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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433467/modeling-hypohedonia-following-repeated-social-defeat-individual-vulnerability-and-dopaminergic-involvement
#1
Samantha R Spierling, Maegan Mattock, Eric P Zorrilla
Social defeat in rodents putatively can model hypohedonia. The present studies examined models for assessing hypohedonia-like behavior and tested the hypotheses that 1) individual differences in baseline reward sensitivity predict vulnerability, and 2) defeat elicits changes in pharmacological measures of striatal dopaminergic function. Male Wistar rats (n=142) received repeated defeat (3 "triad" blocks of 3 defeats) or control handling. To determine whether defeat influenced consumption of SuperSac (glucose-saccharin) over an isocaloric, less preferred, glucose solution, a 2-choice paradigm was used...
April 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432875/one-step-surgical-correction-of-transverse-and-anteroposterior-maxillary-deficiencies-using-wire-fixation-a-new-approach-and-long-term-stability
#2
Max Domingues Pereira, Vivian Farfel, Gabriela Pereira Ribeiro Prado, Lydia Masako Ferreira
PURPOSE: To describe a retrospective assessment of the long-term stability of a new approach using wire fixation for 1-step surgical correction of transverse and anteroposterior maxillary deficiencies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The authors implemented a case series of 5 adult patients (3 men and 2 women; mean age, 31.4 yr) needing maxillary advancement less than 5 mm and had transverse maxillary deficiency greater than 7 mm who underwent total Le Fort I and median palatal suture osteotomies and had their maxilla advanced and stabilized bilaterally with stainless steel wire...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432837/identifying-genetic-sources-of-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-orofacial-clefts-by-targeted-sequencing
#3
Jenna C Carlson, Margaret A Taub, Eleanor Feingold, Terri H Beaty, Jeffrey C Murray, Mary L Marazita, Elizabeth J Leslie
BACKGROUND: Orofacial clefts (OFCs), including nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P), are common birth defects. NSCL/P is highly heterogeneous with multiple phenotypic presentations. Two common subtypes of NSCL/P are cleft lip (CL) and cleft lip with cleft palate (CLP) which have different population prevalence. Similarly, NSCL/P can be divided into bilateral and unilateral clefts, with unilateral being the most common. Individuals with unilateral NSCL/P are more likely to be affected on the left side of the upper lip, but right side affection also occurs...
April 22, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432007/caloric-compensation-in-preschool-children-relationships-with-body-mass-and-differences-by-food-category
#4
S Carnell, L Benson, E L Gibson, L A Mais, S Warkentin
Maintaining a healthy weight may involve compensating for previously consumed calories at subsequent meals. To test whether heavier children demonstrated poorer caloric compensation across a range of conditions, and to explore whether compensation failure was the result of inadequate adjustment of overall intake or specific over-consumption of highly palatable, high energy-density 'junk' foods, we administered two compensation tests to a sample of 4-5 y olds. For Test A, preloads varied only in carbohydrate content and were organoleptically indistinguishable (200 ml orange-flavored beverage [0 kcal vs...
April 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431235/improving-surgeons-comfort-with-prismatic-glasses-during-cleft-palate-surgery-preliminary-findings
#5
Hai Kuang, Guosheng Chen, Qitao Wen, Shuai Li, Lei Che, Feixin Liang
PURPOSE: We aimed to observe the effect of prismatic glasses on improving surgeons' comfort during cleft palate surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A within-subjects design was used. We included 3 oral-maxillofacial surgeons and 6 patients with complete cleft palate in the study. One group of cleft palate patients (3 complete cleft palates) was allocated to each of the 3 surgeons not wearing prismatic glasses, and another similar group of cleft palate patients was allocated to the same 3 surgeons wearing prismatic glasses...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430890/acceptability-comparison-between-hawley-retainers-and-vacuum-formed-retainers-in-orthodontic-adult-patients-a-single-centre-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Mohammed Saleh, Mohammad Y Hajeer, Dieter Muessig
Background: Hawley retainers (HRs) and vacuum formed retainers (VFRs) are the most commonly used removable retainers in the orthodontic practice. Patients' cooperation in wearing these appliances is affected by the levels of discomfort and oral impairment. The evidence regarding their acceptably among orthodontic patients is limited. Aims: To compare the acceptability of HRs and VFRs over a 6-month period in a group of fixed orthodontic patients. Trial Design: Two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430801/honey-bees-preferentially-consume-freshly-stored-pollen
#7
Mark J Carroll, Nicholas Brown, Craig Goodall, Alexandra M Downs, Timothy H Sheenan, Kirk E Anderson
