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Olga Romantsik, Matteo Bruschettini, Simona Zappettini, Luca Antonio Ramenghi, Maria Grazia Calevo
BACKGROUND: Among pediatric patients, newborns are at highest risk of developing thromboembolism. Neonatal thromboembolic (TE) events may consist of both venous and arterial thromboses and often iatrogenic complications (eg, central catheterization). Treatment guidelines for pediatric patients with TE events most often are extrapolated from the literature regarding adults. Options for the management of neonatal TE events include expectant management; nitroglycerin ointment; thrombolytic therapy or anticoagulant therapy, or a combination of the two; and surgery...
7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ralf Ulrich Trappe, Marianne Sinn, Hanno Riess
There is only limited data for the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in tumor patients and no data from prospective randomised trials comparing DOACs to the current standard care: low molecular weight heparine (LMWH). Therefore, DOACs must be used with caution and should be restricted to tumor patients with (1) contraindications for LMWH (e.g. HIT II, phobia of syringe) or (2) to the situations of prolonged anticoagulation after initial therapy with LMWH. Cancer-associated disorders as well as side effects of chemotherapy as nausea and emesis have to be considered as well as potential substance-specific interactions...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
M Khoury, A Pitsis, H Poumpouridou-Kioura, G Soufla, C Kanthou, N Matoula, A Angelidis, E Melissari
INTRODUCTION: Systemic anticoagulation is necessary during cardiac surgery. To date, the only well established anticoagulation protocol involves the use of heparin. However, heparin can cause heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) a potentially life threatening immune-mediated thromboembolic syndrome. Until now, devastating consequences of HIT syndrome in patients undergoing heart surgery have been described, but only postoperatively. Here we report the development of HIT syndrome during cardiac revascularization by intra-operative heparin administration in two patients previously exposed to LMWH...
October 2016: Thrombosis Research
Hae Tha Mya, Hui Ming Tay, Shien Wen Gan, Shilpa Surendran, Shu Hui Yeang, Cynthia Ciwei Lim, HuiLin Choong, Lai Heng Lee, Heng Joo Ng
Increasing awareness and availability of tests for anti-PF4/heparin complex antibodies has raised concerns about indiscriminate testing and inappropriate diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. A retrospective review of HITS testing at a large tertiary centre was performed to determine test patterns and incidence of HITS. Records of anti-PF4 tests over 4 years were reviewed. Positive results were matched against patient medical records and records of heparin utilisation for the diagnosis of HITS. Total of 33,308 patients (9...
July 2016: International Journal of Hematology
Haci Ahmet Bircan, Emine Guchan Alanoglu
Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a rare, potentially fatal, immune-mediated complication of heparin therapy, associated with thrombosis and thrombocytopenia. In this study, a successful dabigatran administration in a case with massive pulmonary thromboembolism (mPTE) and HIT is presented. 57 years-old female, who was receiving low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (0.4 mL once a daily, S.C. for 11 days) due to total knee replacement, was referred to our clinic with the hypotension and syncope attacks...
February 2016: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Michelangelo Sartori, Elisabetta Favaretto, Ludovica Migliaccio, Giuliana Guazzaloca, Cristina Legnani, Gualtiero Palareti, Benilde Cosmi
BACKGROUND: The risk of heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) associated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for treatment of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is uncertain. As a result the necessity of platelet count monitoring is unclear in this setting. AIMS: To assess the risk of HIT in outpatients treated with LMWH for SVT. METHODS: In a prospective single centre study we included all symptomatic outpatients in whom a real-time B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography examination revealed SVT without DVT...
March 2016: Thrombosis Research
Kelly E McGowan, Joy Makari, Artemis Diamantouros, Claudia Bucci, Peter Rempel, Rita Selby, William Geerts
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an adverse drug reaction occurring in up to 5% of patients exposed to unfractionated heparin (UFH). We examined the impact of a hospital-wide strategy for avoiding heparin on the incidence of HIT, HIT with thrombosis (HITT), and HIT-related costs. The Avoid-Heparin Initiative, implemented at a tertiary care hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, since 2006, involved replacing UFH with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for prophylactic and therapeutic indications. Consecutive cases with suspected HIT from 2003 through 2012 were reviewed...
