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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588430/gut-microbial-diversity-in-health-and-disease-experience-of-healthy-indian-subjects-and-colon-carcinoma-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#1
V Deepak Bamola, Arnab Ghosh, Raj Kishor Kapardar, Banwari Lal, Simrita Cheema, Priyangshu Sarma, Rama Chaudhry
Background: The intestinal microbiota, through complex interactions with the gut mucosa, play a key role in the pathogenesis of colon carcinoma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The disease condition and dietary habits both influence gut microbial diversity. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the gut microbial profile of healthy subjects and patients with colon carcinoma and IBD. Healthy subjects included 'Indian vegetarians/lactovegetarians', who eat plant produce, milk and milk products, and 'Indian non-vegetarians', who eat plant produce, milk and milk products, certain meats and fish, and the eggs of certain birds and fish...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588373/vegetarian-diets-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-diabetes-and-its-complications
#2
Roman Pawlak
IN BRIEF Epidemiological studies have found a lower prevalence of type 2 diabetes among vegetarians compared to nonvegetarians. This reduced risk is likely a function of improved weight status, higher intake of dietary fiber, and the absence of animal protein and heme iron in the diet. Interventional studies have shown that vegetarian diets, especially a vegan diet, are effective tools in glycemic control and that these diets control plasma glucose to a greater level than do control diets, including diets traditionally recommended for patients with diabetes (e...
May 2017: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526915/dietary-behaviors-in-psoriasis-patient-reported-outcomes-from-a-u-s-national-survey
#3
Ladan Afifi, Melissa J Danesh, Kristina M Lee, Kevin Beroukhim, Benjamin Farahnik, Richard S Ahn, Di Yan, Rasnik K Singh, Mio Nakamura, John Koo, Wilson Liao
INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis patients demonstrate high interest in the role of diet on their skin condition. However, data are lacking to describe dietary interventions among psoriasis patients and associated outcomes. This study aims to identify common dietary habits, interventions and perceptions among patients with psoriasis, and to examine patient-reported skin outcomes in response to these interventions. METHODS: We administered a 61-question survey to the National Psoriasis Foundation membership asking psoriasis patients about dietary habits, modifications, skin responses, and perceptions...
June 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508737/the-future-for-long-chain-n-3-pufa-in-the-prevention-of-coronary-heart-disease-do-we-need-to-target-non-fish-eaters
#4
W L Hall
Dietary guidelines in many countries include a recommendation to consume oily fish, mainly on the basis of evidence from prospective cohort studies that fish consumption is cardioprotective. However, average intakes are very low in a large proportion of the UK population. Some groups, such as vegans and vegetarians, purposely omit fish (along with meat) from their diet resulting in zero or trace intakes of long chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. Although the efficacy of dietary fish oil supplementation in the prevention of CVD has been questioned in recent years, the balance of evidence indicates that LC n-3 PUFA exert systemic pleiotropic effects through their influence on gene expression, cell signalling, membrane fluidity and by conversion to specialised proresolving mediators; autacoid lipid mediators that resolve inflammatory events...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483583/lack-of-negative-autocorrelations-of-daily-food-intake-on-successive-days-challenges-the-concept-of-the-regulation-of-body-weight-in-humans
#5
David A Levitsky, Ji Eun Raea Limb, Lua Wilkinson, Anna Sewall, Yingyi Zhong, Ammar Olabi, Jean Hunter
According to most theories, the amount of food consumed on one day should be negatively related to intake on subsequent days. Several studies have observed such a negative correlation between the amount consumed on one day and the amount consumed two to four days later. The present study attempted to replicate this observation by re-examining data from a previous study where all food ingested over a 30-day observation period was measured. Nine male and seven female participants received a vegan diet prepared, dispensed, and measured in a metabolic unit...
May 5, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468236/non-traditional-aspects-of-renal-diets-focus-on-fiber-alkali-and-vitamin-k1-intake
#6
Adamasco Cupisti, Claudia D'Alessandro, Loreto Gesualdo, Carmela Cosola, Maurizio Gallieni, Maria Francesca Egidi, Maria Fusaro
Renal diets for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are structured to achieve a lower protein, phosphate and sodium intake, while supplying adequate energy. The aim of this nutritional intervention is to prevent or correct signs, symptoms and complications of renal insufficiency, delaying the start of dialysis and preserving nutritional status. This paper focuses on three additional aspects of renal diets that can play an important role in the management of CKD patients: the vitamin K1 and fiber content, and the alkalizing potential...