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) collect and store both honey and pollen in preserved forms. Pollen storage involves the addition of honey or nectar and oral secretions to pollen granules. It is controversial whether the duration of pollen storage alters the palatability or nutritive value of the pollen storage medium. We examined how bees utilize different-aged stored pollen during an extended pollen flow. The deposition of pollen into wax cells and subsequent consumption were monitored daily on 18 brood frames from 6 colonies over an 8d observation period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429906/eating-glutinous-brown-rice-for-one-day-improves-glycemic-control-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-assessed-by-continuous-glucose-monitoring
#8
Yuko Terashima, Yoshio Nagai, Hiroyuki Kato, Akio Ohta, Yasushi Tanaka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether intake of non-glutinous brown rice (BR) or glutinous brown rice (GBR) for 1 day had an influence on the daily glucose profile measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) when compared with intake of non-glutinous white rice (WR). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 37 inpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited for a 3-day randomized triple cross-over trial in which they ate WR, BR, or GBR for 1 day each...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427835/maxillofacial-growth-and-speech-outcome-after-one-stage-or-two-stage-palatoplasty-in-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-a-systematic-review
#9
Rajgopal R Reddy, Srinivas Gosla Reddy, Anitha Vaidhyanathan, Stefaan J Bergé, Anne Marie Kuijpers-Jagtman
BACKGROUND: The number of surgical procedures to repair a cleft palate may play a role in the outcome for maxillofacial growth and speech. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the relationship between the number of surgical procedures performed to repair the cleft palate and maxillofacial growth, speech and fistula formation in non-syndromic patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic search was performed in PubMed/old MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Scopus and CINAHL databases for publications between 1960 and December 2015...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425186/association-studies-of-low-frequency-coding-variants-in-nonsyndromic-cleft-lip-with-or-without-cleft-palate
#10
Elizabeth J Leslie, Jenna C Carlson, John R Shaffer, Carmen J Buxó, Eduardo E Castilla, Kaare Christensen, Frederic W B Deleyiannis, Leigh L Field, Jacqueline T Hecht, Lina Moreno, Ieda M Orioli, Carmencita Padilla, Alexandre R Vieira, George L Wehby, Eleanor Feingold, Seth M Weinberg, Jeffrey C Murray, Mary L Marazita
Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a group of common human birth defects with complex etiology. Although genome-wide association studies have successfully identified a number of risk loci, these loci only account for about 20% of the heritability of orofacial clefts. The "missing" heritability may be found in rare variants, copy number variants, or interactions. In this study, we investigated the role of low-frequency variants genotyped in 1995 cases and 1626 controls on the Illumina HumanCore + Exome chip...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424158/generation-of-a-multipurpose-prdm16-allele-by-targeted-trapping
#11
A Strassman, F Schnütgen, Q Dai, J C Jones, A C Gomez, L Pitstick, N E Holton, R Moskal, E R Leslie, H von Melchner, D R Beier, B C Bjork
Gene trap mutagenesis is a powerful tool to create loss-of-function mutations in mice and other model organisms. Modifications of traditional gene trap cassettes, including addition of conditional features in the form of Flip-excision (FlEx) arrays enabling directional gene trap cassette inversions by Cre and Flpe site-specific recombinases, greatly enhanced their experimental potential. By taking advantage of these conditional gene trap cassettes, we developed a generic strategy for generating conditional mutations and validated this strategy in mice carrying a multipurpose allele of the Prdm16 transcription factor gene...
April 19, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422967/craniodental-and-humeral-morphology-of-a-new-species-of-masrasector-teratodontinae-hyaenodonta-placentalia-from-the-late-eocene-of-egypt-and-locomotor-diversity-in-hyaenodonts
#12
Matthew R Borths, Erik R Seiffert
Hyaenodonta is a diverse clade of carnivorous mammals that were part of terrestrial faunas in the Paleogene of Eurasia and North America, but the oldest record for the group is Afro-Arabian, making the record there vital for understanding the evolution of this wide-spread group. Previous studies show an ancient split between two major clades of hyaenodonts that converged in hypercarnivory: Hyainailourinae and Hyaenodontinae. These clades are each supported by cranial characters. Phylogenetic analyses of hyaenodonts also support the monophyly of Teratodontinae, an Afro-Arabian clade of mesocarnivorous to hypercarnivorous hyaenodonts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422614/electronic-follow-up-of-developing-world-cleft-patients-a-digital-dream
#13
Tom W M Walker, Ambika Chadha, William Rodgers, Caroline Mills, Peter Ayliffe
OBJECTIVE: To identify potential access to telemedicine follow-up of children with clefts operated on a humanitarian mission. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of parents of children presenting to a humanitarian cleft lip and palate mission in a Provincial Hospital in the Philippines. A purpose designed questionnaire was used to assess access to electronic and digital resources that could be used to aid follow-up. Forty-five (N = 45) parents of children having primary cleft lip and or palate surgery participated...