April 21, 2016: Blood
Seiji Bito, Shigeki Miyata, Kiyoshi Migita, Mashio Nakamura, Kazuhito Shinohara, Tomotaro Sato, Takeharu Tonai, Motoyuki Shimizu, Yasuhiro Shibata, Kazuhiko Kishi, Chikara Kubota, Shinnosuke Nakahara, Toshihito Mori, Kazuo Ikeda, Shusuke Ota, Takeshi Minamizaki, Shigeru Yamada, Naofumi Shiota, Masataka Kamei, Satoru Motokawa
Platelet-activating antibodies, which recognize platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes, induce spontaneous heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) syndrome or fondaparinux-associated HIT without exposure to unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). This condition mostly occurs after major orthopedic surgery, implying that surgery itself could trigger this immune response, although the mechanism is unclear. To investigate how surgery may do so, we performed a multicenter, prospective study of 2069 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or hip arthroplasty...
February 25, 2016: Blood
Johannes Th Nielen, Bart J F van den Bemt, Annelies Boonen, Pieter C Dagnelie, Pieter J Emans, Nicole Veldhorst, Arief Lalmohamed, Tjeerd-Pieter van Staa, Frank de Vries
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to design and test a method to extract information on antithrombotic therapy from anonymised free-text notes in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). SETTING: General practice database representative of the UK. PARTICIPANTS: All patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR, n=25,898) or total knee replacement (TKR, n=22,231) between January 2008 and October 2012 were included. Antithrombotic drug use related to THR or TKR was identified using anonymised free text and prescription data...
November 30, 2015: BMJ Open
Marion Wiegele, Dieter Adelmann, Johannes Gratz, Eva Schaden
INTRODUCTION: Administration of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is recommended for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing hip surgery. In this context, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) type II is a complication of rare incidence but sometimes fatal outcome. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 52-year old obese patient undergoing antithrombotic therapy with Enoxaparin after hip surgery presented with a painful, swollen leg and thrombocytopenia on day eight after surgery...
2015: SpringerPlus
Sachin Gupta, Ravindranath Tiruvoipati, Cameron Green, John Botha, Huy Tran
Thrombocytopenia is often noted in critically ill patients. While there are many reasons for thrombocytopenia, the use of heparin and its derivatives is increasingly noted to be associated with thrombocytopenia. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia syndrome (HITS) is a distinct entity that is characterised by the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in conjunction with thrombotic manifestations after exposure to unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin. HITS is an immunologic disorder mediated by antibodies to heparin-platelet factor 4 (PF4) complex...
August 4, 2015: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Farzaneh Foroughinia, Fariborz Farsad, Kheirollah Gholami, Somayeh Ahmadi
OBJECTIVE: Thrombocytopenia is a common problem in cardiovascular surgery patients. However, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a rare but life-threatening complication of prophylaxis or treatment with heparin. Prompt management of HIT with an alternative anticoagulant is necessary due to the extreme risk of thrombotic complications. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of danaparoid in the treatment of HIT in patients with cardiac surgery who are at moderate to high risk of HIT...
April 2015: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
Fahad A S Al-Eidan
BACKGROUND: The increasing trend of using low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) in hospitalized adult patients is raising concerns about the incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). METHOD: A retrospective study analyzed the requests for heparin-induced antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) among adult hospitalized patients during the period from January 2011 to December 2013. These patients received either UFH or LMWH for prevention or therapeutic indications...
2015: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
M Joglekar, S Khandelwal, D B Cines, M Poncz, L Rauova, G M Arepally
BACKGROUND: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an iatrogenic complication of heparin therapy caused by antibodies to a self-antigen, platelet factor (4) and heparin. The reasons why antibodies form to PF4/heparin, but not to PF4 bound to other cellular glycosaminoglycans are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in cellular responses to cell-bound PF4 and PF4/heparin complexes, we studied the internalization of each by peripheral blood-derived monocytes, dendritic cells and neutrophils...
