither alone has thus far proved sufficient...
February 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436965/a-three-dimensional-model-of-human-lung-development-and-disease-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Ya-Wen Chen, Sarah Xuelian Huang, Ana Luisa Rodrigues Toste de Carvalho, Siu-Hong Ho, Mohammad Naimul Islam, Stefano Volpi, Luigi D Notarangelo, Michael Ciancanelli, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Jahar Bhattacharya, Alice F Liang, Laura M Palermo, Matteo Porotto, Anne Moscona, Hans-Willem Snoeck
Recapitulation of lung development from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in three dimensions (3D) would allow deeper insight into human development, as well as the development of innovative strategies for disease modelling, drug discovery and regenerative medicine. We report here the generation from hPSCs of lung bud organoids (LBOs) that contain mesoderm and pulmonary endoderm and develop into branching airway and early alveolar structures after xenotransplantation and in Matrigel 3D culture. Expression analysis and structural features indicated that the branching structures reached the second trimester of human gestation...
April 24, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436328/potential-of-stem-cells-as-regenerative-medicine-from-preface-to-advancements
#4
Muhammad Shahid Javaid, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Shareef Masoud
Regenerative medicine is an emerging field to find solutions to some of the most challenging medical problems of humans. Regenerative medicine has the potential to revolutionize the whole health care system, in dealing with conditions such as heart disease, emphysema, liver fibrosis, kidney disease, diabetes, and neurological disorders. Among the many challenges to bringing regenerative medicine to the clinic is the selection of the best cell types and reliable ways to expand the number of cells. Stem cells emerged as the best cell type for regeneration of different organs...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435849/effects-of-cyclic-compression-on-the-mechanical-properties-and-calcification-process-of-immature-chick-bone-tissue-in-culture
#5
Eijiro Maeda, Masashi Nakagaki, Katsuhisa Ichikawa, Kazuaki Nagayama, Takeo Matsumoto
Contribution of mechanical loading to tissue growth during both the development and post-natal maturation is of a particular interest, as its understanding would be important to strategies in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The present study has been performed to investigate how immature bone responds to mechanical loading using an ex vivo culture system. A slice of the tibia, with the thickness of 3 mm, was obtained from 0-day-old chick. For the ex vivo culture experiment in conjunction with cyclic compressive loading, we developed a custom-made, bioreactor system where both the load and the deformation applied to the specimen was recorded...
June 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435060/the-multiple-therapeutic-applications-of-mirnas-for-bone-regenerative-medicine
#6
REVIEW
J C Scimeca, Elise Verron
With the aging of the general population, there is an increasing need for bone defect repair, prompting the development of reliable alternatives to autologous bone grafting, without the usually associated major drawbacks (i.e., limited volume and severe postoperative pain). Given the crucial role that miRNAs appear to have in bone tissue physiopathology, exploring their potential has recently garnered increased interest. In this review, we first describe the involvement of miRNAs in bone metabolism, and then focus on their potential therapeutic applications (as bone biomarkers and molecular targets)...
April 20, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435007/stem-cells-and-their-potential-clinical-applications-in-psychiatric-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Andrzej K Ciechanowicz, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Jerzy Samochowiec
The robustness of stem cells is one of the major factors that directly impacts life quality and life span. Evidence has accumulated that changes in the stem cell compartment affect human mental health and serve as an indicator of psychiatric problems. It is well known that stem cells continuously replace differentiated cells and tissues that are used up during life, although this replacement occurs at a different pace in the various organs. However, the participation of local neural stem cells in regeneration of the central nervous system is controversial...