April 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464483/occurrence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-the-fecal-dna-of-healthy-omnivores-ovo-lacto-vegetarians-and-vegans
#7
Vesna Milanović, Andrea Osimani, Lucia Aquilanti, Stefano Tavoletti, Cristiana Garofalo, Serena Polverigiani, Alice Litta-Mulondo, Luca Cocolin, Ilario Ferrocino, Raffaella Di Cagno, Silvia Turroni, Camilla Lazzi, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Francesca Clementi
SCOPE: The effects of long-term omnivore, ovo-lacto vegetarian and vegan diets on the occurrence of 12 antibiotic resistance (AR) genes in the human gut were studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: The feces of 144 healthy volunteers recruited from Turin, Bari, Bologna, and Parma were screened for the occurrence of genes conferring resistance to tetracyclines, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B, vancomycin, and β-lactams. Overall, erm(B), tet(W) and tet(M) were detected at the highest frequency...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462705/the-food-gut-human-axis-the-effects-of-diet-on-gut-microbiota-and-metabolome
#8
Maria De Angelis, Gabriella Garruti, Fabio Minervini, Leonilde Bonfrate, Piero Portincasa, Marco Gobbetti
Gut microbiota, the largest symbiont community hosted in human organism, is emerging as a pivotal player in the relationship between dietary habits and health. Oral and, especially, intestinal microbes metabolize dietary components, affecting human health by producing harmful or beneficial metabolites, which are involved in the incidence and progression of several intestinal related and non-related diseases. Habitual diet (Western, Agrarian and Mediterranean omnivore diets, vegetarian, vegan and gluten-free diets) drives the composition of the gut microbiota and metabolome...
April 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394274/vegetarian-diet-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-friend-or-foe
#9
REVIEW
Anna Gluba-Brzózka, Beata Franczyk, Jacek Rysz
Healthy diet is highly important, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Proper nutrition provides the energy to perform everyday activities, prevents infection, builds muscle, and helps to prevent kidney disease from getting worse. However, what does a proper diet mean for a CKD patient? Nutrition requirements differ depending on the level of kidney function and the presence of co-morbid conditions, including hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The diet of CKD patients should help to slow the rate of progression of kidney failure, reduce uremic toxicity, decrease proteinuria, maintain good nutritional status, and lower the risk of kidney disease-related secondary complications (cardiovascular disease, bone disease, and hypertension)...
April 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366178/a-comparison-of-heart-rate-variability-n-3-pufa-status-and-lipid-mediator-profile-in-age-and-bmi-matched-middle-aged-vegans-and-omnivores
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ana M Pinto, Thomas A B Sanders, Alexandra C Kendall, Anna Nicolaou, Robert Gray, Haya Al-Khatib, Wendy L Hall
Low heart rate variability (HRV) predicts sudden cardiac death. Long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (C20-C22) status is positively associated with HRV. This cross-sectional study investigated whether vegans aged 40-70 years (n 23), whose diets are naturally free from EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3), have lower HRV compared with omnivores (n 24). Proportions of LC n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, plasma fatty acids and concentrations of plasma LC n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators were significantly lower in vegans...
March 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293225/bacterial-composition-genotoxicity-and-cytotoxicity-of-fecal-samples-from-individuals-consuming-omnivorous-or-vegetarian-diets
#11
Ermanno Federici, Roberta Prete, Camilla Lazzi, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Massimo Moretti, Aldo Corsetti, Giovanni Cenci
This study analyzes the composition of viable fecal bacteria and gut toxicology biomarkers of 29 healthy volunteers, who followed omnivorous, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, or vegan diets. In particular, the research was focused on the prevalence of some representative viable bacteria from the four dominant phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria) commonly present in human feces, in order to evaluate the relationship between microorganisms selected by the habitual dietary patterns and the potential risk due to fecal water (FW) genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, considered as biomarkers for cancer risk and protective food activity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207878/attitudes-to-in-vitro-meat-a-survey-of-potential-consumers-in-the-united-states
#12
Matti Wilks, Clive J C Phillips
Positivity towards meat consumption remains strong, despite evidence of negative environmental and ethical outcomes. Although awareness of these repercussions is rising, there is still public resistance to removing meat from our diets. One potential method to alleviate these effects is to produce in vitro meat: meat grown in a laboratory that does not carry the same environmental or ethical concerns. However, there is limited research examining public attitudes towards in vitro meat, thus we know little about the capacity for it be accepted by consumers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187767/erratum-to-effects-of-7%C3%A2-days-on-an-ad-libitum-low-fat-vegan-diet-the-mcdougall-program-cohort
#13
John McDougall, Laurie E Thomas, Craig McDougall, Gavin Moloney, Bradley Saul, John S Finnell, Kelly Richardson, Katelin Mae Petersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130879/variations-in-dietary-intake-and-plasma-concentrations-of-plant-sterols-across-plant-based-diets-among-north-american-adults
#14
Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Dieter Lütjohann, Rawiwan Sirirat, Andrew Mashchak, Gary E Fraser, Ella Haddad
SCOPE: Phytosterols are bioactive compounds in plants with similar cholesterol-lowering properties as vegetarian diets. However, information on phytosterol intake and plasma plant sterols among vegetarians is sparse. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined dietary intake and plasma concentration of plant sterols and cholesterol across five dietary patterns in the Adventist Health Study-2 Calibration Sub-study (n = 861, 66% females, average age 61 years). To measure intake and plasma concentrations of these compounds, we used 24-h dietary recalls and gas-liquid chromatography-flame ionization detection, respectively...