August 2015: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
S De Carolis, E di Pasquo, E Rossi, G Del Sordo, A Buonomo, D Schiavino, A Lanzone, V De Stefano
During pregnancy thrombo-prophylaxis could be required in high risk women. If a severe allergic reaction to low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) or a heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia (HIT) occurs, it's mandatory to stop the drug. Fondaparinux could be an effective option. In the present review, the maternal and pregnancy outcomes of 65 pregnancies in women using Fondaparinux were reported. It was well-tolerated and rate of pregnancy complications was similar to that observed in general population. Regarding congenital malformations, further studies are necessary to investigate the safety of the drug...
June 2015: Thrombosis Research
Florence Parent, Philippe Deruelle, Olivier Sanchez, Guy Meyer, Philippe Girard, Fadia Jilwan, Catherine Boyer-Neumann, Martine Wolf, Gerald Simonneau
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low molecular weight heparin is recommended for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy. However, there are few reliable data regarding the safety of therapeutic doses of tinzaparin in this setting. The objective of this study was to assess the safety of once-daily therapeutic doses of tinzaparin for the treatment of VTE during pregnancy. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out in 3 tertiary care centres in France, from 1998 to 2009, including consecutive pregnant women who received once-daily therapeutic doses of tinzaparin (175 IU/kg/day)...
2015: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
Theodore E Warkentin
Many critically ill patients receive heparin, either before intensive care unit (ICU) admission (e.g., postcardiac surgery), for prophylaxis/treatment of thrombosis, for hemodialysis/filtration, or even incidentally (e.g., flushing of intravascular catheters), and are therefore at risk for developing immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), a prothrombotic drug reaction caused by platelet-activating antiplatelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibodies. However, HIT explains at most 1 in 100 thrombocytopenic ICU patients (HIT frequency 0...
February 2015: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Gowthami M Arepally, Thomas L Ortel
The target-specific oral anticoagulants are a class of agents that inhibit factor Xa or thrombin. They are effective and safe compared to warfarin for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism, and they are comparable to low-molecular-weight heparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip or knee arthroplasty. For other indications, however, such as the prevention of stroke in patients with mechanical heart valves, initial studies have been unfavorable for the newer agents, leaving warfarin the anticoagulant of choice...
2015: Annual Review of Medicine
Thomas Vanassche, Christophe Vandenbriele, Kathelijne Peerlinck, Peter Verhamme
INTRODUCTION: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The traditional treatment of VTE, with an initial therapy with (low molecular weight) heparin or fondaparinux and a continued treatment with vitamin K antagonists, is effective but has limitations. AREAS COVERED: The current review summarizes the results of the Phase III trials with the new oral direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban and provides a meta-analysis of these trials in the subgroups of elderly patients (> 75 years) and patients with impaired renal function...
April 2015: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Robert A Fowler, Nicole Mittmann, William H Geerts, Diane Heels-Ansdell, Michael K Gould, Gordon Guyatt, Murray Krahn, Simon Finfer, Ruxandra Pinto, Brian Chan, Orges Ormanidhi, Yaseen Arabi, Ismael Qushmaq, Marcelo G Rocha, Peter Dodek, Lauralyn McIntyre, Richard Hall, Niall D Ferguson, Sangeeta Mehta, John C Marshall, Christopher James Doig, John Muscedere, Michael J Jacka, James R Klinger, Nicholas Vlahakis, Neil Orford, Ian Seppelt, Yoanna K Skrobik, Sachin Sud, John F Cade, Jamie Cooper, Deborah Cook
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication of critical illness with important clinical consequences. The Prophylaxis for ThromboEmbolism in Critical Care Trial (PROTECT) is a multicenter, blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of the two most common pharmocoprevention strategies, unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) dalteparin, in medical-surgical patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). E-PROTECT is a prospective and concurrent economic evaluation of the PROTECT trial...
December 20, 2014: Trials
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