April 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433171/gellan-gum-based-physical-hydrogels-incorporating-highly-valuable-endogen-molecules-and-associating-bmp-2-as-bone-formation-platforms
#8
Rita López-Cebral, Ana Civantos, Viviana Ramos, Begoña Seijo, José Luis López-Lacomba, José Vicente Sanz-Casado, Alejandro Sanchez
Physical hydrogels have been designed for a double purpose: as growth factor delivery systems and as scaffolds to support cell colonization and formation of new bone. Specifically, the polysaccharide gellan gum and the ubiquitous endogenous molecules chondroitin, albumin and spermidine have been used as exclusive components of these hydrogels. The mild ionotropic gelation technique was used to preserve the bioactivity of the selected growth factor, rhBMP-2. In vitro tests demonstrated the effective delivery of rhBMP-2 in its bioactive form...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432571/cell-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes-current-and-future-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Yasaman Aghazadeh, Maria Cristina Nostro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is defined by an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing β-cells located in the endocrine part of the pancreas, the islets of Langerhans. As exogenous insulin administration fails at preventing severe complications associated with this disease, cell replacement therapies are being considered as a means to treat T1D. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the challenges associated with current strategies and discuss the potential of stem cell therapy for the treatment of T1D...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428046/cryoprotectants-a-review-of-the-actions-and-applications-of-cryoprotective-solutes-that-modulate-cell-recovery-from-ultra-low-temperatures
#10
REVIEW
Gloria D Elliott, Shangping Wang, Barry J Fuller
Cryopreservation has become a central technology in many areas of clinical medicine, biotechnology, and species conservation within both plant and animal biology. Cryoprotective agents (CPAs) invariably play key roles in allowing cells to be processed for storage at deep cryogenic Temperatures and to be recovered with high levels of appropriate functionality. As such, these CPA solutes possess a wide range of metabolic and biophysical effects that are both necessary for their modes of action, and potentially complicating for cell biological function...
April 18, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426095/models-of-global-gene-expression-define-major-domains-of-cell-type-and-tissue-identity
#11
Andrew P Hutchins, Zhongzhou Yang, Yuhao Li, Fangfang He, Xiuling Fu, Xiaoshan Wang, Dongwei Li, Kairong Liu, Jiangping He, Yong Wang, Jiekai Chen, Miguel A Esteban, Duanqing Pei
The current classification of cells in an organism is largely based on their anatomic and developmental origin. Cells types and tissues are traditionally classified into those that arise from the three embryonic germ layers, the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, but this model does not take into account the organization of cell type-specific patterns of gene expression. Here, we present computational models for cell type and tissue specification derived from a collection of 921 RNA-sequencing samples from 272 distinct mouse cell types or tissues...
March 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426026/generation-of-multipotent-induced-cardiac-progenitor-cells-from-mouse-fibroblasts-and-potency-testing-in-ex-vivo-mouse-embryos
#12
Pratik A Lalit, Adriana M Rodriguez, Karen M Downs, Timothy J Kamp
Here we describe a protocol to generate expandable and multipotent induced cardiac progenitor cells (iCPCs) from mouse adult fibroblasts using forced expression of Mesp1, Tbx5, Gata4, Nkx2.5 and Baf60c (MTGNB) along with activation of Wnt and JAK/STAT signaling. This method does not use iPS cell factors and thus differs from cell activation and signaling-directed (CASD) reprogramming to cardiac progenitors. Our method is specific to direct CPC reprogramming, whereas CASD reprogramming can generate various cell types depending on culture conditions and raises the possibility of transitioning through a pluripotent cell state...
May 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424094/electrical-control-of-calcium-oscillations-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-using-microsecond-pulsed-electric-fields
#13
Hanna Hanna, Franck M Andre, Lluis M Mir
BACKGROUND: Human mesenchymal stem cells are promising tools for regenerative medicine due to their ability to differentiate into many cellular types such as osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes amongst many other cell types. These cells present spontaneous calcium oscillations implicating calcium channels and pumps of the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. These oscillations regulate many basic functions in the cell such as proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, the possibility to mimic or regulate these oscillations might be useful to regulate mesenchymal stem cells biological functions...
April 20, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423312/hgfa-is-an-injury-regulated-systemic-factor-that-induces-the-transition-of-stem-cells-into-galert
#14
Joseph T Rodgers, Matthew D Schroeder, Chanthia Ma, Thomas A Rando
The activation of quiescent stem cells into the cell cycle is a key step in initiating the process of tissue repair. We recently reported that quiescent stem cells can transition into GAlert, a cellular state in which they have an increased functional ability to activate and participate in tissue repair. However, the precise molecular signals that induce GAlert in stem cells have remained elusive. Here, we show that the injury-induced regulation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) proteolytic processing via the systemic protease, hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA), stimulates GAlert in skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs) and fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs)...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419628/hla-hd-an-accurate-hla-typing-algorithm-for-next-generation-sequencing-data
#15
Shuji Kawaguchi, Koichiro Higasa, Masakazu Shimizu, Ryo Yamada, Fumihiko Matsuda
The accurate typing of HLA alleles is critical for a variety of medical applications, such as genomic studies of multifactorial diseases, including immune system and inflammation-related disorders, and donor selection in organ transplantation and regenerative medicine. Here we developed a new algorithm for determining HLA alleles using next-generation sequencing (NGS) results. The method consists of constructing an extensive dictionary of HLA alleles, precise mapping of the NGS reads, and calculating a score based on weighted read counts to select the most suitable pair of alleles...