January 28, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110703/plant-based-diets-relatively-low-in-bioavailable-phosphate-and-calcium-may-aid-prevention-and-control-of-prostate-cancer-by-lessening-production-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23
#15
Mark F McCarty
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a hormonal regulator of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism produced primarily in bone by osteocytes and mature osteoblasts, is now known to have growth factor activity for many prostate cancers. In some of these cancers, autocrine production of FGF23 drives their proliferation. FGF23 synthesized within bone likely promotes the expansion of prostate cancer bone metastases. Hence, dietary or lifestyle factors which boost bone's production of FGF23 may encourage the induction and spread of prostate cancer...
February 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027215/complementary-feeding-a-position-paper-by-the-european-society-for-paediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-espghan-committee-on-nutrition
#16
Mary Fewtrell, Jiri Bronsky, Cristina Campoy, Magnus Domellöf, Nicholas Embleton, Nataša Fidler Mis, Iva Hojsak, Jessie M Hulst, Flavia Indrio, Alexandre Lapillonne, Christian Molgaard
This position paper considers different aspects of complementary feeding (CF), focussing on healthy term infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these recommendations: Timing: Exclusive or full breast-feeding should be promoted for at least 4 months (17 weeks, beginning of the 5th month of life) and exclusive or predominant breast-feeding for approximately 6 months (26 weeks, beginning of the 7th month) is a desirable goal. Complementary foods (solids and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula) should not be introduced before 4 months but should not be delayed beyond 6 months...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927186/diet-as-a-system-an-observational-study-investigating-a-multi-choice-system-of-moderately-restricted-low-protein-diets
#17
Giorgina Barbara Piccoli, Marta Nazha, Irene Capizzi, Federica Neve Vigotti, Stefania Scognamiglio, Valentina Consiglio, Elena Mongilardi, Marilisa Bilocati, Paolo Avagnina, Elisabetta Versino
BACKGROUND: There is no single, gold-standard, low-protein diet (LPD) for CKD patients; the best compliance is probably obtained by personalization. This study tests the hypothesis that a multiple choice diet network allows patients to attain a good compliance level, and that, in an open-choice system, overall results are not dependent upon the specific diet, but upon the clinical characteristics of the patients. METHODS: Observational study: Three LPD options were offered to all patients with severe or rapidly progressive CKD: vegan diets supplemented with alpha-ketoacids and essential aminoacids; protein-free food in substitution of normal bread and pasta; other (traditional, vegan non supplemented and tailored)...
December 7, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886704/position-of-the-academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-vegetarian-diets
#18
Vesanto Melina, Winston Craig, Susan Levin
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes. Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products because they use fewer natural resources and are associated with much less environmental damage...
December 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863334/modulation-of-the-cytokine-profile-in-caco-2-cells-by-faecal-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria-from-individuals-with-distinct-dietary-habits
#19
Diomira Luongo, Annachiara Coppola, Lucia Treppiccione, Paolo Bergamo, Alida Sorrentino, Ilario Ferrocino, Silvia Turroni, Erasmo Neviani, Raffaella Di Cagno, Luca Cocolin, Mauro Rossi
Enterocytes are actively involved in the defense against pathogens and they limit penetration of commensal microbes into tissues. They also have an important role in gut immunity as enterocytes confer mucosal dendritic cell specialisation. On the other hand, the microbiota is directly involved in the development and modulation of the intestinal immune system. Particularly, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria play a primary role in shaping the immune response. We further explored this issue by evaluating whether functional differences in Caco-2 cells could characterise faecal populations of lactobacilli (155 samples) and bifidobacteria (110 samples) isolated from three dietary cohorts (omnivores, ovo-lacto-vegetarians and vegans) recruited at four Italian centres (Turin, Parma, Bologna and Bari)...
February 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792907/exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-among-residents-of-a-rural-vegetarian-vegan-community
#20
Karen Tordjman, Laura Grinshpan, Lena Novack, Thomas Göen, Dar Segev, Lisa Beacher, Naftali Stern, Tamar Berman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly thought to be involved in the rising prevalence of disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and some hormone-dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence have indicated that vegetarian and vegan diets may offer some protection from such diseases. We hypothesized that exposure to selected EDCs among residents of the unique vegetarian/vegan community of Amirim would be lower than what has recently been reported for the omnivorous population in the first Israel Biomonitoring Study (IBMS)...
December 2016: Environment International
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