April 19, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422603/factors-responsible-for-unfavorable-dental-arch-relationship-in-non-syndromic-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-children
#14
Sanjida Haque, Mohammad Khursheed Alam, Mohd Fadhli Khamis
OBJECTIVES: Multiple factors are whispered to be crucial cause of unfavourable dental arch relationship in cleft lip and palate (CLP).This study aims to evaluate the dental arch relationship of Bangladeshi children with non syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) following cheiloplasty and palatoplasty. Also to explore the various congenital (UCLP type, UCLP side, family history of cleft, family history of class III) and environmental (cheiloplasty, palatoplasty) factors that affects dental arch relationship of UCLP patients...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422192/polymorphisms-at-1q32-8q24-and-17q22-loci-are-associated-with-nonsyndromic-cleft-lip-with-or-without-cleft-palate-risk-in-the-slovak-population
#15
Jan Salagovic, Lucia Klimcakova, Marianna Zabavnikova, Jana Behunova, Terezia Hudakova, Jozef Fedeles, Agata Molnarova, Ludmila Podracka
BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) is the most common orofacial birth defect with an aetiology involving both genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genomic susceptibility regions for nsCL/P. In the present study, the three well established single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by GWAS (rs987525 at 8q24, rs7078160 at 10q25, and rs227731 at 17q22 loci) and one SNP identified by candidate gene study (rs642961 in IRF6 gene at 1q32 locus) were analysed for an association with nsCL/P in Slovak population...
March 30, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421417/estimation-of-qt-interval-prolongation-through-model-averaging
#16
Peter L Bonate
The current method to analyze concentration-QT interval data, which is based on predictions conditional on a best model, fails to take into account the uncertainty of the model. Previous studies have suggested that failure to take into account model uncertainty using a best model approach can result in confidence intervals that are overly optimistic and may be too narrow. Theoretically, more realistic estimates are obtained using model-averaging where the overall point estimate and confidence interval are a weighted-average from a set of candidate models, the weights of which are equal to each model's Akaike weight...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420997/micrornas-in-palatogenesis-and-cleft-palate
#17
REVIEW
Christian Schoen, Armaz Aschrafi, Michelle Thonissen, Geert Poelmans, Johannes W Von den Hoff, Carine E L Carels
Palatogenesis requires a precise spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression, which is controlled by an intricate network of transcription factors and their corresponding DNA motifs. Even minor perturbations of this network may cause cleft palate, the most common congenital craniofacial defect in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs, have elicited strong interest as key regulators of embryological development, and as etiological factors in disease. MiRNAs function as post-transcriptional repressors of gene expression and are therefore able to fine-tune gene regulatory networks...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419200/switching-to-efavirenz-versus-remaining-on-ritonavir-boosted-lopinavir-in-hiv-infected-children-exposed-to-nevirapine-long-term-outcomes-of-a-randomized-trial
#18
Pamela M Murnane, Renate Strehlau, Stephanie Shiau, Faeezah Patel, Ndileke Mbete, Gillian Hunt, Elaine J Abrams, Ashraf Coovadia, Louise Kuhn
Background: We previously demonstrated the non-inferiority of switching to efavirenz (EFV) versus remaining on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) for virologic control in HIV-infected children exposed to nevirapine (NVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Here we assess outcomes up to four years post-randomization. Methods: From 2010-2013, 298 NVP-exposed HIV-infected children ≥3 years of age were randomized to switch to EFV or remain on LPV/r in Johannesburg, South Africa (Clinicaltrials...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417474/first-trimester-sonographic-evaluation-of-palatine-clefts-a-novel-diagnostic-approach
#19
Selvaraj Ravi Lakshmy, Selvaraj Deepa, Nity Rose, Senthilkumar Mookan, Joy Agnees
OBJECTIVES: Sonographic evaluation of the palate is a difficult task, and most palatine clefts are diagnosed in the neonatal period because of the limitations of 2-dimensional (2D) sonography. The objective is to describe a sonographic technique based on 2D markers for screening of palatine clefts during the nuchal translucency scan and to assess the ability of 3-dimensional (3D) sonography in imaging the normal and abnormal palate. METHODS: A total of 2014 women who enrolled for first-trimester screening were included in this prospective study...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417103/effect-of-age-and-severity-of-facial-palsy-on-taste-thresholds-in-bell-s-palsy-patients
#20
Jung Min Park, Myung Gu Kim, Junyang Jung, Sung Su Kim, A Ra Jung, Sang Hoon Kim, Seung Geun Yeo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether taste thresholds, as determined by electrogustometry (EGM) and chemical taste tests, differ by age and the severity of facial palsy in patients with Bell's palsy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study included 29 patients diagnosed with Bell's palsy between January 2014 and May 2015 in our hospital. Patients were assorted into age groups and by severity of facial palsy, as determined by House-Brackmann Scale, and their taste thresholds were assessed by EGM and chemical taste tests...
April 2017: Journal of Audiology & Otology
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