April 16, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416208/fetal-and-perinatal-stem-cells-in-cardiac-regeneration-moving-forward-to-the-paracrine-era
#16
C Balbi, S Bollini
Cardiovascular disease (CD) is a major burden for Western society. Regenerative medicine has provided encouraging results, yet it has not addressed the focal defects causing CD and mainly related to the inefficient repair programme of the heart. In this scenario, stem cells have been broadly investigated and their paracrine effect proposed as a possible working strategy to boost endogenous mechanisms of repair and regeneration from within the cardiac tissue. The scientific community is now focusing on identifying the most effective stem cell secretome, as the whole of bioactive factors and extracellular vesicles secreted by stem cells and endowed with regenerative potential...
April 12, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416198/engineering-human-renal-epithelial-cells-for-transplantation-in-regenerative-medicine
#17
Vita Manzoli, David C Colter, Sridevi Dhanaraj, Alessia Fornoni, Camillo Ricordi, Antonello Pileggi, Alice A Tomei
Cellular transplantation may treat several human diseases by replacing damaged cells and/or providing a local source of trophic factors promoting regeneration. We utilized human renal epithelial cells (hRECs) isolated from cadaveric donors as a cell model. For efficacious implementation of hRECs for treatment of kidney diseases, we evaluated a novel encapsulation strategy for immunoisolation of hRECs and lentiviral transduction of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as model gene for genetic engineering of hRECs to secrete desired trophic factors...
April 13, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415514/synthesis-and-characterization-of-cycloaliphatic-hydrophilic-polyurethanes-modified-with-l-ascorbic-acid-as-materials-for-soft-tissue-regeneration
#18
J Kucinska-Lipka, I Gubanska, M Strankowski, H Cieśliński, N Filipowicz, H Janik
In this paper we described synthesis and characteristic of obtained hydrophilic polyurethanes (PURs) modified with ascorbic acid (commonly known as vitamin C). Such materials may find an application in the biomedical field, for example in the regenerative medicine of soft tissues, according to ascorbic acid wide influence on tissue regeneration Flora (2009), Szymańska-Pasternak et al. (2011), Taikarimi and Ibrahim (2011), Myrvik and Volk (1954), Li et al. (2001), Cursino et al. (2005) . Hydrophilic PURs were obtained with the use of amorphous α,ω-dihydroxy(ethylene-butylene adipate) (dHEBA) polyol, 1,4-butanediol (BDO) chain extender and aliphatic 4,4'-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate) (HMDI)...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415405/incorporation-of-glass-reinforced-hydroxyapatite-microparticles-into-poly-lactic-acid-electrospun-fibre-mats-for-biomedical-applications
#19
Daniel Santos, Cristina O Correia, Dina M Silva, Pedro S Gomes, Maria H Fernandes, José D Santos, Vitor Sencadas
Tissue engineering is constantly evolving towards novel materials that mimic the properties of the replaced injured tissue or organ. A hybrid electrospun membrane of electroactive poly(l-acid lactic) (PLLA) polymer with glass reinforced hydroxyapatite (Bonelike®) microparticles placed among the polymer fibres in a morphology like "islands in the sea" was processed. The incorporation of 60 to 80wt% Bonelike® bone grafts granules with ≤150μm into the polymer solution lead to an amorphous polymeric fibre membranes, and a decrease of the average polymer fibre diameter from 550±150nm for neat PLA down to 440±170nm for the hybrid composite...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413859/meniscus-articular-cartilage-and-nucleus-pulposus-a-comparative-review-of-cartilage-like-tissues-in-anatomy-development-and-function
#20
REVIEW
Song Chen, Peiliang Fu, Haishan Wu, Ming Pei
The degradation of cartilage in the human body is impacted by aging, disease, genetic predisposition and continued insults resulting from daily activity. The burden of cartilage defects (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, intervertebral disc damage, knee replacement surgeries, etc.) is daunting in light of substantial economic and social stresses. This review strives to broaden the scope of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering approaches used for cartilage repair by comparing and contrasting the anatomical and functional nature of the meniscus, articular cartilage (AC) and nucleus pulposus (NP)...
April 17, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
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